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Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.

s Quc Huy

Phn 1: C HC
Vt l hc l mt khoa hc t nhin c bn nht, nghin cu cc quy lut c bn ca V Tr. N cng
vi cc khoa hc khc nh thin vn hc, sinh hc, ha hc v a l hc to thnh khoa hc c bn.
V p ca vt l hc chnh l s n gin ca cc thuyt vt l c bn v ch mt s t cc khi nim,
cc phng trnh, cc gi thuyt cng c th m t v gii thch c cc s vt hin tng ca th gii
quanh ta.
Vt l hc c th c chia thnh su lnh vc chnh:
1. C hc c in nghin cu v chuyn ng ca cc vt th c kch thc ln hn nhiu so vi kch
thc nguyn t v chuyn ng vi tc rt nh so vi tc nh sng.
2. C hc tng i l thuyt m t chuyn ng ca vt bt k tc no, thm ch t n tc
nh sng.
3. Nhit ng hc cp n nhit, cng, nhit v nhng tnh cht c tnh thng k ca cc h thng
gm mt s ln cc ht.
4. in t hc nghin cu v in trng, t trng v in t trng.
5. Quang hc nghin cu nhng tnh cht v s tng tc ca nh sng vi mi trng vt cht.
6. C hc lng t tp hp cc l thuyt m t cc tnh cht ca vt cht t vi m n v m.
Cc mn hc v c hc v in t hc l c s cho cc ngnh khc ca vt l c in (c pht trin
trc nm 1900) v vt l hin i (pht trin t nm 1900 n nay). Phn u ca cun sch ny
cp n c hc c in, i khi c gi l c hc Newton hay n gin l c hc. Bt u cun sch
bng phn c hc l rt ph hp v, nhiu nguyn l c bn s c s dng hiu ton b h thng
c hc, sau c th s dng m t cc hin tng t nhin nh l sng v s truyn nhit. Ngoi
ra, cc nh lut bo ton nng lng v bo ton ng lng c gii thiu trong c hc cn ng
vai tr quan trong cc l thuyt c bn ca cc lnh vc vt l khc.
Ngy nay, c hc c in rt quan trng sinh vin hc cc mn hc khc. N m t hon ho chuyn
ng ca cc vt th khc nhau nh cc hnh tinh, tn la hay qu bng chy.Trong phn u ca cun
sch, chng ta s m t cc nh lut ca c hc c in v kho st trn phm vi rng cc hin tng
c th hiu nhng nh lut c s ny.
(Hnh trang 1) Phng tu con thoi Colombia. Tai nn thm khc ngy 1 thng 2 nm 2003 cp i
mng sng ca ton b 7 phi hnh gia, ngay trc khi tp 1 cun sch ny c a vo xut bn.
Vic phng tu con thoi v s hot ng ca n tun theo nhiu nguyn l ca c hc c in, nhit
ng hc v in t hc. Chng ta s tm hiu cc nguyn l ca c hc c in trong phn 1 ca cun
sch ny v p dng cc nguyn l ny vo chuyn chuyn ng bng tn la trong chng 9 (NASA)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Chng 1: Vt l hc v h thng o lng


NI DUNG CHNH
1.1. Cc chun chiu di, khi lng v thi gian
1.2 Vt cht v vic xy dng cc m hnh
1.3 Khi lng ring v khi lng nguyn t
1.4 Phn tch th nguyn
1.5 Chuyn i cc n v
1.6 S c lng v tnh ton bc ca ln
1.7 Cc ch s c ngha

(Hnh trang 2) C cu lm vic ca mt ng h c hc. Cc ng h phc tp c ch to cch


y hng th k vn n lc o thi gian mt cch chnh xc. Thi gian l mt trong nhng i lng
c bn m chng ta dng nghin cu chuyn ng ca cc vt th.

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Ging nh cc khoa hc khc, vt l hc da trn vic quan st cc th nghim v o lng cc i


lng. Mc ch chnh ca vt l hc l tm ra mt s gii hn cc nh lut c s chi phi cc hin
tng t nhin v s dng cc nh lut ny pht trin cc l thuyt m t c th on trc kt
qu ca cc th nghim. Cc nh lut c s dng trong vic pht trin cc l thuyt c din t bng
ngn ng ton hc, mt cng c nh mt cu ni gia l thuyt v thc nghim.
Khi c s khc bit gia mt l thuyt vi thc nghim, cc l thuyt khc s c thit lp xa b
s khc bit . Nhiu khi, mt l thuyt ch ng trong mt s iu kin nht nh; l thuyt tng qut
hn c th ng khng cn bt k iu kin no. V d, cc nh lut v chuyn ng c pht hin
vo th k 17 bi Isaac Newton (1642 1727), m t chnh xc chuyn ng ca cc vt th cc tc
thng thng, nhng khng p dng c cho cc vt chuyn ng vi tc gn vi tc nh
sng. Ngc li, thuyt tng i c Albert Einstein (1879 1955) xng vo thp nin 1900
khng nhng cho kt qu ging nh cc nh lut Newton cc tc thp m cn m t chnh xc
chuyn ng cc tc t n tc nh sng. V vy, thuyt tng i ca Einstein l l thuyt
tng qut v chuyn ng.
Vt l c in bao gm cc l thuyt, cc nh lut v cc th nghim ca c hc c in, nhit ng
hc, quang hc v in t hc, c pht trin trc nm 1900. Cc thnh tu quan trong ca vt l c
in c ng gp bi Newton, ngi pht trin c hc c in thnh mt h thng l thuyt v l
mt trong nhng ngi sng to ra php tnh vi phn v tch phn nh l mt cng c ton hc. Cc
pht trin chnh trong c hc c in cn c tip tc trong th k 18, nhng cc lnh vc v nhit
ng hc, in hc v t hc th mi n ht na u ca th k 19 vn cha c pht trin; nguyn
nhn chnh l do n thi im , cc thit b th nghim cn th s khng p ng c.
Mt s thay i ln trong vt l hc, thng c gi l vt l hin i, bt u t cui th k 19. Vt
l hin i pht trin mnh m bi s khm ph ra nhng hin tng mi m vt l c in khng th
gii thch c. Hai trong s nhng pht trin quan trng ca k nguyn hin i ny l thuyt tng
i v c hc lng t. L thuyt tng i ca Einstein khng nhng m t c chuyn ng ca
cc vt tc so snh c vi tc nh sng m cn lm thay i hon ton cc khi nim c
truyn v khng gian, thi gian v nng lng. Thuyt tng i cng ch ra rng tc ca nh sng
l tc ti a c th c ca cc vt; khi lng v nng lng l c mi lin h vi nhau. C hc
lng t c thnh lp bi mt s nh khoa hc li lc, cho php m t cc hin tng vt l gc
nguyn t.
Cc nh khoa hc lm vic khng ngng hon thin nhng hiu bit ca chng ta v cc nh lut
c s, v nhng khm ph mi c tm ra hng ngy. Nhiu lnh vc nghin cu ln ni dung bao
hm c vt l hc, ha hc, sinh hc. Bng chng cho s tch hp ny l xut hin cc chuyn ngnh
khoa hc nh sinh l, sinh ha, ha l, cng ngh sinh hc, .... Nhiu s tin b ca k thut cng ngh
trong thi gian gn y l kt qu ca s c gng ca cc nh khoa hc, cc k s v cc k thut vin.
Mt vi pht trin ng k trong na sau ca th k 20 l: (1) thm him khng ngi li cc hnh
tinh v b ln Mt Trng; (2) vi mch v my tnh tc cao; (3) k thut hnh nh tinh vi dng
trong nghin cu khoa hc v y trong hc; (4) vi kt qu ni bt trong cng ngh gen. nh hng ca
nhng pht hin v nhng khm ph ny i vi x hi hin ti chng ta l rt tuyt vi v tng t
nh th, nhng pht hin v nhng khm ph trong tng lai l v cng th v, y thch thc v mang
li li ch ln cho nhn loi.
3

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

1.1 Cc chun chiu di, khi lng v thi gian


Cc nh lut vt l c biu din bng quan h ton hc gia cc i lng vt l m chng ti s
gii thiu v bn lun xuyn sut cun sch. Hu ht cc i lng vt l u l cc i lng dn
xut, ngha l chng c th c biu din thng qua mt s nh cc i lng c bn. Trong c hc
c ba i lng c bn, l chiu di, khi lng v thi gian. Tt c cc i lng khc trong c hc
u c biu din thng qua ba i lng ny.
Nu chng ta bo co kt qu o lng cho mt ngi no m ngi yu cu m phng li vic
o lng ny th mt chun chc chn phi c nh ngha. S chng c ngha g, nu nh c mt v
khch t mt hnh tinh khc ni vi chng ta chiu di vo khong 8 glitches, trong khi ta khng bit
ngha ca n v glitch. Tri li, nu mt ngi quen thuc vi h thng o lng ca chng ta ni
rng chiu cao ca bc tng l 2 mt v n v chiu di c nh ngha l mt th chng ta bit
ngay rng, chiu cao ca bc tng gp hai ln n v chiu di c bn ca chng ta. Cng tng t
nh vy, nu ta ni rng mt ngi c khi lng 75 kilgram v n v o khi lng c nh
ngha l kilgram, th ngi nng hn 75 ln so vi n v khi lng c bn.1 Chn ci g lm
chun th ci phi d dng s dng v n phi c tnh cht ging nh ci cn o. Vic o lng
c thc hin bi nhng ngi khc nhau nhng ni khc nhau phi thu c kt qu ging nhau.
Nm 1960, hi ngh khoa hc quc t thit lp cc chun cho cc i lng khoa hc c bn. N
c gi l SI (Systme International), trong n v chiu di, khi lng v thi gian ln lt l
mt, kilgram v giy. Cc chun khc ca h SI cng c hi ng khoa hc thit lp l cc n
v o nhit (kelvin), cng dng in (ampere), cng chiu sng (candela) v lng cht
(mole).
Chiu di
Vo thp nin 1120, quc vng Anh ban sc lnh rng chun chiu di trong vng quc c tn l
yard v n ng bng khong cch t nh mi ca ng y n ht cnh tay dui di ca ng ta. Tng
t nh vy, chun u tin c ngi Php cng nhn l foot, l chiu di bn chn ca Vua Louis
XIV. Chun ny c dng ph bin n nm 1799, khi , chun chiu di hp php ca Php c
i l mt, n c nh ngha l mt phn mi triu khong cch t Xch o n Cc Bc dc theo
mt kinh tuyn c bit i ngang qua Pari.
Nhiu h thng o chiu di khc cng c pht trin trong sut nhiu nm qua, nhng nhng tin
li ca h thng Php lm cho n c ph bin rng ri hu ht cc quc gia v trong cc gii khoa
hc khp mi ni. n nm 1960, chiu di ca mt c nh ngha l khong cch gia hai vch
trn mt thanh platinum iridium c bit, c ct gi trong nhng iu kin nht nh ti Php. Sau
tiu chun ny b hy b v nhiu l do, mt l do ch yu l chnh xc b hn ch, khng p
ng c yu cu hin nay ca khoa hc v cng ngh. Trong nhng nm 1960 v 1970, mt c
nh ngha l 1650763,73 bc sng ca nh sng mu - da cam pht ra t n krypton 86. Vo
thng 10 nm 1983, mt (m) c nh ngha li l qung ng i c trong chn khng ca
nh sng trong khong thi gian 1/299792458 giy. Trong thc t, nh ngha mi nht ny xc nhn
rng tc nh sng trong chn khng c gi tr chnh xc l 299792458 mt trn giy.
4

