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COUPLES AND THEIR MOMENTS

EQUIVALENT FORCE COUPLE


SYSTEMS
ES 11 Statics of Rigid Bodies
Lecture 5

COUPLES
A pair of forces of:
Equal magnitudes
Opposite directions
Parallel LOAs

A couple tends to cause


rotation of an object even
though the vector sum of the
forces is zero.

COUPLES
Why are these forces non-couples?

EXTERNAL EFFECT OF A COUPLE


A couple can only
cause rotation of an
object.
The resultant force of
a couple is zero.
Its resultant moment
is not zero.

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

Moment of a couple is constant.

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

EXAMPLE:
The force F is 10i
4j (N). Determine
the moment of the
couple.

MOMENT OF A COUPLE
SOLUTION:

TRANSFORMATION OF A COUPLE
Transfer to parallel plane
Change direction of forces but still on the same plane
Change magnitude of F with corresponding change in
d maintain M = Fd

TRANSFORMATION OF A COUPLE
If you can't turn the nut of
a wheel, what do you do
to turn it?
You can call a stronger
person to turn it, thereby
increasing F, or
You can place your
hands farther apart on the
wrench, thereby
increasing d.

COUPLE VECTORS

ADDITION OF COUPLE VECTORS


Couple vectors obey the
law of vector addition.
The couple vector M may
be
resolved
into
component vectors Mx My
, and Mz directed along the
axes of coordinates and
representing
couples
acting, respectively in the
yz, xz, and xy planes.

ADDITION OF COUPLE VECTORS

EXAMPLE:
Replace the three
couples shown
with a single
equivalent couple
M, specifying its
magnitude and
direction.

ADDITION OF COUPLE VECTORS


SOLUTION:

ADDITION OF COUPLE VECTORS


SOLUTION:

PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
Forces can be added/subtracted to a given force
system without changing the external effect of the
forces so long as the resultant of the forces added or
subtracted equals zero

RESOLUTION OF A FORCE INTO A


FORCE-COUPLE SYSTEM

MO

F
O

O
A

Any force F acting on a rigid body may be moved to an


arbitrary point O, provided that a couple is added, of
moment equal to the moment of F about O (Mo = r x F).

TRANSFERRING A FORCE-COUPLE
SYSTEM TO ANOTHER POINT

Mo

O
B

Mo

FB

F
O

FB
A

F
A

MB

When you transfer the location of a force-couple


system, a couple is added (r from point of transfer to
original location crossed with F) to the given couple.

TRANSFERRING A FORCE-COUPLE
SYSTEM TO ANOTHER POINT
EXAMPLE:
Replace the given force with a force-couple system
a. At point B
b. At the origin

TRANSFERRING A FORCE-COUPLE
SYSTEM TO ANOTHER POINT

REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES


TO A FORCE-COUPLE SYSTEM

REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES


TO A FORCE-COUPLE SYSTEM
EXAMPLE:
Replace the forces and couple with a force-couple system at
point P.

REDUCTION OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES


TO A FORCE-COUPLE SYSTEM

EQUIVALENT FORCE COUPLE SYSTEMS

Two systems of forces are


equivalent if they may be reduced
to the same force-couple system
at a given point O.

EQUIVALENT FORCE COUPLE SYSTEMS

Two systems are equivalent if


they have the same external
effect on the body (same
translation along any direction,
same rotation about any axis)

EQUIVALENT FORCE COUPLE SYSTEMS


EXAMPLE: Are the two systems equivalent?

EQUIVALENT FORCE COUPLE SYSTEMS


EXAMPLE: Are the two systems equivalent?

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE
What should be the
components of Fc and the
values of x, y, and z so that
the two given systems are
equivalent?

REDUCTION OF A FORCE SYSTEM TO A


SINGLE FORCE
It is possible to reduce a force-couple system into a single
force if R and MOR are perpendicular.

REDUCTION OF A FORCE SYSTEM TO A


SINGLE FORCE
EXAMPLE:
a. Replace the force system with a force-couple system at
O.
b. If the force system were to be replace with a single force,
where is its point of application along the bar?

REDUCTION OF A FORCE SYSTEM TO A


SINGLE FORCE
EXAMPLE:
Replace the given forces with a single force. Where will
this force line of action intersect the x-y plane?