You are on page 1of 31

LDW1000K Drawworks

Operating and Maintenance


Manual
Mesa Rig Construction
LDW1000K-122

6500 Brittmoore, Houston, Texas 77041


PO Box 41343, Houston, Texas 77241-1343
832-872-6500
1-866-946-5333
FAX: 832-782-6627
pumps@let-tech.com
www.letourneau-inc.com/drilling

Table of Contents
Buyer and Operator Responsibility ......................................................................................................................1
Integration of Control System .............................................................................................................................................. 1

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................2
Accessories and Safety Equipment....................................................................................................................................... 2
Servicing Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

Drawworks Overview.............................................................................................................................................3
Testing .....................................................................................................................................................................3
Utilities Requirements............................................................................................................................................4
Installation ..............................................................................................................................................................4
Inspection ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Support Structure.................................................................................................................................................................. 5
Mounting .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5
Assembly .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

Lubrication..............................................................................................................................................................7
Oil......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Grease ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Lubrication Summary ...................................................................................................................................8


Startup.....................................................................................................................................................................9
Startup Checklist................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Startup Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................... 10

Operation ..............................................................................................................................................................11
Function Check................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Drawworks Control System................................................................................................................................................ 11
Emergency Brake System................................................................................................................................................... 11
Operating Pressures ............................................................................................................................................................ 12
Operating Temperatures ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
Emergency Operation (Loss of Air Pressure)..................................................................................................................... 14
Safe Operating Practices..................................................................................................................................................... 14

Maintenance..........................................................................................................................................................15
General Information ........................................................................................................................................................... 16
Parts Fit............................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Shafts .................................................................................................................................................................................. 18
Bearings.............................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Spacers................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Sprockets ............................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Clutch Hubs ........................................................................................................................................................................ 21
Drive System ...................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Emergency Air Storage....................................................................................................................................................... 22
Brake System...................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Daily Use ............................................................................................................................................................................ 23
Daily Maintenance.............................................................................................................................................................. 23
Weekly Brake Disc Inspection and Cleaning ..................................................................................................................... 23
Contamination .................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Auxiliary Brake (Optional)................................................................................................................................................. 26
Auxiliary Brake Alignment ................................................................................................................................................. 26

Preservation and Storage.....................................................................................................................................27


Location.............................................................................................................................................................................. 27
Cleaning.............................................................................................................................................................................. 27
Preservation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 27
Storage................................................................................................................................................................................ 27

Torque Specifications...........................................................................................................................................28

Introduction
This manual is produced as a guide for normal operations of LTI equipment. This manual will not detail
all aspects of installation, operation, and maintenance of the drawworks because of the many factors that
contribute to its proper function and operation. When situations that are not discussed occur, they should
be referred to LTI personnel for detailed instruction.
Maintenance, beyond routine service, requires adequate space with dedicated lifting equipment and
specialized tools, and it can be more efficiently performed in a facility equipped for such service.
Improvements in purchased components, design, materials, or production methods may be made from
time to time. These changes may generate differences between this manual and the actual product. LTI
reserves the right to make these changes without incurring any liability beyond that stipulated in the
purchase contract.
A serial number is assigned to each drawworks. All inquiries concerning the drawworks must include this
serial number. The serial number is on a nameplate located on the drillers side of the drawworks frame.
The version of the drawworks being provided can be determined by reviewing the final assembly in the
drawing reference section in the back of this manual.

Accessories and Safety Equipment


This product is supplied in accordance with the buyers specifications and does not necessarily include
all accessories and safety devices required to put this product into operation. Power equipment and
safety devices such as, but not limited to, motors and controls, rotating equipment guards, chains,
cables, and wrenches are available from other suppliers.

Servicing Procedures
Use proper procedures when using or servicing this machinery. Use approved methods, materials, and
tools. This product and many of its parts are heavy or difficult to handle. Plan lifts carefully and use
proper lifting gear to avoid severe personal injury. Provide safe supports for all equipment and parts.

Shut down equipment and disconnect power during maintenance.


In order to prevent accident and injury during maintenance or inspection, shut down the equipment
and disconnect the power. This will include the electrical and air power. Air tanks and springoperated devices should be drained or released before starting service. Employ good and safe
mechanical practices when making maintenance repairs and adjustments.
Lubricate the drawworks before starting operation.
Prior to shipment, all lubricant is drained. Before starting operation, the drawworks must be
lubricated as outlined in the lubrication section.

Drawworks Overview
The version of the drawworks being provided can be determined by reviewing the final assembly in the
Parts Catalogue section of this manual
The drawworks is a single, skid-mounted unit with the following:

A hoisting drum mounted on a heavy-duty shaft with two brake discs for the spring-and air-operated
brake calipers
The shaft is supported by two large self-aligning roller bearings with provision for a splined hub to
connect an optional auxiliary brake...
Wire rope (supplied by the end user)
The diameter of the wire rope is determined by the end user.
Variable frequency drive motors coupled to a constant engagement gearbox.
The motors are capable of raising and lowering the load when operated by the proper control system
and connected to sufficient power dissipation equipment.
A transmission shaft coupling the gearbox to the drum shaft
Spring-actuated, air-returned emergency/parking brake calipers
The spring brakes are applied by actuating the emergency stop button on the drillers console, by loss
of electric power, or by various functions of the operating system.
An optional auxiliary brake coupled to the drum shaft through a manually shifted splined coupling.

Testing
Note
The electrical control system is not tested.
Prior to shipment, LTI personnel functionally test the drawworksand all related mechanical
componentsfor an extended period to verify that the drawworks and components operate in accordance
with the stated requirements.

The complete drawworks is aligned and all locating pins, or chocks, are secured.
All mechanical and air control systems are operated and functionally checked.
The lubrication system, air system, and brakes are pressure checked and inspected.
The brake discs and pads are burnished, and the brake torque is checked to ensure full braking
capability.
Guards, covers, and inspection openings are checked to ensure that the proper safety measures are in
place. These components serve as enclosures for the gearbox, provide safety protection for personnel,
and prevent foreign material from entering the working parts. Guards, covers and doors should be
closed and in place when the drawworks is operating and should only be opened for drawworks
service.