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Bng 1.1 lit k cc gi tr gn ng ca mt vi chiu di o c. Bn nn tm hiu bng ny cng


nh hai bng tip theo v bt u to ra trc gic cho bit chiu di 20 centimet ngha l g, hay khi
lng 100 kilgram, hoc thi gian 3,2.107 giy ngha l g.
Bng 1.1: Gi tr gn ng ca cc chiu di o c
Chiu di (m)
Khong cch t Tri t n quasar xa nht

1.4 1026

Khong cch t Tri t n thin h trung bnh xa nht

9 1025

Khong cch t Tri t n thin h ln gn nht

2 1022

Khong cch t Mt Tri n ngi sao gn nht

4 1016

Mt nm nh sng

9.46 1015

Bn knh qu o trung bnh ca Tri t chuyn ng quanh Mt Tri

1.5 1011

Khong cch trung bnh t Tri t n Mt Trng

3.84 108

Khong cch t Xch o n Cc Bc

1.00 107

Bn knh trung bnh ca Tri t

6.37 106

cao in hnh ca v tinh chuyn ng quanh Tri t

4 105

Chiu di ca mt sn bng

9.1 101

Chiu di ca mt con rui

5 10 3

Kch thc ca cc ht bi nh nht

~ 10 4

Kch thc ca cc t bo sng

~ 10 5

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

ng knh nguyn t hydr

~ 10 10

ng knh ca ht nhn nguyn t

~ 10 14

ng knh ca proton

~ 10 15

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Khi lng
Trong h SI, n v ca khi lng l kilgram, c nh ngha l khi lng ca mt khi tr bng
hp kim platinum iridium c bit, c ct gi ti vn phng cn o quc t ti Svres, Php. Chun
khi lng ny c thit lp vo nm 1887 v khng b thay i k t lc , bi v hp kim platinum
iridium rt n nh. Mt bn sao ca tr Svres th c gi ti Vin Tiu chun v Cng ngh Quc
gia (NIST) Gaithersburg, Maryland (hnh 1.1a).
Bng 1.2 lit k cc gi tr gn ng khi lng ca cc vt khc nhau.
Bng 1.2 : khi lng ca cc vt khc nhau
Khi lng (kg)
V tr

PHNG NGA CM BY

~ 1052

Thin h Milky Way


(Ngn h)

~ 1042

Mt Tri

1.99 1030

Tri t

5.98 1024

Mt Trng

7.36 1022

C mp

~ 103

Con ngi

~ 102

Con ch

~ 10 1

Con mui

~ 10 5

Vi khun

~ 10 15

Nguyn t hydr

~ 1.67 10 27

Electron

~ 9.11 10 31

1.1 Khng c du phy trn nhng s c


nhiu ch s
Chng ta s s dng cch vit chun khoa
hc cho cc s c nhiu ch s, trong
cc nhm c ba ch s s ngn cch nhau
bng mt khong trng, thay v dng dy
phy ngn cch. Chng hn 10 000
thay v dng dy phy nh cch vit ca
ngi M 10,000. Tng t nh th, s
= 3,14159265 c vit l 3.141592 65 .
1.2 Cc gi tr hp l
To ra trc gic v gi tr v gi tr tiu
biu ca cc i lng l rt quan trng.
Bi v, khi gii cc bi ton, bn phi bin
lun kt qu cui cng xem c hp l hay
khng. Nu nh bn tnh khi lng ca
mt con rui m li thu c kt qu l
100 kg th kt qu l phi l b nhm
ln u .

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Thi gian
Trc nm 1960, chun thi gian c nh ngha l ngy mt tri trung bnh ca nm 1900. (Mt
ngy mt tri l thi gian gia hai ln lin tip Mt Tri xut hin ti im cao nht trn bu tri). Giy
1 1 1
c nh ngha l ca ngy mt tri. Tuy nhin, ngy nay chng ta bit rng s quay
60 60 24
ca Tri t thay i theo thi gian, do , s dng chuyn ng ny nh ngha chun thi gian l
khng tt.
Vo nm 1967, li dng chnh xc cao ca mt thit b gi l ng h nguyn t (hnh 1.1b), ng
h dng tn s c trng ca nguyn t cesium 133 nh l mt ng h tham chiu, giy c
nh ngha li. Giy (s) l thi gian bng 9192631770 chu k dao ng ca bc x pht ra t
nguyn t cesium.
Ly ng h nguyn t ny lm chun th tt c cc ng h treo tng v ng h eo tay phi c
thit lp theo n gi l s ng b ha. V th, lu lu khi chng ta phi chnh vo ng h ca mnh
vi giy.
V s pht hin ra mi lin h gia khng gian v thi gian ca Einstein, nn i khi o chnh xc
thi gian, ta phi bit chnh xc c trng thi chuyn ng ln v tr ca ng h. Nu khng nh vy,
gi s nh bn ang cn c gii cu, th h thng v tinh nh v ton cu c th xc nh sai v tr
ca bn.
Cc gi tr gn ng ca thi gian c trnh by trong bng 1.3.
Bng 1.3: Vi gi tr gn ng ca cc khong thi gian
Khong thi gian (s)
Tui ca V Tr

5 1017

Tui ca Tri t

1.3 1017

Tui trung bnh ca sinh vin i hc

6.3 108

Mt nm

3.2 107

Mt ngy (thi gian T quay mt vng quanh trc ca n)

8.6 104

Mt tit hc

3 103

Thi gian gia cc nhp tim bnh thng

8 10 1

Chu k ca sng m thanh

~ 10 3

Chu k ca sng v tuyn tiu biu

~ 10 6

Chu k dao ng ca nguyn t trong cht rn

~ 10 13
8

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Chu k ca sng nh sng nhn thy

~ 10 15

Thi gian xy ra mt va chm ht nhn

~ 10 22

Thi gian nh sng i ngang qua mt proton

~ 10 24

Ngoi h SI, mt h n v khc, h truyn thng ca M, vn c dng M, mc d th gii


chp nhn h SI. Trong h ny, n v o chiu di, khi lng v thi gian ln lt l foot (ft), slug v
giy. Trong cun sch ny, chng ta s dng h SI v n c chp nhn hu ht trong khoa hc v
trong cng nghip. Chng ta hn ch s dng h truyn thng ca M trong vic nghin cu c hc c
in.
Ngoi cc n v c bn l mt, kilgram v giy, trong h SI, chng ta c th s dng cc n v khc
l milimet, nano giy, cc tip u ng milli- v nano- ch h s nhn ca n v c bn vi ly
tha mi. Bng 1.4 lit k cc tip u ng biu th cc ly tha 10 v ch vit tt ca n. V d 10 3
m th bng vi 1 milli met (mm) v 103 m th tng ng vi 1 kilmt (km). Tng t nh vy, 1
kilgram (kg) l 103 gram (g) v 1 mgavn (MV) l 106 vn (V).
Bng 1.4 Tip u ng cho ly tha mi
Ly tha

Tip u ng

Vit tt

Ly tha

Tip u ng

Vit tt

10 12

Pico

103

kilo

10 9

Nano

106

mega

10 6

Micro

109

giga

10 3

Milli

1012

tera

10 2

Centi

1015

peta

10 1

Deci

1018

exa

1.2 Vt cht v vic xy dng cc m hnh


Nu cc nh vt l hc khng th tng tc trc tip vi mt vi hin tng th h thng tng tng
ra mt m hnh lin quan n cc hin tng ny. Trong bi cnh , m hnh l mt h thng cc
thnh phn vt l, chng hn nh cc electron, proton trong mt nguyn t. Mt khi chng ta xc
nh c cc thnh phn vt l, chng ta a ra nhng tin on v hnh vi ca h thng da trn s
tng tc gia cc thnh phn , hoc s tng tc gia h thng vi mi trng bn ngoi.
Xt mt v d v biu hin ca vt cht. Mt khi vng c hnh lp phng c cnh 3.73 cm nh
bn tri hnh 1.2. Khong gia hai mt i din c phi l khng gian trng rng hay khng? Nu ct
i khi lp phng th hai na vn c nhng tnh cht ha hc nh khi vng ban u. Nhng nu cc
mnh li c ct nh na, nh na, v s ln nh th th s nh th no? Cc mnh nh hn, nh
9

