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CENTRO FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT EDUCATION OF ME

TAL MECHANICS COURSE OF MECHANICAL TECHNICIAN


PART II - Characteristics of the Elements
Prof. Mec Eng. Norberto Moro Tech. Mec. André Paegle Auras
Florianópolis - 2006
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Summary 1. FIXING ELEMENTS ............................................... .....
......................... ................. 4 1.1 Rivets .......................
........................... ..................................... .......... 5 1
.2 Pin .................................................. ......................
......................... 8 1.3 pin ............................................
...... .................................................. 8 .... 4.1 or cotter p
ins Cotter ......................................... Screw .....................
................... 9 1.5 ....... ..............................................
.... Nuts ......................................... 10 6.1 ...... ..............
.................................... ...........................................
.... 15 1.7 Washers .................................................. .........
......................................... .15 8.1 Elastic Rings ................
............................. ............................................. 17 1
.9 Braces .. .................................................. ................
............................... 19 2. ELASTIC ELEMENTS .........................
....................... 1.2 Helical Springs ............................ 22 ....
.............. .................................................. ..............
.... ............................ 22 2.2 Flat Springs ..........................
........................ .............. 24 3. ELEMENTS OF SUPPORT ..............
................................. ................................ 26 1.3 Refere
nces ............... .................................................. Bearings
........................................ 26 2.3 ....... .......................
........................... Bushing ............................................
28 3.2.1. .................................................. ..................
........................... 29 3.2.2 Bearings ..................................
................ ...................................... 31 4. ELEMENTS OF TRANSM
ISSION ............................................... ................. 37 1.4
Pulley and Belt ............................ ...................................
............... Currents ................................... 2.4 ............ 37
.................................................. ............. 39 4.3 Cables
Steel ................................ .........................................
......... Coupling ...................................... 4.4 ......... 41 .....
............................................. Screw ............................
.............. ..... 43 4.5 .................................................. .
......... ..................................... 47 6.4 Gears ...................
............................... Tables .........................................
. ...... 52 .................................................. Bibliography ....
......................... ................... 56 ...............................
................... ........................... 65
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Presentation
This second part of the book Elements of Machines will handle about the elements
of machines themselves, trying to teach the different types of elements and the
ir various applications. This second book used many concepts and figures taken f
rom the book of Machine Elements, Volume I and II, of course the Telecourse Tech
nician Mechanical 2000 (available at www.bibvirt.futuro.usp.br). The other bibli
ographies are at the end of the book. We present it with the intention of it rem
ains in constant development, through the criticism and suggestions from those w
ho have access to it. Your assistance will benefit many other students still lea
rn from this book. The teacher is certainly prepared to this kind of help. Anywa
y, hope this work helps, as fully as possible the training of new professionals,
technicians who can handle the most excellent practice with theory.
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1. ELEMENTS FOR FIXING In mechanics it is very common to need to join pieces suc
h as plates, rods and profiles. Any construction, for that is simple, requires a
union of pieces together. To do so we require proper elements that gives the un
ion, which shall call here the elements fixação1. The most commonly used fastene
rs are rivets, pins, bolts, screws, nuts, washers, retaining rings and braces. T
o design a mechanical assembly is necessary to choose the fixture suitable for t
he type of parts that will be attached or fixed. Fasteners weak and poorly desig
ned can disable the entire machine.€Good planning also avoid stress concentratio
n at set pieces. These strains cause breaks in pieces by fadiga2 material. Marri
age can be one of two ways: Mobile The fasteners can be placed or removed from t
he joint without causing any damage to parts that were attached. For example, co
uplings with bolts, nuts and washers. The permanent fasteners can not be removed
without their being destroyed. For example, couplings made with rivets.
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Note: One must consider that it is possible another kind of union of parts in a
machine: the solder. However, it is not considered a part of the machinery. 2 Fa
tigue: It is caused by constant efforts to provoke a drop in the resistance of t
he material.