Warning
Carefully read and understand the operation and maintenance
instructions for the drawworks, drive motors, and controls.
Failure to follow these instructions may cause serious
equipment damage, severe personal injury, or loss of life.

Buyer and Operator Responsibility


It is the buyers and operators responsibility to obtain proper instruction and to train personnel in the safe
operation and maintenance of the equipment. The buyer and operator must obtain instruction in safe
operation and maintenance of the drawworks, motors, controls, and any accessories and safety devices
required to safely operate this equipment and to complete the application of this product.

Integration of Control System


The owner, operator, or buyer of this drawworks needs to know that the proper integration of the
controller system with the drawworks is critical to the safe operation of the Letourneau
Technologies (LTI) Model K drawworks in accordance with its specifications.
Failure to properly integrate the chosen control system with the Model K drawworks can result in
severe property damage, personal injury, or death.
Integration of the Model K drawworks with the chosen control system is the responsibility of the
manufacturer of such control system, whomever that may be, and LTI is neither responsible nor liable
for any damage or injuries that may result from use of the drawworks, where the drawworks and the
chosen controller system have not been properly integrated.
In addition, even if the drawworks is properly integrated with the control system chosen by the owner,
operator, or buyer, malfunctions of the control system can still result in unpredictable operation or
failure of the drawworks, which in turn, can result in severe property damage, personal injury, or
death. The functionality of the chosen control system is the responsibility of the manufacturer of such
control system, whomever that may be, and LTI is not responsible or liable for any damage or injuries
that may result from the drawworks because of a malfunction of the control system.
Finally, even if the drawworks is properly integrated with the control system selected by the owner,
operator, or buyer and the control system functions properly, errors in the operation of such control
systemor the people operating such controller system other than in strict conformance with the
control system manufacturers instructionscan result in unpredictable operation or failure of the
drawworks, which also can result in severe property damage, personal injury or death.
Training operators to properly use the chosen control system is the responsibility of the manufacturer
of such control system. The actual operation of such control system is the responsibility of the drilling
contractor or other person running drilling operations. LTI is not responsible or liable for any damage
or injuries that may result from the drawworks, either as a result of incorrect use of the control system
or as a result of the control system being used other than in strict conformance with the manufacturers
instructions.
1

UtilityRequirements
Air and water connections, marked with appropriate nameplates, are located on the drawworks skid.
For detailed information, see the Utility Requirements section of this manual. .

Installation
Recommendations for rig-up, operation, and maintenance of LTI drilling equipment are based on the
knowledge and experience of LTI engineers and operating personnel. Following these
recommendations will result in better overall rig performance and increased equipment operating life.

Inspection
Check the drawworks at each rig-up or rig-down.
Inspect the drawworks to ensure that all components are in place and undamaged.
Make sure that all attaching bolts are tight.
Check for wear and or damage of key components and replace if necessary.
Damage (bending) of the skid can cause misalignment resulting in serious wear or damage to the
operating parts. Failure to repair damage to the skid can lead to dangerous operating conditions
unless corrected.
Make sure that all covers are in place and secured.
Inspect the brake system every day for any corrosion that might prevent or obstruct the
movement of any brake parts.
Open the valve on the air tank for at least 5 seconds to drain any water that may have
accumulated in the tank (Fig. 1).
Release the ball valve in the air filter with a -in. flat end rod to drain any water that may have
accumulated in the line. (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2 Releasing the ball valve


in the air filter

Fig. 1 The air tank release valve is


located on the outside of the skid or
under the rig floor depending on the
installation requirements.

Support Structure
The drawworks relies on the support structure to provide the rigidity required to prevent deflection
during operation. The support structure must be flat and correctly sized to provide the necessary cross
section and rigidity. Contact LTI for assistance.
The drawworks weight and operating loads are distributed in the skid mounting points under the
drawworks, the gearbox, the drive motors, and the auxiliary brake. See the drawworks tie-down
information in the Parts Catalog section of this book.

Mounting

Caution
The drawworks cannot be aligned until it is properly attached to
the substructure. If an alignment is attempted before it is
attached to the substructure, the drawworks components can
be pulled out of alignment, which could cause an unsafe
condition, erratic operation, and premature wear.
Note
On permanent installations (offshore rigs), the drawworks
beams may be welded to the substructure at the same
locations.
1. Align the drawworks with the centerline of the well in accordance with the foundation location
drawing.
2. Secure the drawworks to the substructure, either with bolts or clamp plates, using the
recommended locations on the front and rear skid beams of the drawworks frame.
i. under each drawworks side plate,
ii. under the auxiliary brake,
iii. under the gearbox,
iv. at the skid ends.
3. Use stops and location blocks to help relocate the drawworks after each move.
4. See the drawworks tie-down drawing for tie-down locations.
If substructure support beams are not flat and true, shim the contact areas between the drawworks skid
beams and the substructure beams.
Note
Take care not to distort the drawworks frame during tie-down.
The drawworks was manufactured and aligned while resting on
a true flat surface.

Assembly
After stringing the block,
1. remove the brake cover from the side of the main drum containing the wireline dead end slot.
2. Slide the end of the line through the slot provided in the drum flange.
3. Slip the main drum wireline clamp over the end of the line, and secure the bolts attaching the
clamp. (See the Torque Specification table for recommended torque specification)
4. Make sure that a length of line equivalent to 2- or 3-line diameters extends beyond the clamp.
5. Slide the line back though the drum flange until the clamp is properly seated in the socket of the
drum flange.
6. Install a line clamp retainer on each side of the line clamp.
7. Replace the brake cover.
When setting the deadline anchor, be sure to leave 10- to 15-wraps (coils) of line on the drum when the
block is in the lowest operating position.
If the drawworks is installed on an offshore drilling rig with a heave compensator, leave extra line on
the drum to allow for the heave compensator requirement.
The drawworks is shipped with all the connection points for control and service lines capped or
plugged to protect them from damage, dirt, or other debris. (These lines should be capped or plugged
whenever the drawworks is moved.)