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

hn na c phi lun l vng? Cu hi ny c cc trit gia Hylp c a ra. Hai trong s h l


Leucippus v Democritus khng chp nhn kin cho rng c th chia nh mi mi nh vy. Cc
ng suy lun rng, qu trnh cui cng s phi kt thc khi n to ra mt ht m khng th phn chia
c na. Trong ting Hylp, t atomos ngha l khng chia ct. T ny chuyn qua ting Anh l t
nguyn t - atom.
Chng ta xem li cc m hnh v cu trc vt cht. M hnh ca ngi Hylp cho rng vt cht c
cu to t cc nguyn t, nh hnh pha di bn phi khi lp phng trong hnh 1.2. Ngoi ra khng
c cu trc no c ni thm trong m hnh nguyn t ng vai tr nh cc ht nh b, tng tc
vi nhau, cn cu trc ni ti ca nguyn t th khng c ni n trong m hnh ny.
Vo nm 1897, J.J. Thomson xc nh c electron l ht mang in v l mt thnh phn ca nguyn
t. iu ny dn n m hnh nguyn t u tin c cu trc ni ti. Chng ta s tho lun m hnh ny
chng 42.
Trn c s khm ph ra ht nhn vo nm 1911, mt m hnh mi c pht trin. Theo m hnh
ny, mi nguyn t gm cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh mt tm l ht nhn. Mt ht nhn c
minh ha trong hnh 1.2. Tuy nhin, m hnh ny li dn n mt cu hi mi liu c cu trc ht
nhn hay khng? Ht nhn l mt ht n l hay l mt b gm nhiu ht? Thnh phn cu to chnh
xc ca ht nhn, thm ch n ngy nay, vn cha c bit tng tn. Nhng u nhng nm 1930,
mt m hnh pht trin gip chng ta hiu ht nhn c cu to nh th no. C th, cc nh khoa hc
xc nh rng, trong ht nhn c hai loi ht c bn l proton v neutron. Proton mang in
dng, v mt nguyn t ha hc c th c xc nh bi s proton trong ht nhn ca n. Con s ny
c gi l s hiu nguyn t (hay nguyn t s) ca nguyn t ha hc. V d, ht nhn ca nguyn
t hydr cha mt prton (v do , nguyn t s ca hydr l 1), ht nhn ca nguyn t heli c hai
proton (nguyn t s l 2), v ht nhn ca nguyn t uran c 92 proton (nguyn t s l 92). Ngoi
nguyn t s, cn mt s c trng th hai l s khi l tng s proton v neutron trong mt ht
nhn. Nguyn t s ca mt nguyn t th khng thay i (v s proton khng i), nhng s khi c
th thay i (v s neutron thay i).
S tn ti ca neutron c xc nhn mt cch chc chn vo nm 1932. Neutron khng mang in
v c khi lng gn bng khi lng proton. Vai tr chnh ca neutron nh l mt cht keo gi
cho ht nhn bn vng. Nu khng c mt ca cc neutron trong ht nhn th lc y gia cc ht
mang in tch dng s lm ht nhn v ra thnh tng mnh.
Vy qu trnh ny khi no s kt thc? Ngy nay chng ta bit rng, proton, neutron v hng lot cc
ht k l khc l t hp ca su dng khc nhau ca cc ht quark, c tn l ln (up), xung (down), k
l (strange), may mn (charmed), di (bottom) v trn (top). Cc ht quark ln, quark may mn v
2
quark trn c in tch l in tch ca proton, trong khi , cc ht quark xung, quark k l v
3
1
quark di c in tch l in tch ca proton. Proton bao gm hai quark ln v mt quark xung,
3
nh trnh by trong hnh 1.2. Bn c th d dng thy rng, cu trc ny tin on chnh xc in tch
ca proton. Tng t nh vy, neutron gm c hai quark xung v mt quark ln, v do n khng
mang in.
10

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Vic xy dng cc m hnh l mt cng vic bn nn pht trin khi bn nghin cu v vt l hc. Bn
cng s phi ng u vi nhng thch thc v nhiu vn ton hc gii quyt cng vic nghin
cu ny. Mt trong nhng k thut quan trng nht xy dng m hnh cho mt bi ton l xc
nh mt h cc thnh phn vt l cho bi ton v a ra nhng tin on v nhng biu hin ca h
thng da trn tng tc gia cc thnh phn trong h thng hoc tng tc gia h thng vi mi
trng xung quanh n.

1.3 Khi lng ring v khi lng nguyn t


Trong mc 1.1, chng ta tm hiu ba i lng c bn ca c hc. By gi, chng ta s tm hiu mt
v d v i lng dn xut l khi lng ring (mt khi lng). Khi lng ring (k t
Hylp, c l rho) ca mt cht bt k l khi lng trn mt n v th tch ca cht :

m
V

(1.1)

V d, nhm c khi lng ring l 2.70 g/cm3 v ch c khi lng ring l 11.3 g/cm3. Do , mt
ming nhm c th tch 10.0 cm3 s c khi lng 27.0 g, trong khi , ming ch c cng th tch s
c khi lng l 113 g. Bng 1.5 lit k cc khi lng ring ca mt s cht khc nhau.
Tng s proton v neutron trong ht nhn nguyn t ca mt nguyn t c quan h vi khi lng
nguyn t ca nguyn t . Khi lng nguyn t c nh ngha l khi lng ca mt nguyn t
n l, o bng n v khi lng nguyn t (u), trong 1 u 1.660 538 7 1027 kg. Khi lng
nguyn t ch l 207 u v khi lng nguyn t nhm l 27.0 u. Tuy nhin, t s gia cc khi lng
nguyn t 207 u / 27.0 u = 7.67 khng bng vi t s gia cc khi lng ring (11.3 g/cm3) / (2.70
g/cm3) = 4.19. S khc bit ny l do khc nhau v khong cch gia cc nguyn t v s sp xp cc
nguyn t trong cu trc tinh th ca hai nguyn t.
Bng 1.5: Khi lng ring ca mt s cht khc nhau
Cht

Khi lng ring

Cht

Khi lng ring

(103 kg/m3)

(103 kg/m3)

Platinum

21.45

St

7.86

Vng

19.3

Nhm

2.70

Uranium

18.7

Mangan

1.75

Ch

11.3

Nc

1.00

ng

8.92

Khng kh

0.0012

11

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Vn p nhanh 1.1 Mt ca hng ng c c hai cam, mt bng nhm v mt bng st. C hai
cam c cng khi lng. Cam no ln hn?
A. Cam nhm.

B. Cam st.

C. Hai cam c cng kch thc.

V d 1.1 C bao nhiu nguyn t trong khi lp phng?


Mt khi lp phng c, bng nhm (khi lng ring 2.70 g/cm3), c th tch 0,200 cm3. Bit rng
27.0 g nhm cha 6.021023 nguyn t. C bao nhiu nguyn t nhm cha trong khi lp phng ?
Gii V khi lng ring bng khi lng trn mt n v th tch nn khi lng ca khi lp phng
l m V 2.70g / cm3 0.200cm3 0.540 g
gii bi ny, chng ta da trn thc t l khi lng
ca mu vt liu t l thun vi s nguyn t c trong mu
. K thut gii bng cch lp t s th rt hu hiu,
chng ta nn nghin cu v hiu bit v n c th gii
quyt cc bi ton trong tng lai. Chng ta biu din s
t l l m = kN, trong m l khi lng ca mu vt
liu, N l s nguyn t c trong mu v k l hng s t
l cha bit. Chng ta vit mi quan h ny hai ln, mt
ln cho mu nhm hin ti ca bi ton v mt ln cho
mu 27.0 g nhm, ri sau chia phng trnh th nht
cho phng trnh th hai:
msample = kNsample ;

msample
m 27.0g

m27.0g = kN27.0g

Nsample

PHNG NGA CM BY
1.3 Lp t s
Khi chng ta s dng t s gii bi ton,
hy nh rng t s rt ra t cc phng
trnh. Nu bn xut pht t nhng phng
trnh bit th c th chia mt trong
nhng phng trnh cho mt phng
trnh khc nh trong v d 1.1 nhn
c t s mong mun, nh vy s trnh
c sai st. V th hy vit cc phng
trnh trc khi lp t s.
1.4 Cc k t cho cc i lng

N 27.0g

Ch rng, hng s t l k s c n gin mt, do


chng ta khng cn bit gi tr ca n. By gi chng ta
thay cc gi tr v suy ra kt qu:
N sample
0.540

N sample 1.22 1022 nguyn t.


27.0 6.02 1023

1.4 Phn tch th nguyn

Mt vi i lng c th c biu din


bng mt s cc k t. V d, k t biu
din thi gian lun lun l t. Cc i lng
khc c th c nhiu k t khc nhau, ty
theo ngi s dng. Chiu di c th c
biu din bng cc k t nh x, y, z (i
vi v tr) hoc r (i vi bn knh) hoc a,
b, c (i vi cc cnh ca tam gic vung),
hoc (i vi chiu di), hoc d (i vi
khong cch, hoc h (i vi chiu cao),
v.v

T th nguyn c ngha c bit trong vt l. N ch r


bn cht vt l ca mt i lng. Chng hn, khong cch c o bng n v feets, meters hay
fathoms (si) th n vn l khong cch. Ta ni th nguyn ca n l chiu di.
Cc k t dng trong sch ny ch ra th nguyn ca chiu di, khi lng v thi gian ln lt l L,
M v T. Chng ta s s dng ngoc [ ] din t th nguyn ca mt i lng vt l. V d, k hiu
vn tc l k t v, v ni v th nguyn ca vn tc, ta vit [v] = L/T. Mt th d khc, th ngyn
12

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

ca din tch [A] = L2. Th nguyn v n v ca din tch, th tch, vn tc, gia tc c lit k trong
bng 1.6. Th nguyn ca cc i lng khc nh lc, nng lng cng s c m t khi cp n
cc i lng .
Trong nhiu tnh hung, bn phi tm ra ngun gc hoc kim tra mt phng trnh c th no . Mt
th tc (cch lm) hu ch v mnh m l phn tch th nguyn c th tm ra ngun gc hoc kim
tra biu thc cui cng ca bn. Vic phn tch th nguyn c tin hnh trn c s thc tin l cc
th nguyn c th xem nh cc i lng i s. Chng hn, cc i lng c th cng hoc tr
c vi nhau ch khi chng c cng th nguyn. Ngoi ra, cc s hng trong hai v ca mt phng
trnh phi c cng th nguyn. Theo quy tc n gin ny, chng ta c th s dng vic phn tch th
nguyn xc nh xem mt biu thc c dng thc ng hay khng. Mt biu thc din t quan h
ph thuc ch ng khi hai v ca phng trnh l cng th nguyn.