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1.1 Rivets
What it is: The rivet has a cylindrical body and head, being made of steel (plai
n, steel, etc.), aluminum, copper or brass. It is used for permanent attachment
of two or more pieces. Employment: In general, their use is in situations where
you can not use welding one or more reasons: the type of material, non-admission
of stresses from welding, ease of manufacturing process, etc.. In industry appl
ies mainly to: steel structures, tanks, boilers, machinery, ships, aircraft, tra
nsport vehicles and trusses. Types: The types of pin are divided by the shape of
the head. Drawings of the pins down, we can see that there is a relationship be
tween standardized diameter (d) of the body and head. See table below: Picture H
ead Type Round Very large application used by the great resistance offered.
Round countersunk flat narrow range close flat countersunk countersunk cylindric
al pot with ice sheet thickness max. 7 mm
Unions that do not admit bosses
Unions concede that small protrusions
Specifications: For use of rivets, one must know four specifications: material,
type of head, body diameter and effective length (the length of the body - L, le
ss the surplus needed - Z, which is necessary for the remaining length form the
other head of the rivet. See figure below:
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Riveting is the process of joining parts using rivets. See figure below:
Can be manual, with hammer blows (small-scale use), or automatic, with the aid o
f pneumatic drill or pneumatic or hydraulic riveting. The process can still be h
ot or cold. In the hot riveting, the rivet is first heated in oven or flame unti
l red-glowing, being used in steel rivets with a diameter greater than 6.35 mm,
resulting best filling of space and lower application of force. Rivet fountain:
It's a special rivet, but widely used in slabs that will not suffer great effort
s. This rivet is drilled, through which passes a rivet counter. For riveting use
is a simple device that pulls the rivet-forming against the 2nd head of the riv
et.
(1) The rivet is placed in the hole parts (2) A Riveting pulls the rivet counter
while holding the head of the rivet against the workpiece, (3) the head contrar
ebite forms the head of the rivet, (4) head counter-rivet body breaks down and l
eaves the rivet.
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Calculations: The calculation of distribution of rivets must take into account t
he purpose of riveting, the effort that the guys will suffer the type of joint r
equired and the size of the plates, and other project data. Practical tips: - Th
e minimum distance between centers of the rivets should be 3 times the diameter
of the rivet; - The side of the plate to the center of the first hole, the dista
nce should be 2 times the diameter of the rivet (valid in the direction of force
) - From the side of the plate to the center of the first hole in the transverse
direction of the force, the distance should be 1.5 times the diameter of the ri
vet - rivet diameter should be 1.5 times the plate thickness of less thickness -
The hole diameter should be 1.06 times the diameter of the rivet body. Defects:
holes are outside of the rivet shaft to fill all space, thus reducing its resis
tance. Plates ill fatten up against the rivet in the space between plates, affec
ting its strength. Bore diameter larger than the rivet causes the body tilted ax
is, which reduces the clamping pressure. Overheating causes the rivet off, occur
ring sliding plate. The decentralized produces a riveting heads off-axis, reduci
ng the clamping force. The lack of material to form the 2nd head of the rivet is
made by the wrong choice of the length of the rivet. To remedy the defects must
be removed one of the heads of the rivet with a cold chisel, drill or esmirilha
deira, then extract the rivet.
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01/02 Pin
What it is: Pin elements are cylindrical / conical usually steel and joining par
ts articulated. Employment: In this type of union parts form a joint mobile€allo
wing clusters that hang together. In industry applies mainly to: articulated arm
s (cranes, etc.), doors, among others. Types: See table below. Tapered centering
pin. - Action
Dowel pin - the action of withdrawing the pin from blind holes is facilitated by
a threaded rod (jam nut off the stem). Cylindrical pin - used for cutting force
s, requires hole with tight tolerances. Elastic pin - features high strength and
can be seated in holes ranging in diameter.
01/03 pin
What is, is a cylindrical piece, constructed of steel, whose outer surface recei
ves three notches forming rebounds. The shape and length of the slots determine
the types of pin. Their attachment is made directly into the hole opened by dril
l, dispensing with the finish and precision of the hole extended.