Warning
Improper control connections can cause a serious or deadly
operating condition that could result in serious injury to
personnel or equipment
1. Remove the caps protecting the control and service line connection points.
2. Inspect the ends of the lines, and remove any debris that may have entered.
3. Make sure that that these connections are properly made up to prevent leaks and to provide proper
control.
The rig system will compensate for a moderate leakage of air or water, but the leakage will cause
an unnecessary demand on the rig supply.
4. Connect the drawworks to the drillers console and to other rig systems as required.
5. Be sure the air and electrical connections are properly connected and sealed to ensure proper and
safe operation
6. Connect electrical service in accordance with the appropriate codes.
Loose or improperly made electrical connections could cause improper signal transmission, fire, or
explosion.
7. Verify that
all connections properly made;
the covers are in place;
all bolts are tight and properly torqued.
6

Lubrication
The lubrication system is made up of an oil pressure and cooling system for the gearbox and a manual
grease system for the remainder of the components. The oil filter is located on the well side (WS) of
the skid beneath a main drive motor, and it is positioned above the lube oil level for easy replacement.
The pressure pumps and motors are located under removable floor plates adjacent to the drawworks
side plates on the Driller Side (DS). See the Lubrication Summary table for more information.

Oil
After the drawworks as been assembled, fill the gearbox sump with 74 gal of ANSI/AGMA 9005-E02,
ISO VG220EP lubricating oil. The viscosity index of the oil should be 160 or greater.
1. After the sump has been filled, start the first lubrication pump.
2. Allow the pump to run for a few minutes and then check the sump oil level. The dipstick is located
at the DS end.
3. Add oil through the dipstick pipe if required to maintain the correct level.
4. Observe the pressure gage on the DS of the gear case; it should read at least 20 psi.
5. Stop the first pump, and start the second pump.
6. Repeat the pressure check for the second pump.
7. Verify that the operating pump is functioning within acceptable limits each day and that both
pumps are functioning within acceptable limits each week.
Note:
Do not run both pumps simultaneously.

Grease
On initial startup, the drum shaft bearings, auxiliary brake shaft bearings, and auxiliary brake shifter
grease points should receive three to four shots from a standard grease gun. Check the splines of the
auxiliary brake coupling. Apply EP#4 grease as necessary.
Grease all moving and exposed parts on the Johnson brakes monthly, or sooner if the parts are
corroded. Do not get any grease on the brake pads. Do not over grease. Wipe off any excess grease,
because it could contaminate the brakes.
This is particularly important in saltwater environments. In non-saltwater environments, operators
should base the lubrication schedule on usage to maintain the brakes in good working order.

Lubrication Summary
Lubrication
Schedule

Lubrication
Point or
System

Lubricant

Remarks

Daily

Shaft Bearings

NLG I #2 Premium
Sodium Grease

Two or three shots from


a standard grease gun

Daily

Auxiliary Brake
Shaft and Shifter

NLGI #2 Premium
Sodium Grease

Two or three shots from


a standard grease gun

Daily
(Check
level)

Gear Box

ANSI/AGMA 9005-EO2
ISO VG220EP

If contamination is found,
drain and replace.
(If no contamination is
found, drain and replace
annually.)

Monthly

Auxiliary Brake
Connection
splines

EP #4 Grease

Apply by hand
Do not over grease. Wipe
off any excess. Excess
grease can contaminate
the brakes.

Monthly*

Disc Brake
Calipers

NLGI #2 EP Premium
Lithium Grease

Warning
Do not get any grease on
the brake pads. Do not
over grease. Wipe off any
excess grease, because
it could contaminate the
brakes.

Every 6
months

Flexible
Couplings

NLGI #2 Premium
Sodium Grease

Remove and replace old


grease.

*This is particularly important in saltwater environments. In non-saltwater environments, operators should base the lubrication
schedule on usage.

Table 1 Lubrication Summary

Startup
Startup Checklist
Spool the wire rope on the drum before completing the startup checklist.

Verify that all covers, guards, etc. are in place and there is no loose equipment or tools around
the drawworks.
Verify that all utility connections are properly made up and that they are tight and leak free.
Verify that the drawworks has been lubricated and the gearbox sump is properly filled with oil.
Determine if the auxiliary brake will or will not be engaged for startup. Take appropriate action
with the coupling shifter. Lock shifter.
Open the valve on the air tank for at least 5 seconds to drain any water that may have
accumulated in the tank.( See Fig.)
Release the ball valve in the air filter with flat end rod to drain any water that may have
accumulated in the line. (See Fig. 2)
Turn on the air to the drawworks. Verify that a minimum pressure of 110 psi is available.
Turn on the first lube pump. Verify that the minimum pressure of 20 psi is being met. See
Lubrication Instructions section. If the drawworks has a second lube pump, then turn off the first
pump and verify the pressure for the second pump.

Warning
Do not attempt to operate the drawworks unless all brakes are
operating properly. Brakes should move smoothly and without
hesitation. Service the brakes if the brakes fail to operate
correctly. Operating the drawworks with faulty brakes could
cause serious injury to personnel and equipment.

Push the emergency stop.


Verify that the brake caliper pressure drops to zero (0).
Verify that all brake calipers are closed.
Pull the emergency stop button out, and verify that the pressure returns to normal and that the
brakes open.
Apply the auxiliary brake, if available, and verify that the pressure comes up smoothly to
drawworks air pressure and that the brake discs close and open smoothly and evenly.
Verify that all brake discs move smoothly with no hesitation.
Service the brakes if they do not operate smoothly without hesitation.
Verify that cooling water is available for the gearbox heat exchanger and the auxiliary brake.

Startup Procedure

Warning
Always make sure that motor power is available before
releasing the emergency brakes. Failure to do so can cause the
loss of load control, major equipment damage, severe personal
injury, or loss of life.
Verify basic control functions as follows:

Bring the main drive motors on line and make sure that the motor cooling system is operational.

