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coefficients given in the Code IS 456:200(Table 26) for two-way rectangular

slabs with various possible edge conditions are based on Yield Line Analysis.

Yield line analysis is the equivalent for a two-dimensional flexural member

(plate or slab) of the limit analysis of a one-dimensional member

(continuous beam),

Yield lines Typical crack patterns generated when ultimate moment is

reached

Characteristics of yield lines are,

i) Yield lines are straight

ii) Yield lines end at supporting edges of slab

iii) Yield lines passes through intersection of axis of rotation of adjacent slab

elements

iv) Axis of rotation lies along lines of supports and passes over columns

The following are the assumptions of the yield line analysis of

reinforced concrete slabs:

1. The steel reinforcement is fully yielded along the yield lines at collapse.

Rotation following yield is at constant moment.

2. The slab deforms plastically at collapse and is separated into segments

by the yield lines. The individual segments of the slab behave elastically.

3. The elastic deformations are neglected and plastic deformations are only

considered. The entire deformations, therefore, take place onlyalong the

yield lines. The individual segments of the slab remain plane even in the

collapse condition.

4. The bending and twisting moments are uniformly distributed along the

yield lines. The maximum values of the moments depend on the capacities

of the section based on the amount of reinforcement provided in the section.

5. The yield lines are straight lines as they are the lines of intersection

between two planes.

The two terms, positive and negative yield lines, are used in the analysis to

designate the yield lines for positive bending moments having tension at the

bottom and negative bending moments having tension at the top of the slab,

respectively.

The following are the guidelines for predicting the yield lines and axes of

rotation:

1. Yield lines between two intersecting planes are straight lines.

2. Positive yield line will be at the mid-span of one-way simply supported

slabs.

3. Negative yield lines will occur at the supports in addition to the positive

yield lines at the mid-span of one-way continuous slabs.

4. Yield lines will occur under point loads and they will be radiating outward

from the point of application of the point loads.

5. Yield line between two slab segments should pass through the point of

intersection of the axes of rotation of the adjacent slab segments.

6. Yield lines should end at the boundary of the slab or at another yield line.

7. Yield lines represent the axes of rotation.

8. Supported edges of the slab will also act as axes of rotation. However, the

fixed supports provide constant resistance to rotation having negative yield

lines at the supported edges. On the other hand, axes of rotation at the

simply supported edges will not provide any resistance to rotation of the

segment.

9. Axis of rotation will pass over any column support, if provided, whose

orientation will depend on other considerations

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