September Employment: The pin connects parts that are not yet interconnected.
1.4 or cotter pins Cotter
What it is: The cotter and cotter pins or wire rod is shaped similar to a meioci
lindro, folded so as to make a circular head and has two uneven legs. Employment
: Place the cotter and cotter pins in a hole at the end of a pin or screw and nu
t castle. Cotter's legs are turned backwards and thus preventing the output pin
or nut during vibrations of the clamped parts.
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Screws 1.5
What it is: The screw is a connecting element formed by a cylindrical body, the
head (there are no screws) and screw (with some part of the unthreaded shank). E
mployment: It is used for fixation of different pieces, in a non-permanent and c
an be easily assembled and disassembled. Rating: There are four major groups of
screws - bystanders, not bystanders, pressure and prisoners.
Passante: cross pieces and are secured with nuts.
Not passing means the fixing of a screw is made of parts, without the need to so
w.
Pressure: the pressure is exerted by the tips of screws from the part to be fixe
d.
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Prisoners: grub screws are threaded on both ends, for parts that require frequen
t assembly and disassembly.
Types: See table below.
Applications: Hex Head: used with or without thread, is applied to unions that n
eed a strong grip (with wrench). Hexagon (Allen) is used in joints that need a s
trong grip in places with little space for handling tools. Headless slotted and
/ hexagon: is used to catch parts of machinery not letting external protrusions.
12 slotted flat countersunk head: it is used in assemblies that do not suffer su
bstantial efforts and whose head can not exceed the surface. Slotted round head:
used in setups that do not suffer great efforts, providing good surface finish.
Slotted cylindrical head: used to fix elements in which there is the possibilit
y of making a deep socket for the screw head and good surface finish. Rounded sl
otted head screws: used in fixing elements with thin head getting built. Superb
thread (various types of head): Used wood and pieces of masonry (together with p
lastic bushings).
Calculations of union: For Union of parts with screws, one must consider four fa
ctors - depth of hole drilled, tapped hole depth, length of penetration of the s
crew and bolt hole diameter.
Ø - drilled hole diameter d - diameter of the thread A - depth of hole drilled
B - depth of the threaded part C - length of penetration of the bolt hole diamet
er d1
Threads: The thread type used in a screw will determine your application. See ty
pes in the table below.
13 Screws and lock nuts on the union of parts (eg parts and machines in general)
. Zones that transmit smooth and uniform (eg machine tools). Screws with large d
iameters are subject to great efforts (eg, railway equipment). Zones that suffer
major shocks and efforts (eg, presses and walruses).
Spindles exercising great effort in one direction (eg, monkeys ratchet).
The threads can have two meanings: on the left (when the grip is given by turnin
g the screw on the left) or right (when the grip is given by turning right). The
vast majority of threads are on the right. They may still have one to four inpu
ts (applied only to zones). When there are four entries, the maximum rotation ax
is to the entrance of the screw is 90 ° (ie 360 divided by 4). Nomenclature of t
hreads:
P = step outside diameter d = d1 = d2 = diameter inside diameter of the sidewall
= F = angle of the bottom fillet fillet helix angle i = c = crest
D = diameter of the bottom nut D1 = diameter of hole h1 = height of the nut thre
ad nut h = height of the screw thread
14 The three types of triangular thread are the most common metric, Whitworth an
d American. The most commonly used in Brazil are the metric and Whitworth. Metri
c thread: Is the standard of ISO. May be normal or thin, and the fine metric thr
ead has a higher number of fillets and is used in cases that better fixation is
necessary due to vibration. See the formulas:
Whitworth thread: It is the standard English used in the USA. It also has standa
rd threading (BSW) and fine (BSF), and this greater number of fillets per inch.
See formulas below:
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It is common to query the tables, which facilitate the achievement of values (se
e table at the end of the book).