Warning
Care should be taken when verifying the emergency stop
function. Applying the brakes will quickly generate strong
shock loads that could cause serious injury to personnel and
equipment.

Test the emergency brake function.


Actuate the hoisting control lever to rotate the drum very slowly.
Push the emergency stop button. The drum should stop immediately.
Pull the emergency stop button. The drum should start to rotate smoothly.
Actuate the hoisting control lever and rotate the drum to raise and lower the traveling block.
Make sure that the drum rotates smoothly when it is operating.
Make sure that the shift from the hoist function to the lower function is smooth and
without excessive noise.

10

Operation

WARNING
Qualified and trained personnel must control this equipment for
safe operation. Insufficient training and failure to read and
understand the operation and maintenance instructions can
cause major equipment damage, serious personal injury, or
death.

Function Check
Verify that the emergency stop function and interlocks are functional both before a trip and on a
weekly basis. Use the same procedure detailed in the Startup section.

Drawworks Control System


The drawworks control system is specified by the buyer and is not manufactured by LTI. See the
control manufacturers operating instruction. Various pressure, temperature, and position sensors in the
drawworks provide information to the control package.

Emergency Brake System


The emergency brake is released by air pressure. A clean, dry air supply at the correct pressure is
essential to the operation of the drawworks. Monitor the drawworks air pressure gage on a regular
basis. At the beginning of each shift, or at least once a day,
A reduction in the air pressure will adversely affect the emergency brake and can cause partial
engagement of the brake. Operation with the brake partially engaged will seriously overheat the brake
and can harm the calipers and the discs.

Warning
Exercise caution and the appropriate safety measures when
purging accumulated moisture from the air system. Water that
accumulates in the air tank and the air system will be released at
high-pressure and at the ambient pressure of the rig, which
could cause injury to personnel. This could cause injury to
personnel.
Water that accumulates in the air system will also adversely affect the braking system. Water should be
purged from the drawworks air tank and air lines at the beginning of each shift or at least once a day.

11

Operating Pressures
Air Pressure
Drawworks Air Pressure provides the main system air pressure in the drawworks. This pressure
should range from 95 psi to 130 psi. If the pressure falls below this, the emergency brake
calipers may partially engage, overheat, and cause serious damage to the brake.
Water Pressure (Optional Equipment)
Auxiliary Brake Water Pressure provides the cooling water pressure to the optional auxiliary
brake. This pressure should range from 30 psi to 45 psi. If the pressure falls below 30 psi, the
coolant flow through the auxiliary brake will be reduced, and the braking load must be reduced,
or the brake will overheat and cause damage to the brake discs.
Gearbox Water Pressure provides the cooling water pressure to the gearbox heat exchangers.
This pressure should range from 30 psi to 100 psi. If the pressure falls below psi, the cooling
capability of the heat exchanger will be reduced, and the gearbox may overheat.
Oil Pressure
Gearbox Oil Pressure gage provides the gearbox lubrication oil pressure. The pressure should
be 20 to 40 psi. If the pressure falls below 20 psi, the cooling and lubrication capabilities of the
lubrication system will be compromised. Continued use of the drawworks could damage the
gearbox.

Operating Temperatures
Water Temperature
Inlet water temperature for the optional auxiliary brake (Eaton) should be 50F to 70F. If the
temperature rises above 70 F, the braking load must be reduced or the brake will overheat and
cause damage to the brake discs.
Inlet water temperature for the gearbox oil cooler should be 90F to 100F. If the temperature
rises above 100F, the cooling and lubrication capabilities of the lubrication system will be
compromised. Continued use of the drawworks could damage the gearbox.
Oil Temperature
Gearbox oil temperature should be maintained in the 100F to 140F range. If the temperature
rises above 140F, the cooling and lubrication capabilities of the lubrication system will be
compromised. Continued use of the drawworks could damage the gearbox.
The auxiliary brake inlet water temperature and the gearbox oil temperature should be monitored and a
warning issued if the temperatures exceed the levels shown above.

12

Category

Pressure and Temperature Chart


Description
Pressure Temperature
(psi)
(F)

Comments

Air
pressure
Drawworks The main system
air pressure in the
drawworks

95130

NA

Pressure
If the pressure falls below this, the
emergency brake calipers may
partially engage, overheat, and cause
serious damage to the brake

Auxiliary The cooling water


Brake pressure to the
auxiliary brake

30145

5070

Gearbox The cooling water


pressure to the
gearbox heat
exchangers

30100

90100

Pressure
If the pressure falls below 30 psi, the
coolant flow through the auxiliary
brake will be diminished, and the
braking load must be reduced, or the
brake will overheat causing damage
to the brake discs.
Temperature
If the temperature rises above 70F,
the braking load must be reduced, or
the brake will overheat and cause
damage to the brake discs.
Pressure
If the pressure falls below 30 psi, the
cooling capability of the heat
exchanger will be reduced, and the
gearbox may overheat.
Temperature
If the temperature rises above 140F,
the cooling and lubrication capabilities
of the system will be reduced, and the
gearbox could be damaged.

20140

100 140

Water

Oil
Gearbox The gearbox
lubrication oil
pressure

Table 2 Pressure and Temperature Chart

13

Pressure
If the pressure falls below 20 psi, the
cooling and lubrication capabilities of
the lubrication system will be
compromised. Continued use of the
drawworks could damage the
gearbox
Temperature
If the temperature rises above 140 F,
the cooling / lubrication capabilities of
the lubrication system will be
compromised. Continued use of the
drawworks could damage the
gearbox.