Bng 1.6: n v ca din tch, th tch, vn tc, tc v gia tc


Din tch

Th tch

Tc

Gia tc

(L2)

(L3)

(L/T)

(L/T2)

SI

m2

m3

m/s

m/s2

U.S. customary

ft2

ft3

ft/s

ft/s2

H thng

minh ha cho th tc ny, gi s rng bn thu c phng trnh chuyn ng ca mt chic xe bt


1
u chuyn ng vi gia tc khng i. chng 2, chng ta s tm ra biu thc l x at 2 .
2
Chng ta s phn tch th nguyn kim tra tnh ng n ca ng thc ny. i lng x v bn
tri c th nguyn chiu di. phng trnh ng v mt th nguyn th i lng bn v phi cng
phi c th nguyn chiu di. Chng ta c th tin hnh kim tra th nguyn bng cch thay cc th
nguyn ca gia tc, thi gian (xem bng 1.6) vo phng trnh . Ta c dng th nguyn ca phng
1
trnh x at 2 l:
2
L

L 2
.T L
T2

n gin th nguyn ca thi gian, thu c th nguyn ca chiu di bn v phi.


Trng hp tng qut, dng th tc phn tch th nguyn thit lp biu thc dng dng
x antm
13

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

trong , n v m l s m cn phi xc nh v k hiu l cho bit s t l. Mi qua h ny ch ng


nu nh th nguyn ca c hai v l ging nhau. V th nguyn ca v bn tri l chiu di nn th
nguyn ca v bn phi cng phi l chiu di. Do
[antm] = L = L1T0
V th nguyn ca gia tc l L/T2 v th nguyn ca thi gian l T, nn ta c
(L/T2)n Tm = L1T0
Ln Tm 2n = L1T0
Cc s m ca L v T hai v ca phng trnh phi bng nhau. T s m ca L, ta thy ngay rng n =
1. T s m ca T, ta thy m 2n = 0, thay gi tr ca n ta tm c m = 2. Tr li biu thc ban u
ca chng ta x antm, chng ta kt lun rng x at2. Kt qu ny sai khc h s khai trin so vi
1
biu thc ng x at 2 .
2

Vn p nhanh 1.2 ng hay sai? Phn tch th nguyn c th tm c gi tr s ca hng s t l


xut hin trong biu thc i s.

V d 1.2 Phn tch mt phng trnh


Hy ch ra rng, biu thc v = at l ng v mt th nguyn, trong v l tc , a l gia tc v t l gi
tr tc thi ca thi gian (thi im).
Gii
Vi s hng vn tc, ta c th nguyn trong bng 1.6
[v] = L/T
Tng t, bng 1.6 cng cho ta th nguyn ca gia tc l L/T2. V th th nguyn ca at l
[at] =

L
L
T
2
T
T

Do biu thc cho ng v th nguyn. (Gi s biu thc cho l v = at2 th s khng ng v th
nguyn, bn th kim tra xem!)

V d 1.3 Phn tch mt php tnh ly tha


Gi s chng ta c ni cho bit rng, gia tc a ca mt cht im chuyn ng u vi tc v trn
ng trn bn knh r th t l vi ly tha ca r, ta vit rn, v ly tha ca v, ta vit vm. Xc nh gi tr
ca n v m v vit dng phng trnh n gin nht ca gia tc.
Gii
Chng ta hy vit a di dng
a = krnvm
14

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

trong , k l hng s t l khng th nguyn. Bit cc th nguyn ca a, r, v ta tm c phng trnh


th nguyn l

L
Ln m
nL
L m
T2
T
T
m

Phng trnh th nguyn ny c cn bng vi iu kin


n + m = 1 v m = 2
Do n = - 1 v chng ta c th vit biu thc gia tc di dng
v2
a kr v k
r
1 2

Khi bn v chuyn ng trn u chng sau, chng ta s thy gi tr ca hng s k = 1 nu cc n


v o trong ht SI. Nu cc n v o khng ng vi ht SI, chng hn vn tc l km/h v gia tc l
m/s2, th hng s k c th khng bng 1.

1.5 Chuyn i n v
i khi, vic chuyn i cc n v t h thng o lng
ny sang h thng khc hoc chuyn i cc n v trong
cng mt h thng, chng hn nh t kilmt sang mt, l
rt cn thit. S tng ng ca n v chiu di trong h
n v SI v h n v c truyn M l:
1 mile = 1609 m = 1.609 km
1 ft = 0.3048 m = 30.48 cm
1 m = 39.37 in. = 3.281 ft
1 in. = 0.0254 m = 2.54 cm

PHNG NGA CM BY
1.5 Lun lun km theo n v
Khi thc hin cc tnh ton, mi i lng
phi km theo n v ca n v phi vit
n v trong sut qu trnh tnh ton.
Trnh loi b cc n v sm v sau
vit n v mong mun vo p s. Bng
cch km theo n v trong mi bc, bn
c th loi b c nhng sai st v n
v ca p s.

Danh sch y cc h s chuyn i c trnh by


trong ph lc A.
Cc n v c th xem nh cc i lng i s c th gin c chng. V d, gi s chng ta cn
chuyn i 15.0 in. sang centimt. V 1 in. c nh ngha chnh xc l 2.54 cm nn chng ta tm c
rng:
2.54 cm
15.0 in. = (15.0 in.)
38.1 cm
1 in.

trong , t s trong du ngoc l bng 1. Ch rng, chng ta la chn t n v in. di mu thc


v n s gin c n v ca i lng ban u. iu c ngha l n v centimt s xut hin trong
kt qu ca chng ta.
15

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Vn p nhanh 1.3
Khong cch gia hai thnh ph l 100 dm. S kilmt gia hai thnh ph th:
A. nh hn 100;

B. ln hn 100.

C. bng 100.

V d 1.4 C phi anh y l tc ?


Trn mt ng xa l vng nng thn Wyoming, mt xe con ang i vi tc 38.0 m/s. Chic xe
ny c vt qu tc cho php 75 dm/gi hay khng?
Gii
Trc tin, chng ta i n v t mt sang dm
1 mi
2
(38.0 m / s)
2.36 10 mi / s
1609 m

Sau chng ta i n v t giy sang gi


60 s 60 min
(2.36 102 mi / s)

85.0 mi / h
1 min 1 h

Vy, chic xe ny vt qu tc cho php, nn gim tc li.


Nu ngi li xe n t mt nc khc khng phi M v ch quen vi tc o bng km/h th tc
ca xe tnh ra km/h l bao nhiu?
Tr li Chng ta c th i kt qu cui cng sang n v ph hp:
1.609 km
(85.0 mi / h)
137 km / h
1 mi

1.6 S c lng v tnh bc ca ln


Vic c lng v tnh bc ca ln thng l hu ch tnh kt qu gn ng cho mt bi ton vt
l, nht l khi c t thng tin cho trc. Kt qu c lng c th sau c dng xc nh xem
vic tnh ton chnh xc hn na l cn thit hay khng. Mt xp x thng da trn nhng gi nh m
nhng gi nh phi c b xung, nu cn thit mt s chnh xc hn. i khi chng ta quy bc
ln ca mt i lng bit thnh mt s ly tha mi. Thng thng, khi mt tnh ton bc ln
c thc hin th kt qu ng tin trong khong tha s 10. Nu mt i lng tng gi tr ln ba bc
ln th iu ny c ngha l gi tr ca n tng ln khong 103 = 1000 ln. Chng ta dng k hiu ~
ch vo khong. Vy
0.0086 ~ 10 2 ; 0.0021 ~ 10 3 ; 720 ~ 103
Tinh thn ca vic tnh bc ca ln i khi c gi l c on hay lm trn c cho bi
on trch sau y: Hy c tnh trc mi tnh, hy th mt lun c vt l n gin trc mi ngun
gc, hy on cu tr li cho mi cu . Nhng tnh sai c nguyn nhn l do c on qu thp mt
16

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

s no v n b b i bi nhng c on qu cao khc. Vi s rn luyn, bn s thy rng, s c


on ca bn ngy cng chnh xc hn. Nhng bi ton c lng c th rt th v vi cng vic nh
th t do nhng ch s, xp x hp l cho nhng s ngu nhin, lm n gin ha nhng gi nh v
chuyn i cu hi xung quanh thnh ci m bn c th tr li trong u hoc vi thao tc ton hc ti
thiu trn giy. V s n gin ca cc loi tnh ton ny m ngi ta c th thc hin n trn mt
mnh giy nh, do , nhng c lng ny thng c gi l s tnh ton trn mt sau phong b.