1.6 Nuts
What it is: The nut is a piece of prismatic or cylindrical shape with threaded h
ole through which fits the screw. It is made of metal or plastic. Employment: It
is used in conjunction with the screw for fixing this. Types: See table below.
Drawing Description butterfly nut. Thumbscrew (bow saw). Knurled nut. Blind nut.
Square nut. For several fixations. Square nut. Castle nut. Used with cotter pin
s to prevent vibration loosening it. For good finish. Application
1.7 Washers
What it is: The washer is a metal disk with a hole in the center. The bolt passe
s through this hole. Jobs: The have the function to distribute the torque equall
y between the nut, the screw and assembled parts.
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Types: See table below. Design Description Application also distributes the grip
, being used in grips with little vibration.
Flat washer.
Spring washer.
Prevents loosening of the screw and nut. For sets with large vibration and stres
s.
For sets with large serrated washer. vibrations, but small efforts.
Serrated washer.
For sets with large vibrations and exertion.
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Wavy washer.
Similar to the previous, but used on painted surfaces, avoiding damage to the fi
nish. Bending his ear in a corner and a tab at one corner of the bolt, preventin
g it come loose.
Lockwasher to ear.
Washer for profiled.
Compensates for the angle profiles, providing a larger contact area with the nut
.
1.8 Elastic Rings
What it is: The elastic ring, also known as the lock ring, retention or security
, is a kind of washer incomplete, whose opening serves to be seated on a ledge i
n the shaft. Employment: It is used to prevent axial displacement of shafts, and
also to position or limit the travel of a piece that slides over a shaft. Types
: See table below. Application Design
For shafts with diameter between 4 and 1000 mm.
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For holes with diameters between 9.5 and 1000 mm.
For shafts with diameters between 8 and 24 mm.
For shafts with diameter between 4 and 390 mm roller setting.
Section circular rings are used for small axial forces.
To facilitate the choice of tables to query (see table at end of book).
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1.9 Braces
What it is: The brace is usually rectangular or semicircular profile and may hav
e parallel or inclined surfaces, depending on the magnitude of the effort and th
e type of movement that must pass. Some authors classify the keyway as fasteners
and other authors such as transmission elements. Indeed, the key performs two f
unctions. Jobs: The brace is interposed in the cavity of a shaft and a part in o
rder to set the piece to the shaft and vice versa. It is used to fix a gear shaf
t. Rating: Braces are classified into three types - wedge, parallel and disk. Th
e wedge has one of the sloping sides, to facilitate the union. These are divided
into longitudinal (placed in the shaft extension to attach pulleys, wheels, ste
ering wheels, etc.) and transverse (union of parts that transmit rotary motion a
nd rectilinear alternative). The parallel has not tilted face, holding off on it
s top surface. The disk (or half moon) is used for tapered shafts fit the taper
and have easy assembly. Types: See table below. Drawing Description Cunha longit
udinal embedded: it is the simplest form of the wedge. Rip-axis must be greater
than the length of the keyway. Cunha longitudinal half-cane: base has concave wi
th the same radius of the shaft. The axis is not torn, and transmission occurs t
hrough friction. When the force is large, the movement is not transmitted.
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Cunha longitudinal plane: similar to embedded, do not rip open the shaft, only o
ne recess plan.
Longitudinal wedge embedded: it has rounded ends and tear of the axis has the sa
me dimension as the key.
Tangential longitudinal wedge: It consists of a pair of wedges being used for he
avy loads with changes and blows.
Cunha Horizontal parts with twisting and straight alternative.
Parallel: the adjustment is made by the sides of the keyway,€while the upper sla
ck.
Disco (half moon): adapts to the taper.
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Tolerances: The adjustment of the keyway is made according to the characteristic
s of the work, three most common types.