Emergency Operation (Loss of Air Pressure)


In the event of air supply failure, the emergency brake calipers will set and lock the hoisting
drum. If the load needs to be lowered to a safe position, the emergency brakes can be released
with air pressure stored in the drawworks.
To release the emergency brakes,
1. Turn the handle of both of the 3-way
gate valves located under the floor on
both sides of the drawworks. (Fig 3)

2. Pull the handle of the manual


emergency lowering valve. This
operation should be performed
carefully, because there is a limited
amount of stored air. (Fig. 4)
Fig. 3 Three-way gate valve
Fig. 4 Emergency lowering
valve handle

In an extreme emergency, the brake calipers can be released mechanically. Consult the
operating instructions in the brake caliper users manual for instructions.

Safe Operating Practices

Know the load being lifted.


Do not exceed the lifting capacity of the drawworks.
Use the correct reeving for the load.
Be sure that the brakes, hoist, hoisting gear, and controls are properly serviced and inspected at
the beginning of each tour and before starting each trip.
Move loads smoothly without sudden starts or stops.
Know the position of the traveling block in the derrick at all times.
Do not allow personnel to ride the hoisting equipment.
Check and service the hoist both when a load approaching the rated load is anticipated and after
the load is removed.
Do not leave the drawworks controls unattended with a suspended load. Set the load on a firm
support (e.g., a casing spider or slips in the rotary table).
Do not use the motor to leave, or suspend, the traveling block for an extended period. Set the
emergency brake.
Make sure that the brake is holding the load before releasing the motor power.

14

Maintenance

WARNING
Carefully read and understand the operation and maintenance
instructions. Failure to follow these instructions could cause
serious equipment damage, severe personal injury, or loss of
life.
This manual is supplied as a guide for normal operation. Because many factors contribute to proper
operation, and because installations vary, not all situations are covered by this manual. Please contact LTI
for specific situations that are not covered by this manual.
This product and many of its parts may be heavy or difficult to handle. Plan lifts carefully and use proper
lifting gear to avoid severe personal injury. Provide safe supports for all components.
Maintenance Procedures Before Starting Operations
Fill the gearbox sump with lubricant before starting. All fluids are drained from the equipment
prior to shipping.
Make sure that the oil pressure, the air pressure, the cooling water pressure, and the cooling
water volume are satisfactory.
Lubricate each grease fitting on the unit.
Open the valve on the air tank for at least 5 seconds to drain any water that may have accumulated
in the tank. (Fig. 1)
Release the ball valve in the air filter with in. flat end rod to drain any water that may have
accumulated in the lines. (Fig. 2)

Warning
Shut down the equipment and disconnect air and electric power
from the unit before starting repair or maintenance. In order to
prevent personal injury during maintenance or inspection the
equipment should be shut down with the electrical and air
power disconnected. The spring-operated brake calipers should
be engaged. If the calipers must be open (released) during
maintenance, the springs must caged before starting service.
Use good safety and mechanical practices when making
maintenance repairs and adjustments.

15

Maintenance After Moving


When the drawworks is moved between locations, the following maintenance procedures should be
performed. Repair or replacement of worn or damaged items will increase the life and efficiency of the
unit and improve safety for personnel.

Check for missing or loose bolts, and tighten or replace as needed.


Check, repair, and adjust the brake discs and pads as needed.
Clean and replace all filters (both air and oil) as needed.
Check, clean, and repair the mechanical shifter on the auxiliary brake to ensure it is operating
correctly.
Inspect all hoses for wear, fraying, flattening, or kinking.
Replace damaged hoses.
Check the water supply system for the gearbox heat exchanger and auxiliary brake. Make sure
that sufficient water is flowing and that all connections are leak free. Repair as necessary.
Check the main drum bearing housing bolts for loose bolts or movement. Tighten or replace.
Check each grease line for flow and leakage. Make sure that grease is reaching the proper
bearing. Repair as necessary.
Inspect the lube oil pumps and the motor couplings. Repair as necessary.
Clean the gearbox breather.

General Information
When undertaking a major overhaul, it is cost effective to replace aging parts that are still working in
addition to those needing repair. While no one wants to incur extra expense, it is easier to replace parts
close to the end of their life when the unit is already down rather than waiting for the part to fail after
the unit has been overhauled and put back into service.
During a drawworks overhaul, many operators will have repair facilities replace roller bearing
throughout the drawworks, because it is more cost-effective than leaving the bearing in service and
having it fail after the overhaul. The costs of the downtime and emergency repairs will be more then
the cost of replacement during a regular overhaul.

Parts Fit
When replacing parts on a shaft assembly, be sure that the new part fits within the tolerance shown. For
assembly or removal of parts that fit from 0.000-in. to 0.004-in. tight, heat them to approximately
350F. For parts that fit from 0.005-in. to 0.015-in. tight, heat them to approximately 600F.

16

Hub and Shaft Fits


Use the following equation to determine the temperature required to expand the hub and facilitate an
easy interference fit.
TR+

E
0.0000061 B

=T

= Heated Temperature (F)

= Expansion of Bore Diameter Required (in.)

= Bore Diameter (in.)

TR = Room Temperature (F)


0.0000061 = Approximate Coefficient of Expansion of Steel per
Degree Fahrenheit per inch of Length or Diameter.
Example

A hub with an 8.500 in. diameter bore hub has an 0.008-in. interference fit with the shaft.There should
be 0.010-in. clearance while assembling the hub over the shaft. The total bore expansion needs to be
0.018 in.
E=0.018 in
B = 8.500 in
TR =

70F
70 +

0.018
0.000061 8.500

= 417F

The general rule for the interference used in cylindrical fits is as follows:

Press Fit:
Shrink fit:

0.0005 in. shaft diameter.


0.001 in. shaft diameter.

Tolerance will affect the overall fit, depending on the precision of the allowance.