V d 1.5 S hi th trong mt i ngi


Hy c tnh s hi th trong sut thi gian sng trung bnh ca con ngi.
Gii
Chng ta bt u bng vic on rng thi gian sng ca con ngi khong 70 nm. Ch mt c lng
khc na chng ta phi thc hin trong v d ny l s hi th trung bnh ca mt ngi trong mt
pht. Con s ny thay i ty theo ngi c ang tp th dc, ang ng, ang gin d, ang thanh
thn, vv hay khng. gn vi bc ca ln nht, chng ta s chn 10 hi th trn mt pht l c
lng trung bnh ca chng ta. (D nhin, con s ny gn vi gi tr thc hn l 1 hi th trn mt pht
hoc 100 hi th trn mt pht) S pht trong mt nm xp x bng
400 ngay 25 gio 60 phut
5
1 nam

6 10 phut
1 nam 1 ngay 1 g

Ch rng, trong biu thc trn, ta ly 400 25 th s n gin hn nhiu so vi vic ly 365 24.
Gi tr xp x v s ngy trong mt nm v s gi trong mt ngy l tha mc ch ca chng ta. Vy
70 nm s c (70 nm)(6 105 pht/nm) = 4 107 pht. Vi tc 10 hi th/pht, trong sut cuc
i s thc hin 4 108 hi th hay vo bc 109 hi th.
Nu nh i sng trung bnh ca con ngi c c lng l 80 nm thay v 70 nm th kt qu
cui cng ca chn ta s thay i nh th no?
Tr li Chng ta ch rng (80 nm)(6 105 pht/nm) = 5 107 pht, do , kt qu cui cng ca
chng ta s l 5 108 hi th. Kt qu ny vn trong bc 109 hi th. Vy, c lng bc ca ln
vn khng i. Ngoi ra, 80 nm ln hn 70 nm 14%, nhng chng ta nh gi tng thi gian bng
cchs dng 400 ngy mt nm thay v 365 ngy v 25 gi mt ngy thay v 24 gi. Hai s ny cho kt
qu cao hn 14% cho nn d tui th tng ln cng khng nh hng ti kt qu c lng ca ta.

V d 1.6 Hnh trnh di ti San Jose


Hy c lng s bc chn ca ngi i b t New York ti Los Angeles.
Gii
Bn c th nh t mt lp hc a l rng khong cch gia hai thnh ph ny vo khong 3000 dm.
Xp x tip theo chng ta phi c lng l chiu di ca mi bc chn. D nhin, chiu di ny
ty theo ngi i b, nhng chng ta c th c lng rng mi bc chn khong hn 2 ft. Vi kch
thc bc chn c lng, chng ta s xc nh c s bc chn trong mt dm. V y l s
17

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

tnh gn ng nn ta lm trn 5280 ft/mi thnh 5000 ft/mi (Sai s phm phi l bao nhiu phn trm?).
T ta c:
5000 ft / mi
2500 steps / mi
2 ft / step

By gi chng ta chuyn sang cc k hiu khoa hc c th tnh nhm


(3 103 mi)(2.5 103 steps/mi) = 7.5 106 steps ~ 107 steps
Nh vy, nu chng ta c nh i b ngang qua M, chng ta phi thc hin khong 107 bc chn.
D nhin, c lng ny l qu nh bi v chng ta khng tnh n ng cong, ng ln dc,
xung dc ca ni i. Tuy nhin, bc ln ca cu tr li gn nh l chnh xc.

V d 1.7 Chng ta s dng ht bao nhiu xng?


Hy c lng s gallons xng m tt c cc xe hi ca M dng trong mi nm.
Gii
C khong 280 triu ngi M v c khong 100 triu xe hi trn t nc ny (c khong hai n ba
ngi mt xe). Chng ta cng c lng khong cch trung bnh mi xe i qua trong mt nm l
10000 dm. Nu chng ta gi thit rng c tiu th mt galon xng th i c 20 dm hay mi dm th
tiu th 0,05 galon (0.05 gal/mi), th mi xe s dng khong 500 galon/nm. Nhn gi tr ny vi tng
s xe hi trn ton nc M, chng ta c lng xng tiu th trong mt nm vo khong
5 1010 gal ~ 1011 gal.

1.7 Cc ch s c ngha
Khi o cc i lng xc nh, cc gi tr o c nm trong cc gii hn ca sai s thc nghim. Gi
tr sai s ny ph thuc vo nhiu yu t, nh cht lng ca dng c o, k nng ca ngi o, v s
lng cc php o c thc hin. S ch s c ngha trong mt php o c th c dng din t
i iu v sai s.
Xt mt v d v cc ch s c ngha. Gi s rng, chng ta c yu cu vo mt phng th nghim
o din tch ca mt nhn a my tnh, s dng thc mt lm dng c o. Chng ta gi nh rng
chnh xc ca php o chiu di l 0.1 cm. Nu chiu di ca nhn a o c l 5.5 cm th ta c
th khng nh chiu di ca n ch c th nm gia 5.4 cm v 5.6 cm. Trong trng hp ny chng ta
ni rng, gi tr o c c hai ch s c ngha. Lu rng, cc ch s c ngha bao gm c ch s
gn ng u tin. Tng t nh vy, nu chiu rng ca nhn a o c l 6.4 cm th gi tr thc t
nm gia 6.3 cm v 6.5 cm. Vy chng ta c th vit cc gi tr o c l (5.5 0.1) cm v (6.4 0.1)
cm.
By gi mun tm din tch ca nhn a th chng ta ch vic nhn hai gi tr o c vi nhau. Nu
chng ta khng nh din tch ny l (5.5 cm)(6.4 cm) = 35.2 cm2 th cu tr li ca chng ta s l v l
18

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

v n cha ti ba ch s c ngha, ln hn s ch s c ngha trong php o hai i lng trc. Mt


quy tc dng xc nh s ch s c ngha trong php nhn hoc php chia nh sau:
Khi nhn nhiu tha s vi nhau th s ch s c ngha trong kt qu cui cng l bng vi s ch
s c ngha ca tha s c t ch s c ngha nht. Tng t i vi php chia.
p dng quy tc ny cho php nhn v d trc, chng ta thy rng, cu tr li cho din tch ch c
th c hai ch s c ngha, v cc i lng o c ch c hai ch s c ngha. Do chng ta c th
khng nh rng, din tch ca nhn a l 35 cm2 v dao ng trong khong gia (5.4 cm)(6.3 cm) =
34 cm2 v (5.6 cm)(6.5 cm) = 36 cm2.
S khng c th l ch s c ngha, cng c th khng c ngha. Nhng ch s khng dng xc nh
v tr ca du chm thp phn nh trong cc s 0.03 v 0.0075 l khng c ngha. V ch c mt v hai
ch s c ngha tng ng trong hai s trn. Tuy nhin, khi nhng ch s khng ng sau nhng ch
s khc c kh nng b hiu sai. V d, gi s khi lng ca mt vt c cho l 1500g. Gi tr ny l
m h bi v, chng ta khng bit hai ch s khng cui c dng xc nh v tr ca du chm
thp phn hay l din t ch s c ngha ca php o. xa b iu m h ny, chng ta s dng k
hiu khoa hc ch ra s ch s c ngha. Khi , chng ta biu din khi lng l 1.5 103 g nu c
hai ch s c ngha trong gi tr o c, hoc 1.50 103 g nu c ba ch s c ngha, hoc 1.500
103 g nu c bn ch s c ngha. Mt quy tc tng t i vi cc s nh hn 1, l 2.3 10 4 c
hai ch s c ngha (v c th vit l 0.00023) v 2.30 10 4 c ba ch s c ngha (v c th vit l
0.000230). Ni chung, ch s c ngha trong mt php o l ch s ng tin (tr s khng c
dng xc nh v tr du chm thp phn) hoc ch s gn ng u tin.
i vi php cng hoc php tr, bn phi cn nhc n s ch s thp phn khi xc nh c bao nhiu
ch s c ngha bo co:
Khi cc s c cng hoc tr vi nhau th s ch s thp phn trong kt qu phi bng s ch
s thp phn nh nht trong cc s hng ca tng.
V d, nu chng ta tnh 123 + 5.35 th kt qu l 138, khng phi 138.35. Nu chng ta tnh tng
1.0001 + 0.0003 = 1.0004, kt qu c nm ch s c ngha mc d mt s hng ca tng l 0.0003 ch
c mt ch s c ngha. Tng t nh vy, nu chng ta thc hin php tr 1.002 0.998 = 0.004, kt
qu ch c mt ch s c ngha mc d mt s hng c bn ch s c ngha v s hng kia c ba ch s
c ngha. Trong cun sch ny, hu ht cc v d bng s, cc bi tp cui chng v p s ca chng
s c ba ch s c ngha. Khi thc hin cc c lng, chng ta s thng lm vic vi mt ch s c
ngha.
Nu s ch s c ngha trong kt qu ca php cng hoc php tr phi gim xung th c mt quy tc
chung lm trn s, l, ch s gi li cui cng s tng ln 1 n v nu ch s b i sau cng ln
hn 5. Nu ch s b i sau cng c gi tr nh hn 5 th ch s gi li cui cng l chnh n. Nu ch
s sau cng b i bng 5 th ch s cn li nn lm trn n s chn gn n nht. (Lm nh vy s
trnh c s chng cht sai s trong cc qu trnh x l ton hc).
Mt k thut trnh s chng cht sai s l lm trn ly nhiu ch s c ngha trong cc php tnh
trung gian cho n khi c kt qu cui cng. Khi bn s lm trn n s ch s c ngha cn thit.
19

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Vn p nhanh 1.4
Gi s bn o v tr ca mt ci gh bng thc mt v thu c kt qu rng tm ca gh cch bc
tng l 1.0438605642 m. Ngi c s kt lun g v kt qu ca php o ny?