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2. ELASTIC ELEMENTS
The elastic elements, called spring, are those who, by format or facility, provi
des movement within the field of elastic deformation, ie it moves without deform
ing permanently. The springs are used mainly in cases of energy storage (trigger
mechanisms for clocks, toys, kicking of the exhaust valves and control devices)
, shock mitigation (suspension and bumpers of vehicles, in coupling shaft , prot
ection of sensitive instruments), charge distribution (upholstery of chairs, mat
tresses, bed risers, vehicles), limitation of flow (water flow regulating valves
and records and the gas flow in plugs or other containers), preservation of jun
ctions or contacts (preserve articulated parts, levers contact, fences, etc.. wh
ich are in motion or subject to wear). The elastic elements can be classified ac
cording to their geometric shape (helical or flat). Many industries produce spri
ngs to order special springs, designed according to the need of setting, space,
etc., while remaining a functional principle. The selection of a spring depends
on the means and mechanical stress.
2.1 Helical Springs
Are usually made of steel bar, rolled into a cylindrical or conical helix. The r
od can have different profiles section. In general, the coil spring is wound on
the right, but can also be left. It is rated for resistance to stresses (tensile
, compression or torsion). This cylindrical helical compression spring is widely
used in various situations, such as impacts on the sorption of automobiles. H l
ength - De - Di external diameter - internal diameter d - diameter of the sectio
n p - step
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Helical cylindrical tension
The features are similar to compression, showing difference in length: a useful
(spring) and a total (including anchor bolts). Applies in cases of necessity of
resistance to traction efforts.
Helical twist
This type of spring has the following features more: the length of the lever arm
(r) and angle between points (a).
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Helical conical compression springs conic sections can be varied. Efforts to res
ist compression and have applications for specific projects.
2.2 Flat Springs
Are made of flat material or tape. Efforts were designed to receive in a single
direction. This simple type of spring is used only for certain loads. In general
, this spring is fixed at one end and free at the other. When suffering from the
action of a force, the spring is bent in the opposite direction.
Plate In general, the plate springs work associated with each other, stacked to
form columns. The arrangement of the springs in the columns depends on the need
that you have in mind.
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Leaf springs
The leaf spring is made of several flat pieces of varying length, shaped so that
they are straight under the action of a force. It is employed in small spaces (
height), especially in heavy vehicles (trucks).
A spiral coil spring is in the form of a spiral or snail. In general it is made
of a bar or blade with rectangular section. The coil spring is wound so that all
turns are concentric and coplanar. This type of spring is commonly used in watc
hes and toys.
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3. ELEMENTS OF SUPPORT These are elements that support (support) other parts of
machinery. They consist of guides and bearings (bushings and bearings).
3.1 References
Guide is a part of the machinery that keeps an accurate history of certain parts
. A good example are sliding doors that maintains a path through guides. They ar
e usually made of cast iron (for hardness and self lubrication due to the high r
ate of carbon), but still should be lubricated, maintaining a lubricating film b
etween the sliding parts. Classification guides are classified into two types: s
liding or rolling. In the first case, the piece can pass inside the tab (second
profile part) or just support it. Here are some examples of guides to slip below
.
On machines, the tabs are also called buses. See table below with profiles and a
pplications guides on machines:
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Rulers Adjustment While well lubricated, the tabs in contact with the parts crea
te friction and wear them. To compensate for the marked wear, are placed rules a
djustment, which are nothing more than to remove shims clearances guides.
28 escalators Guides These guides do not move by slipping, but by scrolling, or
have rolling elements (rollers, needles, beads). This greatly decreases the fric
tion and therefore reduces wear. Currently are used in machines for computerized
numerical control (CNC).