17

Shafts
Warning
Replace cracked shafts. A cracked shaft will cause a
catastrophic failure and result in damage to equipment and
personnel.
When possible, a shaft that has been stripped for repair should be inspected for cracks using
Magnaflux or other nondestructive testing. Cracks are most likely to appear at the corners or ends of
keyways and at major changes in shaft diameter. Cracked shafts must be replaced. A cracked shaft is
dangerous and could result in a catastrophic failure.
Check shafts to make sure they are straight. If shafts in a drawworks are not straight, they can cause
vibration, whipping of chains, and a generally poor running rig.
1. Support the shaft at the normal bearing locations.
2. Rotate the it on a steady, low-friction support
3. Use a dial indicator to check for run-out at the ends and the middle of the shaft.
The total indicator reading (TIR) should not exceed 0.010 in. Excessive TIR will cause vibration. Lack
of straightness is an indicator of other problems, such as cracking or overstressing.
Generally, the shafts require little or no maintenance other than periodic greasing of the bearings. The
exception to this rule is the auxiliary brake shaft. The splined shifter connecting the auxiliary brake
shaft to the drum shaft uses a bronze follower to move the spline sleeve. The follower will wear over
time. Difficulty in shifting or excessive clearance in the shift mechanism are good indicators of a wear
problem that must be addressed.

18

Bearings
Caution
Hardened parts such as bearing races should not be heated
above 400-450 F because the hardness may be affected. Heat
should be applied carefully and evenly to prevent distortion. Use
a bearing heater to heat bearings.
Bearings are usually lightly tight on the shaft and slip fit in the housing. If a bearing is to be reused, it
must not be heated with a torch as this may damage the bearing. Use an oven or oil bath to heat a
bearing for installation. Do not use a torch because bearing material is very high-carbon steel that is
subject to microcracking when a torch is used. If a bearing is to be discarded, it may be heated with a
torch to ease the removal.
Do not overheat the bearing; 400 to 450F is sufficient. Higher temperature will damage the bearing.
Discard roller bearings if they show

pitting,
rusting or corrosion,
chipping or spalling,
excessive internal looseness (which indicates extreme wear),
cracking in either the rollers or the races.

The inner race usually must be heated in order to remove it from the shaft. For reassembly, the inner
race is always heated and mounted on an unheated shaft.

Removing a bearing or inner race


3. Place a U puller behind the bearing or the inner race.
4. Balance the pulling mechanism and remove all the slack by tightening.
5. While evenly applying heat to the bearing or inner race, increase the tension on the pulling
mechanism until the part is free.

Removing an outer race


The tolerances for fitting outer races to the bearing housings range from 0.005-in. tight to 0.004-in.
loose. If the outer race is a tight fit, the housing must be heated to remove it.
1. Arrange the puller mechanism to apply pressure toward the open end of the housing.
2. Apply heat to the housing and at the same time increase the pressure on the puller mechanism.
Note
The bearing must be cool before it can be reassembled.

19

Spacers
Spacers that are used between bearings to maintain the centerlines of bearings or between bearings and
other parts are usually 0.002-in. to 0.006-in. loose. Spacers that are used to hold a bearing in position
which is not adjacent to another part that is securely fixed to the shaftare usually 0.001-in. to 0.003in. tight.
To remove a spacer that has a shrink fit, follow the same procedure used to remove a bearing. To
replace a spacer, heat the spacer evenly and install the heated spacer on a cool shaft.

Sprockets
Most sprocket teeth are surface hardened to a depth of approximately 1/8 in. After several years of
service, the chain may wear into the sprocket teeth. The wearing is easily seen. When the wear reaches
a depth near 1/8-in, the rate of wear accelerates, and the sprockets should be replaced when the
drawworks is overhauled.
Before starting installation, pre-fit the parts. Remove any burrs or raised metal on both the shaft and
hub. Replace the key if it contains grooves or burred edges. Measure the hub or sprocket bore and the
shaft diameter to determine the interference of the fit. Refer to the Parts Fit section ti determine the
heating temperature required for installations. To prevent damages, Do not heat flexible couplings
above 400F or sprocket hubs above 600.
Caution
It is possible to bend a sprocket during removal. Do not
concentrate heat at the hub if you are attempting to pull the
sprocket using a chainattached to the outer rimpowered by a
jack at the end of the hub. The sprocket will bend under these
conditions. Shrink-fit sprockets are extremely hard to remove.
They should only be removed in facility with a hydraulic press.
Do not overheat the parts.
Note
It may be necessary to put a U plate behind the sprocket and secure
the puller studs to the plate.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Insert puller studs through openings between sprocket spokes 180 degrees apart.
Place steel plates and nuts on stud ends extending through the openings.
Arrange balance of pulling mechanism and tighten only enough to remove any slack.
Apply heat evenly and as near to the hub as possible while increasing tension with the puller at the
same time. Be sure to keep the flame moving. Do not concentrate heat at the hub.
5. To replace the sprocket, heat the sprocket to approximately 400 F. Install the new sprocket on a
cool shaft. Align the sprocket and insert any keys.
If the sprocket is being removed for salvage and a new shaft is being installed,
1. cut the shaft near the sprocket.
20

2. Machine part of the metal from the shaft under the sprocket.
3. Heat the sprocket and press out the remaining material ( the dutchman).
If the sprocket is being replaced
1. machine or torch cut the old sprocket to remove it.
2. Let the shaft cool.
To replace a sprocket
1. prefit all keys and keyways.
2. Heat the sprocket to approximately 400F.
3. Fit the sprocket onto a cool shaft
4. Align and insert any keys.

Clutch Hubs

Caution
Do not heat flexible coupling hubs beyond a maximum
temperature of 400F to prevent hub damage.
Keyed or unkeyed hubs are always tight on the shaft. Do not pull on the outer rim of a hub when
removing it from the shaft. If the hub has puller holes, screw the puller bolts into the tapped holes;
otherwise, use a U-shaped puller behind the part. Heat may be used to assist the removal. Apply the
heat evenly around and on, or as near, the hub as possible. Do not overheat.
Before starting installation, pre-fit the parts. Remove any burrs or raised metal on both the shaft and
hub. Replace the key if it contains grooves or burred edges. Measure the hub or sprocket bore and the
shaft diameter to determine the interference of the fit. Refer to the Parts Fit section ti determine the
heating temperature required for installations. To prevent damages, Do not heat flexible couplings
above 400F or sprocket hubs above 600.
NOTE
When a shaft assembly is disassembled for any reason, be sure that all
air, grease, and water lines are thoroughly cleaned.

