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Matrices

1.

If

2.

Evaluate
(i)

3 1 0

and B = 6 2 1 , find A + B, A B, B A, AB and BA .


1 1 2

2 1 2

A = 3 5 7
1 0 1

2 1 0 1

3 4 2 1

2 1 1


6 0 4

(ii)

4 0

(iii) ( 2 1 0 ) 0 2
1 1

1 2
and A =
,
3 1

3.

Give () = 2 5 + 32

4.

cos sin
Show that A() =

sin cos

4 2 1 0
(iv)

.
3 1 0 1

14 2
prove that (A) =
.
3 14

then A() A() = A( + ), and give a geometrical interpretation of

this result.
1 1 0

A = 0 1 1 ,
0 0 1

5.

If

prove that

6.

Prove that P2 = P if P is :

1 n

An = 0 1
0 0

n (n 1)
2

n
.

(i)

25 20

30 24

(ii)

26 18 27

15
21
21
12
8
13

7.

a sin
cos
If K = 1 sin cos

8.

Comment on the following argument :

1 0 0

(iii) 0 1 0 .
0 0 0

a sin n
cos n
, prove by induction that Kn = 1 sin n cos n .

3 x + 4 y = 1 3 4 x 1
8 4 3 4 x 8 4 1
0 4

=
=

6 x + 8 y = 3 6 8 y 3
6 3 6 8 y 6 3 3
0 3

9.

0 = 4 = 3.

Find all the 2 2 matrices X which satisfy the equation x2 4x + 3I = 0, I being the unit matrix
and 0 the null matrix.

10.

If A and B are square matrices satisfying the equation A2 = B , show that A and B commute.
1 1 0

Hence find matrices A such that A = 0 1 0 .


2 0 1

-1

2 2 1

if A = 3 1 5 .
3 2 3

11.

Find A

12.

In Number 11, find (A + A)-1 and

13.

Show that if A and B are non-singular matrices of the same order, (AB)-1 = B-1A-1.

14.

The 2 2 matrices 1, 2, 3 , I are defined by :

A-1 + A-1 . Are they equal ?

0 i
2 =

i 0

0 1
1 =

1 0

1 0
1 =

0 1

1 0
I=

0 1

where

i2 = 1 .

Prove that:
(i)

12 = 22 = 32 = I

(ii)

1 2 = 2 1 =

i 3 ,

2 3 = 32 =

Show also that, if is a real number,

I+

(i1)

n =1

15.

A matrix A is said to be idempotent if

i 1 ,

is the n n identity matrix

A2 = A . Prove that, if In

and

A is any n n idempotent matrix, then

(i)

(In A) is idempotent .

(ii)

If

i 2

= I cos + i1 sin .

n!

A is non-singular, then A = In .

Show that every 2 2 idempotent matrix, different from I


where p, q, r
16.

3 1 = 13 =

q
r

,
r 1 p

and 0 , is of the form

satisfy p(1 p) = qr .

a b
If X =

c d

is any 2 2 matrix with complex elements, write down X2

and show that if

X2 + pX + qI = 0 , where p, q are complex, then either


(i) X has trace p and determinant q,
or

(ii)

X = I,

where is a root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0.

(The trace of a square matrix is the sum of the elements in its leading diagonal. I is the unit matrix and
0 is the zero matrix. )
17.

If

1 2
A=
, find a matrix B , of the form
4 1

1 1

such that B-1AB

Hence, or otherwise, express An , where n is a positive integer, in the form of a


18.

If

cos sin
S=

sin cos

and A is a 2 2

show that B = SAS is diagonal if

tan 2 =

is a diagonal matrix.
2 2 matrix.

symmetric matrix with element aik ,

2a 12
a 11 a 22

Verify that

Tr B = Tr A .

19.

If

x1

x2
x
3

is a constant and x a vector

which make

a 11

Ax = x , where A = a 21
a
31

a 12
a 22
a 32

a 13

a 23 ,
a 33

3 - 2(a11 + a22 + a33) + (A11 + A22 + A33) - |A| = 0,

show that

where Ars is the co-factor of ars


0 1
1

is A = 0 1 0
1 0 1

Find the values of

in |A| .

and find the vector x corresponding to the largest

value of .
20.

If

r s

s r

A is the matrix

Prove by induction on n, that

22.

2s An = n A - n I

n = (r + s) (r s)

and

n = (r s) (r + s)n (r + s) (r s)n

Prove that if A is skew-symmetric

If

S=

A2 = A - I,

(i.e. A = AT ), then

(I A )(I + A)-1

is orthogonal.

I + A is non-singular. )

1
2
1

1 3
P=

3 1

and such that

( n = 2, 3, )

where

(assuming that

2 2 unit matrix.

where I is the

21.

, where s 0 , find numbers

2 , show that S is an orthogonal matrix ( SS = I ). Hence show that if


1

then SPS is a diagonal matrix.

23.

Verify that S =

24.

1

2

3
If X =
2
0

1 1 i

is an unitary matrix
2 i 1

3
2
1
2
0

and

2
3
P=
2
0

3
2
1
2
0

( A' A = I ) .

prove that P-1XP is a diagonal matrix and that X satisfies the equation X3 2X2 X + 2I = 0 ,
P

where I is the unit matrix.

25.

Find

-1

1 3 4

when A = 1 1 3 . Hence solve the system of equations :


5 1 1

26.

Solve

x1 + x 2 + x 3 = 4

(i) x 1 x 2 + 2 x 3 = 9
2x +
x3 = 6
1

27.

Solve

(ii)

(ii)

x1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 = 4

x1 x 2 2x 3 + x 4 = 6

x 1 + 3x 2 = 4

2 x 1 2 x 2 = 6

x1 + 2x 2 + x 3 = 0

+ x3 = 1
(iii) x 1

x 2 x 3 = 3

28.

x 1 4 x 2 = 2

2x1 + x 2 = 1

(iv)

2 x 1 + 5 x 2 + 3x 3 = 1

3x 1 + x 2 + 2 x 3 = 1
2x + 2x + x = 0
1
2
3

2x1 = 2

(iii) x 1 + 3x 2 = 1 .
4 x + 2 x = 3
1
2

Find a non-trivial solution for the equations


x2
x3
x1
a + + a + + a + = 0
1
2
3
x
x
x
2
3
1 +
+
=0
b + 1 b + 2 b + 3

29.

(ii)

x 1 + 3x 2 + 4 x 3 = h 1

x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 = h 2 .
5x + x + x = h
1
2
3
3

Discuss the solution of

where none of the denominators is zero .

x + a 2 y + a 4z = a

2
4
x + b y + b z = b , determining when the system has no solution, one solution,
x + c2 y + c4z = c

and infinitely many solutions.

30.

Find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the simultaneous equations
x + ay + a 2 z = 0

2
x + by + b z = 0

2
x + cy + c z = 0
x + y + z = 0

31.

Discuss the solution of

to have solutions other than

x = y = z = 0.

ax + by + z = 1

x + aby + z = b , determining when the system has no solution, and infinitely


x + by + az = 1

many solutions.

32.

Solve the following equations by matrix methods:

(i)

4 x 3y + z = 11

2 x + y 4z = 1
x + 2 y 2z = 1

(ii)

x + 5 y + 3z = 1

5x + y z = 2
x + 2y + z = 3