3.2 Bearings
Bearing is the element that supports any axis. Can be classified as sliding bear
ings (bushings) or roller bearings (bearings). The first type is used for heavy
machinery or equipment of low rotation, as the low speed prevents overheating an
d wear by the great friction. The advantage of this element is the low cost. The
second case has a higher cost, but is used for medium to very high speeds, due
to low friction generated by the roll of the rolling elements. The choice betwee
n one and another bearings depend on the cost-benefit ratio that is between one
and another. ADVANTAGES OF EACH TYPE Bearing Bushing Bearings - Less sensitivity
to shocks - Less friction and heat - Lower manufacturing cost - Lower demand fo
r lubrication - Large tolerances - Small increase off in life - Supports high lo
ads - Interchangeability international
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3.2.1 Bushings
The bushings are elements of machines, cylindrical or tapered shafts that serve
to support. These elements were created in order to avoid friction piece-part an
d consequent wear between them. Being composed of material with low coefficient
of friction (metal alloys such as brass or plastic), cause less wear, besides be
ing less expensive parts when compared to that support. This means that it is ea
sier to change a sleeve cheap stuff that every time having to change or correct
an axis. Where the shaft slides inside the sleeve, there must be lubrication. Th
ey are classified into radial (efforts to cross), axial (for normal stresses) or
mixed.
Radial Bushings These bushings can take many forms. The most common are made of
a cylindrical body stuck, and the hole allows the entry of lubricants. Parts are
used for small loads and in places where maintenance is easy. In some cases, th
ese bushings are cylindrical and conical on the inside on the outside. The ends
are threaded and have three longitudinal slots, which allows the adjustment of t
he bushings in parts.
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Axial Bushings This bushing is used to support the efforts of a vertical axis.
Mixed (conical) This type of bushing is used to support a shaft which require ef
forts radial and axial. Often these bushes require a fixture and therefore are l
ittle used.
Bushings Bushings Guides also serve as guides for drilling and enlargement, so c
alled, in this case, the guide bushing. Plates installed in door bushings, provi
de the correct position for machining. Are elements of accuracy, subject to chaf
ing. Therefore, they are made in hardened steel with low surface roughness, some
times rectified.
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3.2.2 Bearings
Elements are created in order to maximally reduce energy losses caused by fricti
on. Generally consist of two concentric rings, which are placed between the roll
ing elements such as spheres, needles and rollers. The outer ring is fixed on a
bearing externally, while the inner ring is fixed on the shaft.
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In general the normalization of the bearing is done by the internal diameter (sh
aft diameter). And for each diameter are defined series based on the charges to
be applied (mild, medium or heavy). Are classified as: radial, axial or mixed.
Radial: Prevent the Axial: Prevent the Mixed: Shore displacement in both the dis
placement axial loads (in a given axial direction of the transverse axis. Sense)
as the axis. transverse.
TYPES (as rolling elements): Balls: For higher speeds with light loads to medium
(bicycles, electric motors, automobiles, etc.). May be one or two rows of balls
(for higher loads). May carry shields / gasket, requires no lubrication. May al
so have angled the ball, right to bear axial load (used for example in drilling)
. And you can be self pay, which can support a small angular displacement of the
shaft as a result of bending the same.
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Angular contact
Self pay
Rollers: rollers, roller bearings or kegs for higher load and lower speed (truck
s, etc.). the rolls can have kegs format, being used as rolling self-rewarding,
supporting angular displacement in both directions. May have more than one caree
r, and its application in heavy machinery and rolling mills. In case of using ro
ller bearings, the application is given for radial and axial loads simultaneousl
y.
34 Needles: Suitable for constant load and limited radial space. Can be used wit
hout the two rings, since it is fixed in a "cage".
Nomenclature: The numbers of the bearings are names that express the type of bea
ring, the main dimensions, dimensional accuracy and spin, the internal clearance
and other specifications, which constituted the basic number and additional alp
hanumeric symbols. The principal dimensions of bearings commonly used in most ca
ses, are based on the general plan of the main dimensions of ISO, the identifica
tion numbers of normal bearings are regulated by JIS B 1513 (Identification Numb
ers bearings). At the end of the book is a table with symbols of the series of b
earings (sizes and types). Here are some examples of nomenclature.