21

Drive System
Motors
The main drive motors are factory sealed. Consult the drive motors user manual for maintenance
instructions.

Inspect the intake filters on the blowers once a month and remove any debris.
Blocked intakes will cause motor overheating under high-load conditions and possibly damage
the blower impellers.

Controls
Inspect and maintain the drawworks controls in accordance with the manufacturers maintenance
instructions.

Emergency Air Storage


Air storage tanks, usually located under the hoisting drum in the drawworks skid, provide auxiliary
pressure for emergency release of the spring brakes. The tanks are charged by the rig air system and
the charge is retained by two gate valves, in the charge line. (Fig. 3) The gate valves are located on
both sides of the drawworks. The handle on each valve must be turned 90 to release the charge. These
tanks are capable of actuating their brake system at least one (1) time without additional air volume
from the rig system.

Make sure there is at least 110-psi rig air pressure to properly charge these tanks.

Brake System

Warning
The braking system must be correctly adjusted and maintained.
Failure to perform regular maintenance and to correctly adjust
the brakes will effect the reliability of the braking system and
cause an unsafe operating condition.
The cylinders have a limited amount of travel. Lack of proper
adjustment can cause the cylinders to stroke more than
intended.
Excessive air gap will reduce braking capability and could
cause complete loss of brake power that could result in serious
injury to personnel and equipment.
Always secure the drawworks and the load before performing
maintenance on the brakes. Set the load on the slips and
support the traveling block.
The standard drawworks brake system consists of two drum-mounted discs with air-released, springengaged emergency brake calipers and an optional air-engaged, water-cooled auxiliary brake. The
22

auxiliary brake is a disc brake connected to the end of the drum shaft by a manually operated splined
coupling. To operate properly the brake system must be properly adjusted and free of contamination.

Daily Use
In addition to the daily maintenance inspection, operators should activate the Johnson brake system
several times a day. The Johnson brake functions as both an emergency brake and a parking brake. To
make sure that the brake system is functioning properly, operators should use the brake to park a load
for a short period.
Operators should also test the emergency brake function:
Actuate the hoisting control lever to rotate the drum very slowly.
Push the emergency stop button. The drum should stop immediately.
Pull the emergency stop button. The drum should start to rotate smoothly.
When testing the brake system, operators must use safe operating procedures and be aware of the
Warnings and Cautions found in the LTI Drawworks Operating and Maintenance Manual.

Daily Maintenance
To ensure proper and safe operation, operators should inspect the brake system every day to make sure
that it is clean and free of contamination from dirt and corrosion. If the daily inspection finds any
contamination, dirt, or corrosion, the brake should be immediately cleaned to remove any
contamination or corrosion.
Water should be purged from the drawworks air tank and the air lines at the beginning of each shift, or
at least once a day.

Weekly Brake Disc Inspection and Cleaning


Emergency Brake
Inspect and adjust the brakes on either a weekly basis, or more frequently as indicated by
experience.
The operating clearance between each brake pad and the brake disc should be between 1/16 in.
and 3/32 in. Operating clearance should not exceed these dimensions.
The brake pad clearance should be checked and adjusted weekly. During periods of heavy usage,
it should be checked more frequently.

23

Adjustment Procedure

Warning
Always secure the drawworks and the load before performing
maintenance on the spring brakes. Set the load on the slips.
Support the traveling block.

See the Air Gap Adjustment Instructions in the brake service manual.
The following condensed instruction is provided for convenience and is not a replacement for the
instruction in the brake service manual.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Apply air pressure to release the brakes and to cage the actuators.
Remove the three pins that connect the actuator to the toggle link and the toggle link to the caliper.
Swing the caliper arms open to gain access to the actuator rod clevis.
Turn the actuator clevis counterclockwise to decrease the air gap.
The air gap can also be adjusted by turning the toggle yoke between the toggle lever and the
caliper arm after removing the toggle link pin and loosening the jam nut.
6. When the proper pad clearance is achieved, reassemble the components and tighten all nuts.
7. Apply air pressure and encage the actuator.
8. Cycle the brake a few times and verify the air gap by pushing one shoe against the disc and
measuring the clearance on the other side of the disc.
9. Reset the centering screws to properly center the air gap. Check for adequate lateral float in the
pads.
10. Repeat these steps for each caliper.

Pad Replacement Procedure


Brake pads must be replaced when they are -in. thick. Allowing further wear will result in attachment
rivets touching and scoring the disc. Loose debris packed in the grooves of the scored disc will cause
loss of brake capability. A beveled edge indicates improper clearance between the pad and disc.
Adjust the pad as needed to maintain proper running clearance.

Apply air pressure to release the brakes and cage the actuators.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Remove the pin attaching the pad holder to the caliper lever.
Slide the pad holder toward the center of the disc and remove the pad holder from the caliper arm.
Remove the rivets holding the pad to the pad holder and remove the pad.
Clean the pad holder with a wire brush. Do not use petroleum solvent.
Make sure that the pad is properly placed on the pad holder. It should not hang over the edge.
Rivet the pad to the pad holder. Make sure that the rivets pull up properly against the pad and the
pad holder. Do not crush the pad under the rivet head.
7. Follow the air gap adjustment procedure (in the brake service manual) to increase the air gap and
allow for the new caliper. Be sure that there is sufficient clearance.
24

8. Place the pad holder next to the caliper arm and toward the center of the disc. Slide the pad holder
outward until the pinholes in the holder align with the pinholes in the caliper arm.
9. Lubricate and replace the pins.
10. Adjust the air gap in accordance with the Pad Adjustment Procedure.
11. Burnish the pads in accordance with the Caliper Brake Users Manual.
Holding Capability
1. Place the traveling block near the lower travel limit before starting the test.
2. Actuate the calipers on one brake disc and attempt to turn the drum with the motors.
3. Repeat this procedure for each disc.
The brake passes the test if the drum cannot be rotated at full-rated torque.