V d 1.8 Tri thm


Mt tm thm c tri trong mt cn phng c chiu di 12.71 m v chiu rng 3.46 m. tm din tch
ca cn phng.
Gii
Nu bn nhn 12.71 m vi 3.64 m trn my tnh ca bn th s thy cu tr li l 43.9766 m2. Bn
mun ly bao nhiu s? Lut chi phi i vi php nhn ch cho php ta gia li s ch s c ngha
trong kt qu bng vi s ch s c ngha ca tha s c t ch s c ngha nht. Trong v d ny, tha
s c t ch s nht l 3.46 m, c ba ch s c ngha, v th chng ta nn vit kt qu cui cng ca
chng ta l 44.0 m2.

TM LI
Ba i lng vt l c bn ca c hc l chiu di, khi lng v thi gian m trong h SI chng c
n v ln lt l mt (m), kilgram (kg) v giy (s). Cc tip u ng ch h s nhn vi cc ly tha
mi uc dng km vi ba n v c bn ny.
Khi lng ring ca mt cht c nh ngha l khi lng trn mt n v th tch ca cht . Cc
cht khc nhau th khi lng ring cng khc nhau v chng khc nhau v khi lng nguyn t v s
sp xp cc nguyn t.
Phng php phn tch th nguyn l mt phng php hu hiu gii quyt cc bi ton vt l. Cc
th nguyn c coi nh nhng i lng i s. bng vic thc hin c lng v tnh bc ln,
bn c th tnh gn ng kt qu khi khng thng tin gii chnh xc.
Khi tnh kt qu t vi s liu o c, mi s liu c mt chnh xc nht nh, bn nn biu din
kt qu vi s ch s c ngha ph hp. Khi nhn cc i lng, s ch s c ngha trong kt qu cui
cng phi bng s ch s c ngha ca tha s c t ch s c ngha nht. i vi php chia, cng p
dng quy tc tng t nh vy. Khi cng hoc tr cc s vi nhau, s ch s thp phn trong kt qu
phi bng s ch s thp phn t nht trong cc s hng ca tng.

CC CU HI
1. Cc loi hin tng t nhin no c th dng lm chun thi gian?
2. Gi s rng ba chun c bn ca h mt l chiu di, khi lng ring v thi gian, thay v l chiu
di, khi lng v thi gian. Chun khi lng ring ca h thng ny uc nh ngha l khi lng
ring ca nc. iu kin g ca nc cn phi tha mn chun khi lng ring c chnh xc
hn?
20

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

3. Chiu cao ca mt con nga i khi c o bi gang tay. Ti sao chun ny l chun chiu di
khng tt?
4. S dng tip u ng trong bng 1.4 biu din cc i lng sau y:
a) 3 10 4 m

b) 5 10 5 s

c) 72 102 g.

5. Cho hai i lng A v B c th nguyn khc nhau. Xc nh xem php ton no sau y l c
ngha vt l?
a) A + B

b) A/B

c) A B

d) AB

6. Nu mt phng trnh ng v th nguyn th phng trnh c chc chn ng khng?


7. Hy thc hin cc tnh ton bc ln cho cc hot ng hng ngy ca bn. V d, bn i b hoc
li xe bao xa mi ngy?
8. Tm bc ln ca tui bn theo n v giy.
9. Mc chnh xc no th c p dng trong vic tnh ton bc ln?
10. Hy c tnh khi lng cun sch ny theo n v kilgram. Nu c mt ci cn th hy kim tra
kt qu c lng ca bn.
11. Tr li cu hi ca mt sinh vin, ngi bo v bo tng lch s t nhin ni v nhng vt ha
thch gn ch ng ta rng khi ti bt u lm vic y, 24 nm v trc, th chng n c tm
triu nm tui, nn anh c th cng thm vo. Chng sinh vin nn kt lun th no v tui ca cc
ha thch ?

CC BI TP
Mc 1.2 Vt cht v vic xy dng m hnh
Lu : Tra cu cc trang cui cc ph lc, bng biu khi cn thit. Trong chng ny, thng s
dng ph lc B.3. Cui sch c p s ca nhng bi tp nh s l.
1. Cht rn kt tinh gm nhiu nguyn t xp chng to thnh mng tinh th tun hon. Xt mt tinh
th nh trong hnh P1.1a. Cc nguyn t nm trong gc khi dc theo cnh cch nhau mt khong L =
0.200 nm. Ch v tch tinh th ra bng mt mt phng s thy c s sp xp u n ca cc nguyn
t. Gi s tinh th c ch dc theo mt phng cho nh trong hnh P1.1b. Hy tnh khong cch d
gia hai mt phng nguyn t (hai mt mng) k nhau.
Mc 1.3 Mt khi lng (khi lng ring) v khi lng nguyn t
2. S dng nhng thng tin nhng trang cui ca cun sch ny tnh mt khi lng trung bnh
ca Tri t. Gi tr c ph hp vi cc gi tr c lit k trong bng 1.5 hay khng? Hy tm kim
mt khi lng ca mt loi in hnh nh granite trong mt ti liu khc v so snh mt
khi lng ca Tri t vi n.
21

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

3. Chun kilgram l khi lng ca khi hp kim platinum irdium hnh tr, c chiu cao 39.0 mm
v ng knh 39.0 mm. Khi lng ring ca vt liu ny l bao nhiu?
4. Mt cng ty ng c ln trng by mt m hnh c t u tin ca mnh, c lm t 93.5 kg
st. cho mng k nim 100 nm kinh doanh ca cng ty, cc cng nhn s c li m hnh bng
vng ging nh m hnh ban u. Cn bao nhiu khi lng vng c m hnh mi?
5. Tnh khi lng cn thit ca vt liu c khi lng ring ch to mt v cu rng c bn knh
trong r1 v bn knh ngoi r2.
6. Hai qu cu c ct ra t mt khi ng nht. Mt qu c bn knh 4.50 cm. Qu kia c khi ln
hn qu th nht 5 ln. Tm bn knh ca n.
7. Hy tnh khi lng ca nguyn t a) heli, b) st, c) ch. Vit cu tr li trong n v gram. Cho bit
cc khi lng nguyn t ca ba nguyn t ny ln lt l 4.00 u, 55.9 u v 207 u.
8. on vn trc v d 1.1 trong cun sch cho bit rng khi lng nguyn t ca nhm l 27.0 u =
27.0 1.66 10 27 kg. V d 1.1 cng ni rng khi lng ca 27.0 g nhm cha 6.02 1023 nguyn
t. a) Hy chng t rng trong hai pht biu trn, mi pht biu hm khc nhau. b) S nh th no
nu khng phi l nhm? Gi M l gi tr khi lng nguyn t ca mt nguyn t ha hc bt k
tnh bng n v khi lng nguyn t. Hy chng minh rng M gram cht cha mt s nguyn t xc
nh, khng thay i i vi mi nguyn t. Hy tnh con s ny mt cch cn thn t nhng gi tr u
c trch dn trong sch. S nguyn t trong M gram ca mt nguyn t c gi l s Avogadro NA.
tng ny c th c m rng: S Avogadro phn t l s phn t ca mt cht ha hc c trong M
gram, vi M l gi tr khi lng phn t ca cht tnh bng n v khi lng phn t. S
Avogadro nguyn t hay phn t c gi l mt mol, k hiu l 1 mol. Bng h thng tun hon cc
nguyn t ha hc c cho trong ph lc C, v cng thc ha hc ca mt hp cht cha ng
thng tin tm ra khi lng phn t ca cht . c) Tnh khi lng ca mt mol nc H2O. d) Tm
khi lng ca phn t CO2.
9. Trong ngy ci ca bn, ngi yu bn trao cho bn mt ci nhn vng khi lng 3.80 g. Nm
mi nm sau, khi lng ca n cn 3.35 g. Trong sut thi gian kt hn ca bn, trung bnh mi giy
c bao nhiu nguyn t b mi mn? Cho bit khi lng nguyn t vng l 197 u.
10. Mt khi lp phng nh bng st c quan st bng knh hin vi. Cnh ca khi lp phng l
5.00 10 6 cm. Tm a) khi lng ca khi lp phng; b) s nguyn t st c trong khi lp phng.
Cho bit khi lng nguyn t st l 55.9 u v khi lng ring ca st l 7.86 g/cm3.
11. Mt ci x c cu trc hnh ch I, c lm bng thp. Mt ct ngang v kch c ca n c ghi
trong hnh P1.11. Khi lng ring ca thp l 7.56 103 kg/m3. a) Khi lng ca thanh x di 1.50
m l bao nhiu? b) Gi s rng phn ln cc nguyn t l st, vi khi lng nguyn t st l 55.9 u.
C bao nhiu nguyn t trong thanh x ny?
12. Mt a b bi bin o mt ci h trong ct v dng mt ci x 12 kg nc vo h. Khi
lng ca mt phn t nc l 18.0 u. a) Tm s phn t nc trong x nc ny. Gi s lng nc
trn Tri t l 1.32 1021 kg l khng i. C bao nhiu phn t nc trong c lng nc m xa

22

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

kia vo du chn tri ca con khng long li mt bi bin tng t? (Tnh s phn t nc
c trn Tri t)
Mc 1.4 Phn tch th nguyn
13. V tr ca mt cht im chuyn ng vi gia tc khng i l hm ca thi gian v gia tc. Gi s
chng ta vit quan h ny l s = kamtn, trong k l hng s khng th nguyn. Bng cch phn tch
th nguyn, hy ch ra rng, biu thc ch tha mn nu m = 1 v n = 2. Vic phn tch th ngyn ny
c th tm c gi tr ca k khng?
14. Hnh P1.14 cho thy mt hnh chp ct. Theo nhng biu thc o c (hnh hc) di y, biu
thc no m t a) tng chu vi ca cc mt y? b) th tch hnh nn? c) din tch xung quanh hnh nn?
i) (r1 r2 )[h 2 (r1 r2 )2 ]1/2

ii) 2(r1 r2 ) iii) h(r12 r1r2 r22 )

15. Phng trnh no di y l ng v th nguyn?


a) vf vi ax

b) y = (2 m)cos(kx), trong k = 2 m 1 .