35 Defects: The common defects found by: · wear · fatigue · mechanical failures.
1. Wear Wear can be caused by: · deficiency lubrication · presence of abrasive
particles · oxidation (rust), · wear skating (idling) · brinelamento wear. 2. Th
e origin of fatigue Fatigue is the displacement of the piece, the idling. The pi
ece is peeling, especially in cases of overcharging. Partial stripping shows fat
igue as misalignment, out of roundness or conificação housing. 3. The brinelamen
to mechanical failure is characterized by depressions corresponding to the rolle
rs or balls in the bearing raceways. Results of application of the preload, with
out turning the roller or the pressing of the bearing with too much interference
. Gouge defect is similar to the previous, but caused by foreign particles that
are pressed by a roller or ball on the track. Plowing is caused by the beating o
f a tool on any rolling road. Burning electric current is usually caused by the
passage of electrical current during welding. Small burned areas are changing ra
pidly with the use of the bearing and causing the displacement of the rolling ro
ad. The cracks and fractures result usually excessive tightening of the ring or
cone on the shaft. They can also appear as a result of rotating the ring about t
he axis, accompanied by overhead. The scuffing can occur due to lubricant too th
ick or sticky. It can also happen by removing off the rollers or balls by excess
ive tightening.
-
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Visual inspection of the state of a bearing: Soft Metallic Metallic uniform non-
uniform bearing good. Need lubrication. Must be exchanged Lack or excess of lubr
icant, dirt, overload, fatigue, loose or pressure. Replace seals and lubricant.
Sound
High temperature lubricant Note Leak
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4. ELEMENTS OF TRANSMISSION
4.1 Pulley and Belt
The belt is a part of a machine that transmits rotation of axes through pulleys,
which are cylindrical parts moved by rotation of axes.
Pulleys: Pulleys are classified according to their surface of contact with the b
elt, and flat (straight or arched) or trapezoidal ("V"). The choice depends on t
he application, for example, the pulley straight saves best belt, while the bulg
ing better guide the belt. See types in the table below.
38
Straps: The straps used are more planar and trapezoidal. V-belts are chosen in p
lace of flat when you want: to prevent slippage, use pulleys very close; elimina
te noise and shocks (typical flat belts). To totally eliminate the risk of slipp
age, is used timing belt (if the valve timing in cars). They are usually constru
cted of polymeric materials and in the case of trapezoidal pulleys, have cords a
nd canvas lining inside, to increase the tensile strength. Transmission: You can
rotate the pulleys in the same direction or reverse direction, depending on the
mounting strap. You can also move forward on the axes are not parallel, as the
drawing below.
The transmission ratio (i) shall not be greater than 6 for flat belts and greate
r than 10 to V-belts. The transmission ratio (i)
39 is calculated by dividing the frequency (rotations for a period of time) or t
he diameters of pulleys. This is due to the fact that the tangential velocities
of the pulleys to be the same. and being then and V =. ø.N
V1 = V2. ø1. = N1. ø2. N2
i = ø2 / ø1 = N1 / N2
Where:
V = tangential velocity of the pulleys; i = gear, pulley diameter ø1 = 1; ø2 pul
ley diameter = 2, N1 = 1 rotation of the pulley, the pulley rotation N2 = 2.
4.2 Currents
Transmission elements are usually metallic, consisting of a series of rings or c
hains. There are several types of chain and each type has a specific application
.€Can bear more load than the belts.
The transmission occurs through the coupling of the chain links with the gear te
eth. The combination of these elements generates a small oscillation during move
ment. This can be reduced with the use of special buffers. Current roll: They co
nsist of wires and splints, and those caught in these pins with cotter pins or r
ubber bands. The rolls are on bushings. They are used in cases where it is neces
sary to apply great efforts to
40 low speed, for example, the drive roller for conveyors.
Current anchors: This chain has rollers. Therefore, the pins and bushings are ma
de with larger diameters, which gives more resistance to this type of power than
the current roll. However, the chain bushing wears out faster and cause more no
ise.
Current links: These consist of simple steel links. His technique has been emplo
yed to carry large loads and low speeds.