Contamination
Oil, Grease, Line Dope
1. Clean and replace the brake pads
2. Locate and remove the cause of the contamination.
Oxidization or Corrosion
1. Burnish the discs by rotating the drums a few turns with the calipers slightly engaged.
Engage the calipers by reducing the drawworks air pressure to 80-85 psi
2. Inspect the discs and brake shoes, and check the holding capability after burnishing.
Moisture

Warning
Exercise caution and the appropriate safety measures when
purging accumulated moisture from the air system. Water that
accumulates in the air tank and the air system will be released at
high-pressure and at the ambient pressure of the rig, which
could cause injury to personnel. This could cause injury to
personnel.
1. Open the valve on the air tank for at least 5 seconds to drain any water that may have accumulated
in the tank. (Fig 1)
2. Use a flat end rod to release the ball valve in the air filter to drain any water that may have
accumulated in the line (Fig 2).

25

Auxiliary Brake (Optional)


Water connections for this brake are located in the web of the main skid beam below the brake and
near the end of the skid. Operate and maintain the brake according to the manufacturers instructions.
See these instructions for coolant volume and pressure requirements.
Auxiliary Brake Alignment
1. Use a dial indicator to check the alignment of the auxiliary brake after installation. Make sure the
two spline hubs are concentric and axially aligned as shown below.

Fig. 5 Auxiliary Brake Alignment

2. Tighten the mounting bolts after the auxiliary brake has been aligned.
3. Verify that the splined hub shifting mechanism operates smoothly and that the locking feature
works in both the engaged and retracted position.
4. Improper operation indicates a problem with alignment. Recheck the hub-to-hub total indicator
run out (TIR) readings.

26

Preservation and Storage


Location

Store the drawworks in a location with good drainage to prevent the accumulation of standing
water.
Support the drawworks in a manner similar to the working support.
Make sure the temporary supports are high enough to allow free circulation of air below the
drawworks to prevent condensation and accumulated water.
A drained location that prevents standing water is preferred.

Cleaning

Clean the drawworks with a power cleaning system (steam or pressurized water is preferred).
Make sure that dirt, grease, and other accumulated material is removed from the drawworks
before storage.
Protect the motors and controls from water intrusion during cleaning.
Consult the manufacturers instructions for cleaning motors and controls.
Flush and drain the oil system.

Preservation

Remove any loose paint; clean rusted surfaces to bright metal; and repaint.
Repaint any areas where the paint is thin.
Circulate preservative oil through the lubrication system. If preservative oil is not available,
circulate clean oil through the system to coat all parts with an oil film.
Drain the oil sump after circulating the oil.
Make sure that all grease-lubricated parts are completely greased (filled) with the usual
operating grease. Use preservative oil on areas where grease is not applicable.
Cover the exposed parts (shaft, drum, etc) with a dry, film-type rust preventative. Do not coat
the braking surface of the brake discs.
See the manufacturers manuals for preservation of the motors and controls.

Storage
Note:
Condensation in the gearbox is a main concern during storage.

Plug the breather opening.


Use a small heater (100 to 200W) in the box. (This is the preferred preservation method. If a
heater is not available, use the following procedure.)
Plug the breather opening.
Remove the sump drain plug.
Tilt the drawworks if necessary to ensure the maximum, long-term drainage of
accumulated condensation.
Cover the drain with wire mesh to prevent the entrance of insects.
Consult the manufacturers manuals for long-term storage of the motors and controls.
27

Torque Specifications
Steel Fastener Torque Specifications (Lubed)
Fastener Size
(FractionalDecimal)
1/4
0.250
5/16
0.3125
3/8
.375
7/16
0.4375
1/2
0.500
9/16
0.5625
5/8
0.625
3/4
0.750
7/8
0.875
1
1.000
1-1/8
1.125
1-1/4
1.250
1-3/8
1.375
1-1/2
1.500

Thread
Series
20
28
18
24
16
24
14
20
13
20
12
18
11
18
10
16
9
14
8
14
7
8
12
7
8
12
6
8
12
6
8
12

UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UNF
UNC
UN
UNF
UNC
UN
UNF
UNC
UN
UNF
UNC
UN
UNF

SAE Grade 5
Fasteners
USA
Metric
Units
Units
(ft-lb)
(N-m)

SAE Grade 8
Fasteners
USA
Metric
Units
Units
(ft-lb)
(ft-lb)

6
7
13
14
23
26
37
41
56
63
81
91
112
127
199
222
321
354
481
539
600
621
673
846
873
937
1109
1185
1263
1473
1563
1657

9
10
18
20
33
37
52
58
80
90
115
128
158
179
281
314
453
500
679
762
963
997
1079
1358
1401
1504
1781
1902
2027
2363
2509
2659

9
10
18
20
31
35
50
56
76
86
110
123
152
172
270
301
435
480
652
731
813
842
912
1147
1184
1270
1504
1607
1712
1997
2120
2246

1-3/4
1.750
8
UN
2
2.000
8
UN
Bolt And Cap screw Markings
On Head

12
14
25
28
44
50
71
79
108
122
156
174
215
243
381
425
614
678
921
1034
1305
1352
1463
1842
1900
2039
2414
2578
2748
3204
3402
3605

ASTM A193 Grade B7


Fasteners
USA
Metric Units
Units
(N-m)
(ft-lb)
7
8
15
16
26
30
42
47
64
72
93
103
128
145
227
253
366
404
549
616
778
805
872
1097
1132
1215
1438
1536
1637
1909
2027
2148

10
11
20
22
36
40
57
64
87
98
126
140
173
196
308
343
496
547
744
835
1054
1092
1182
1487
1534
1647
1950
2083
2220
2588
2748
2912

3300

4474

5018

6804
B7 Studs

1. All torque values given are for fasteners lubricated with 30 weight motor oil.
2. All studs used on LTI pumps are Grade B7. Nuts on studs should be torqued to grade B7

specification, even if the nut is Grade 8.


28