16. a) Mt nh lut v trng thi chun ng ca vt l gia tc ca vt t l thun vi hp lc tc dng


vo vt v t l nghch vi khi lng ca vt. Nu hng s t l c xc nh l khng c th nguyn,
hy xc nh th nguyn ca lc. b) Newton l n v ca lc trong h SI. Theo kt qu cu a), n v
newton ca lc c biu din nh th no theo cc n v c bn?
m1m 2
. Trong F l ln
r2
ca lc hp dn ca mt vt nh ny ln mt vt nh khc, M v m l khi lng ca cc vt, r l
khong cch gia chng. Lc c n v trong h SI l kg.m/s2. n v ca hng s t l G trong h SI l
g?

17. nh lut hp dn ca Newton c din t bi phng trnh F G

1.5 S chuyn i n v.
18. Mt cng nhn phi sn cc bc tng cao 8.00 ft ca mt cn phng hnh vung mi cnh di
12.0 ft. Din tch b mt tnh ra n v mt vung m ngi y cn phi qut sn l bao nhiu?
19. Gi s tc bn di ra vi tc 1/32 in mi ngy. Tm tc theo n v nanomet trn giy. V
khong cch gia cc nguyn t trong mt phn t vo khong 0.1 nm, nn cu tr li ca bn s
nhanh chng cho bit s lp nguyn t ni tip nhau trong chui protein ny.
20. Th tch ca mt ci v da l 8.50 in3. i gi tr ny ra mt khi, s dng nh ngha 1 in = 2.54
cm.
21. Mt mnh t xy dng hnh ch nht kch thc 100 ft v 150 ft. Xc nh din tch ca mnh t
ny theo n v m2.
22. Mt phng nghe nhc c kch thc o c l 40.0 m 20.0 m 12.0 m. Mt khng kh l 1.2
kg/m3. a) Th tch ca cn phng theo n v feed khi l bao nhiu? b) khi lng khng kh trong
phng l bao nhiu pound?
23

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

23. Gi s rng phi mt 7 pht bm y du vo thng 30.0 gallon. a) Tnh tc m thng nhn
c ra n v gallon trn giy. b) Tnh tc m thng nhn c ra n v mt khi trn giy. c) Xc
ng khong thi gian cn thit theo n v gi c th bm c 1 m3 vi cng tc bm . (1
gal = 231 in3).
24. Tm chiu di hoc chiu cao ca cc k quan thin nhin sau y ra n v kilmet, mt, centimet:
a) H thng hang ng di nht th gii l h thng hang Mammoth trung tm Th Nh K. N c
chiu di tnh theo bn l 348 dm. b) M, thc nc cao nht l thc Ribbol, cao 1612 ft. c)
Ngn ni Mckinley Cng vin Quc gia Denaly, Alaska l ngn ni cao nht nc M. cao 20230 ft.
d) Hm ni su nht ca M l hm ni N Hong California, vi su 8200 ft.
25. Mt mu ch c khi lng 23.94 g v th tch l 2.10 cm3. Tnh khi lng ring ca ch ra n v
kg/m3.
26. Mt cng t (section) l din tch t bng mt dm vung v bng 640 mu. Xc nh s mt
vung trong mt mu.
27. Mt bng truyn ti qung t hm m ln mt t vi cng sut 1200 tn/gi. Hy i tc ny ra
pound/giy (lb/s), bit 1 tn = 2000 lb.
28. a) Hy tm h s chuyn i t dm trn gi sang kilomet trn gi. b) Trc y lut lin bang quy
nh rng, tc gii hn trn ng quc l l 55 mi/h. S dng h s chuyn i ca cu a) tm
tc ny ra n v kilmet trn gi. Tc ln nht trn ng quc l ti mt s ni by gi l 65
mi/h. So vi gii hn 55 mi/h th tc ny tng thm bao nhiu kilmet trn gi?
29. Khi cun sch ny ang c in, s n ca nc M khong 6 nghn t la. a) Nu vic tr n
c tin hnh vi tc 1000 la trn giy th sau bao nhiu nm s tr ht n, gi s khng pht
sinh thm li? b) T mt la di khong 15.5 cm. Nu su nghn t t la c ri kn ng xch
o ca Tri t th s ri c my vng? Ly bn knh Tri t l 6378 km. (Lu , trc khi thc
hin bt k php tnh no ca bi ny, hy d on trc kt qu, bn s rt ngc nhin).
30. Khi lng ca Mt Tri l 1.99 1030 kg v khi lng ca nguyn t hydr l 1.67 10 27 kg,
Mt tri hu nh ch cha hydr. C bao nhiu nguyn t hydro trn Mt Tri?
31. Mt gallon sn (th tch 3.78 10 3 m3), th sn kn din tch 25.0 m2. B dy ca lp sn trn bc
tng l bao nhiu?
32. Mt kim t thp c chiu cao 481 ft v y ca n chim din tch 13.0 mu (hnh P1.32). Bit th
1
tch ca kim t thp c tnh bng cng thc V Bh , trong B l din tch y, h l chiu cao,
3
hy tm th tch ca kim t thp ny ra n v mt khi. (1 mu = 43560 ft2).
33. Kim t thp trong bi 32 cha khong 2 triu khi m trung bnh mi khi nng 2.50 tn. Hy
tnh trng lng ca kim t thp ny ra n v pound.
34. Gi s rng 70% b mt Tri t c bao ph bi nc vi su trung bnh l 2.3 mi. Hy c
tnh khi lng ca nc trn Tri t ra kilgram.
24

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

35. Mt nguyn t hydr c ng knh xp x bng 1.06 10 10 m, l ng knh ca m my


electron hnh cu bao quanh ht nhn. ng knh ca ht nhn khong 2.40 10 15 m. a) Vi mt
m hnh t l, biu din ng knh ca nguyn t hydr bng chiu di ca mt sn bng ca M
(100 yd = 300 ft), hy xc nh ng knh ca ht nhn ra n v millimt. b) Th tch ca nguyn t
ln gp my ln th tch ca ht nhn?
36. Nhng ngi sao gn Mt Tri nht l h thng sao Alpha Centauri, cch Mt Tri khong 4 1013
km. Nu Mt Tri, ng knh 1.4 109 , v c Alpha Centauri u c biu din bng cc vt mu
anh o ng knh 7.0 mm th khong cch gia chng s c biu din bng vt di bao nhiu
vi cng t l xch?
37. ng knh ca thin h hnh a ca chng ta, di Ngn H (Milky Way), vo khong 1.0 105
nm nh sng (ly). Khong cch n Thin h 31 Andromeda, thin h xon c gn di Ngn H nht,
l 2.0 triu nm nh sng. Nu m hnh t l biu din cc thin h Milky Way v Andromeda l hai ci
a ng knh 25 cm th khong cch gia 2 a l bao nhiu?
38. Bn knh trung bnh ca Tri t l 6.37 106 m, v ca Mt Trng l 1.74 108 cm. T cc s
liu ny hy tnh a) t s gia din tch b mt ca Tri t so vi Mt Trng. b) T s gia th tch ca
Tri t so vi Mt Trng. Cho bit din tch b mt ca qu cu l 4r2 v th tch ca qu cu l
4 3
r .
3
39. Mt mt khi (1.00 m3) nhm c khi lng 2.70 103 kg, v 1.00 m3 st c khi lng 7.86 103
kg. Tm bn knh ca qu cu nhm m n cng khi lng vi qu cu st c bn knh 2.00 cm.
40. Gi Al l khi lng ring ca nhm v Fe l khi lng ring ca st. Hy tm bn knh ca qu
cu nhm c cng khi lng vi qu cu st c bn knh rFe.
Mc 1.6 c lng v tnh bc ln.
41. Hy c tnh s qu bng bn lp y mt cn phng no (khng lm bp qu bng). Trong li
gii ca bn, cc gi tr ca i lng bn o hoc c lng coi nh bit.
42. Mt lp t c thit k i nhiu nht trong 50000 dm. Bc ln ca s vng quay l bao nhiu
th n s b hy b? Trong li gii ca bn, cc gi tr ca i lng bn o hoc c lng coi nh
bit.
43. C mc dy c trn mu t. Bc ln ca s l c trn ming t ny l bao nhiu? Din gii
l l ca bn. Lu rng 1 mu = 43560 ft2.
44. Mt cch gn ng, c bao nhiu git ma ri xung mnh t mt mu trong trn ma c lng
ma l mt Inch. Din gii l l ca bn.
45. Tnh bc ln khi lng ca mt bn tm y mt na nc. Tnh bc ln khi lng ca
bn tm cha y mt na cc ng xu. Trong li gii ca bn, hy lit k cc i lng bn cn ly s
liu v gi tr bn o hay c lng.

25

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

46. Nc gii kht thng c bn trong cc lon nhm. Bc ln ca s lng lon l bao nhiu m
ngi tiu dng M vt b hoc ti ch mi nm? C bao nhiu tn nhm sn sut ra s lon ny?
Trong li gii ca bn, cc gi tr ca i lng bn o hoc c lng coi nh bit.
47. Bc ln ca s dng c chnh n piano trong thnh ph NewYork l bao nhiu? Nh vt l hc
Enrico Fermi tng c nhng cu hi ni ting nh vy trong vng loi thi vn p tin s. C s
ring ca ng y v thc hin cc c tnh bc ln c minh ha trong bi tp 45.48.
Mc 1.7 Cc ch s c ngha
Lu : Ph lc B8 ni v sai s c th hu ch trong vic gii cc bi tp phn ny.
48. Mt tm phng hnh ch nht c chiu di (21.3 0.2) cm v chiu rng (9.8 0.1) cm. Tnh din
tch ca tm phng ny, km theo sai s ca n.
49. Bn knh ca mt vng trn o c l (10.5 0.2) m. Tnh din tch v chu vi ca vng trn v
km theo sai s ca mi gi tr.
50. C bao nhiu ch s c ngha trong cc s di y? a) 78.9 0.2
2.46 10 6 d) 0.0053.

b) 3.788 109

c)

51. Bn knh ca mt qu cu rn o c l (6.50 0.20) cm v khi lng ca n o c l (1.85


0.02) kg. Xc nh khi lng ring ca qu cu theo n v kilgram trn mt khi v km theo sai s
ca n.
52. Thc hin cc php tnh s hc sau y: a) tng cc gi tr o c 756, 37.2, 0.83 v 2.5; b) tch
0.0032 356.3; c) tch 5.620 .
53. Nm dng lch, khong thi gian t im xun phn ny n xun phn tip theo, l c s cho lch
ca chng ta. N cha 365.242 199 ngy. Tnh s giy trong mt nm dng lch.
54. Mt bc nng dn o chu vi mt tha rung hnh ch nht. Cnh di ca n c s o l 38.44 m;
cnh kia l 19.5 m. Tm chu vi ca tha rung.
55. Mt va h c xy dng quanh h bi c kch thc o l (10.0 0.1) m v (17.0 0.1) m. Nu
va h c rng l 1.00 0.001) m v b dy l (9.0 0.1) cm th th tch ca btng cn thit l bao
nhiu? Sai s ca th tch ny xp x bao nhiu?
Cc bi khc
56. Trong trng hp s liu c ba ch s c ngha, chng ta vit 6.379 m = 6.38 m v 6.374 m = 6.37
m. Khi ch s tn cng l 5 th chng ta ty chn cch vit 6.375 m = 6.38 m; hoc chng ta cng c
th vit 6.375 = 6.37, lm trn xung thay v lm trn ln, bi v s thay i gi tr ca s 6.375
trong hai trng hp l nh nhau. Khi c lng bc ca ln, chng ta xt n tha s nhn hn l
s gia tng. Chng ta s vit 500 m ~ 103 m bi v 500 khc vi 100 bi tha s 5, trong khi n khc
vi 1000 ch l tha s 2. Chng ta vit 437 m ~ 103 m v 305 m ~ 102 m. sai lch so vi 100 v so
vi 1000 c tha s no m chng ta c th chn din t bc ln l ~ 102 hay ~ 103 cng c?
57. i vi nhiu cc ng dng in t, nh chp my tnh chng hn, ngi ta mong mun cc thnh
phn cng nh cng tt c th gi nhit ca cc thnh phn thp lm gia tng tc ca thit b.
26

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

Mt lp ph kim loi (mng kim loi) c th c dng thay cho dy ni. Vng th c bit hu ch v
n khng d b oxy ha. Khi lng nguyn t ca vng l 197 u. Mt lp mng vng khng th mng
hn kch thc nguyn t vng. Hy tnh b dy nh nht ca lp ph, gi s rng mt nguyn t vng
chim mt th tch lp phng trong lp mng cng ging nh th tch m n chim trong tm kim
loi ln. M hnh hnh hc ny mang li kt qu ng v bc ln.
58. Chc nng c bn ca b ch ha kh xe t l phun xng trn vi khng kh thc y qu trnh
t chy nhanh chng. Gi s rng 30 cm3 xng c phun thnh N git hnh cu, mi git c bn knh
2.00 10 5 m. Tng din tch b mt ca N git hnh cu ny l bao nhiu?
59. S tiu th kh t t nhin ca mt cng ty tha mn phng trnh thc nghim: V = 1.50t +
0.00800t2, trong V l th tch tnh bng triu feet khi v t l thi gian tnh bng thng. Hy th hin
phng trnh ny theo n v feet khi v giy. Ni r n v ca cc h s. Cho bit mt thng c 30.0
ngy.
60. Trong vt l hc, vic dng xp x ton hc l rt quan trng. Chng minh rng, vi nhng gc nh
(< 200) th tan sin '/1800 , trong tnh bng radian v tnh bng . Dng my
tnh tm gc ln nht c th xp x tan sin, vi sai s nh hn 10%.
61. Mt vi phun nc cao c t ti tm ca mt h nc hnh trn nh hnh P1.61. Mt sinh vin
i b vng quanh h v o c chu vi ca n l 15.0 m, m khng b nc lm t chn. Sau ,
ngi sinh vin ng ti mp h dng thc o , o gc to bi mt nc vi phng qua nh vi
phun nc. cao ca vi phun l bao nhiu?
62. Cc ng xu su tp i khi c m vng tng v p v gi tr ca n. Mt ng dollar k
nim c rao bn vi gi 4.98$. N c ng knh 24.1 mm, b dy 1.78 mm v c ph hon ton
bi mt lp vng tinh khit dy 0.18 m. Th tch ca vng bng b dy lp ph nhn vi din tch b
mt m n ph. Coi cc m hnh trn b mt ng xu v cc rnh cnh n khng nh hng n din
tch b mt ng xu. Gi s gi vng l 10.0$ mt gam. Tm gi tr ca vng thm vo ng xu. Gi
tr ca vng c lm tng ng k gi tr ca ng xu hay khng?
63. C khong gn 107 giy trong mt nm. Tm sai s phn trm (sai s tng i) trong xp x
ny, trong sai s phn trm c nh ngha
Percentage error

[assumed value true value]


100%
true value

64. Mt vt c din tch y A v chiu cao h khng i. Nu tit din ngang ca n cng khng i
ti mi im ging nh chiu cao th th tch ca vt s c tnh bi cng thc V = Ah. a) Chng t
rng V = Ah l ng v th nguyn. b) Chng t rng th tch ca tr v ca hp ch nht c th vit
dng V = Ah, xc nh A trong tng trng hp. (Lu rng trong trng hp tng qut, din tch A
i khi c gi l du chn ca vt th c hnh dng bt k, v chiu cao c th thay th bng
dy trung bnh).
65. Mt a b thch xem bn du gi vo mt chai nha. Mi mt ct ngang l mt hnh trn c
bn knh khc nhau, v th ci chai c ch rng, ch hp. Bn git du gi mu xanh vo trong chai vi
27

Physics for Scientists and Engineers Dch sang Ting Vit: Th.s Quc Huy

tc khng i 16.5 cm3/s. Tnh tc dng ln ca mc du trong chai a) ti im c bn knh tit


din l 6.30 cm; b) ti im c bn knh tit din 1.35 cm.
66. Mt centimet khi nc c khi lng 1.00 10 3 kg. a) Xc nh khi lng ca 1.00 m3 nc.
b) Cc cht sinh hc c 98% l nc. Gi s rng chng c cng khi lng ring vi nc, hy c
tnh khi lng mt t bo c ng knh 1 m, ca qu thn ngi v ca mt con rui. M hnh qu
thn nh l qu cu bn knh 4.0 cm v con rui nh mt tr di 4.0 mm v ng knh 2 mm.
67. Gi s c 100 triu xe du lch ti M v mc tiu th nhin liu trung bnh l 20 dm/ 1 gallon
xng. Nu qung ng trung bnh mi xe i l 10000 dm/nm th c bao nhiu xng s c tit
kim trong mt nm khi tc tiu th nhin liu trung bnh tng n 25 dm/gallon?
68. Mt sinh vt di chuyn tc 5.00 furlong/fortnight (y khng phi l n v ph bin ca tc
). Cho rng 1 furlong = 220 yard v 1 fortnight = 14 ngy. Xc nh tc ca sinh vt ny ra n v
m/s. Bn ngh l sinh vt no?
69. Khong cch t Mt Tri n ngi sao gn nht vo khong 41016 m. Di Ngn h ging nh mt
ci a ng knh ~ 1021 m v dy ~ 1019 m. Tm bc ln ca s lng ngi sao trong di Ngn h.
Gi s khong cch gia Mt Tri v ngi sao gn n nht l khong cch tiu biu.
70. Cc s liu trong bng di y l kt qu o khi lng v kch thc ca mt khi tr c bng
nhm, ng, ng thau, thic, v st. S dng s liu ny tnh khi lng ring ca cc cht . So
snh kt qu tnh ca bn vi s liu trong bng 1.5.
71. a) C bao nhiu giy trong mt nm? b) Nu c mi giy, mi mt vung b mt Mt Trng c mt
vi thin thch (qu cu ng knh 1.0010 6 m) ng vo th sau bao nhiu nm s ph kn ht Mt
Trng vi dy 1.00 m? gii bi ny, bn c th coi mi mt vung b mt Mt Trng l mt ci
hp hnh lp phng cnh 1.00 m v tm xem bao lu s y ci hp .
p n ca cc cu vn p nhanh
1.1 a). Bi v khi lng ring ca nhm nh hn khi lng ring ca st nn cng mt khi lng
cho trc th tch ca nhm s ln hn.
1.2 False. Vic phn tch th nguyn cho bit n v ca hng s t l nhng khng cho bit gi tr s
ca n. xc nh gi tr s ca n phi da vo cc s liu thc nghim hoc lun im hnh hc. V
1
d, trong dng tng qut ca phng trnh x at 2 , v tha s khng c th nguyn nn dng php
2
phn tch th nguyn s khng xc nh c n.
1.3 b). Bi v kilmt th ngn hn dm, nn cng mt khong cch s kilmet s ln hn s dm.
1.4 Theo bo co, tt c cc ch s ny u c ngha nn bn c th xc nh v tr trung tm ca gh
ngi chnh xc n 0.000 000 0001 m. iu ny gn nh ng ngha vi vic c th m c cc
nguyn t bng thc thc ca bn, v kch thc nguyn t cng c ! S tt hn nu kt qu o
c ghi li l 1.044 m: iu ny cho thy rng bn c th bit v tr chnh xc n hng millimt, nu
thang o trn thc mt c chia n hng millimet.
28