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4.3 SWR
The cables are elements that convey movement and support heavy loads (tensile st
rength), displacing them in positions horizontally, vertically or inclined. Are
widely employed in transportation equipment and lifting loads, such as in elevat
ors, excavators and cranes. The fixing of the edges is given by means of hooks o
r loops (formed by twisting of the cable itself). The cables are standardized an
d have limited cargo scheduled by the manufacturers. Structure: They are made wi
th steel wire, cold drawn wire. Initially, the wire is coiled to form legs. Afte
r the legs are wrapped in spirals around a central element, so-called core or so
ul. See diagram below:
Distribution types of wires: There are several types, the most common are: - Nor
mal Distribution: all wires have the same diameter. - Distribution seale: the la
yers are alternating thick and thin wires. - Distribution filler: The legs conta
in small diameter wires that are used as filling the gaps of thick wires. - Dist
ribution warrington: The wires of the legs have different diameters in a single
layer.
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Distribution seale
Filler distribution
Types of souls: They can be of various materials, depending on application. - Fi
ber: it is the most widely used for loads not too heavy, and may be natural (sis
al or ramie) or artificial (polypropylene). - Cotton: the most used in small cab
les. - Asbestos: used for special cables, subjected to high temperatures. - Stee
l: for large loads. Types of torsion: Design
Description
Advantage
The wires of each leg is bent towards this type of twist to the opposite leg to
give more about the soul. The stability to the cable. kinks can be left or right
.
The wires of each leg is bent in the same direction of the legs that are around
the soul. The kinks can be left or right.
This kind of twist increases the resistance to friction (abrasion) and gives mor
e flexibility.
43
4.4 Coupling
It is a mechanical assembly that transmits motion between two shafts or axles. C
an be fixed (trees together as if they were one piece), elastic (soften sudden m
ovements and allow parallel misalignment and / or angle) or furniture (only mate
with drive through drive).
Fixed flanges bolted: it is suitable for large power transmission at low speed.
Fixed with compression sleeve or grip: This type of glove eases maintenance of m
achinery and equipment, with the advantage of not interfering in the positioning
of trees and can be mounted and removed without alignment problems.
44
Fixed disks or plates: Employed in the transmission of large powers in special c
ases, for example, trees of turbines. The contact surfaces in this kind of coupl
ing may be smooth or toothed.
Elastic pins: Elements transmitters are steel pins with rubber sleeves.
Rubber Perflex: The coupling discs are joined peripherally by a rubber connectio
n secured by snap rings. This coupling allows the game longitudinal axis.
45
Elastic claws: The claws, made of scraps of rubber, the openings of encaixamse c
ontradisco and transmit the rotation movement.
Elastic steel tape: It consists of two hubs fitted with flanges grooved, in whic
h is mounted an elastic grid connecting the cubes. The set is housed in two cove
rs provided with joint and back elastic retainer with the cube. All the space be
tween the cables and the covers are filled with grease. Although this coupling t
o be flexible, the trees must be properly aligned at the time of its installatio
n to not cause excessive vibration in service.
46
Elastic curved teeth: The teeth have a slightly curved in the axial direction, w
hich allows up to three degrees of angular misalignment. The toothed ring (trans
mitting part of the movement) has two rows of teeth that are separated by a cent
ral bulge.
Rubber CV joint: This type of joint is used to transmit motion between trees tha
t need to undergo angular variation, during its activity. This board consists of
steel balls which are lodged in gutters.
Furniture claws or teeth: the rotation is transmitted by means of fitting the ja
ws or teeth. Generally, these couplings are used in aprons and gearboxes of conv
entional machine tools.
47
4.5 Threads
Bosses are constant profile in the form of helix (spiral). The threads move in a
uniform, externally or internally, around a cylindrical or conical surface. The
bumps are called fillets. There are threads of transport or movement that trans
forms rotary motion into a longitudinal movement. These threads are used, usuall
y in lathes and presses, especially when frequent assembly and disassembly. Scre
ws square profile: This type of profile is used in equipment and machinery that
suffer great efforts (eg, presses and walruses). Enables the use of multiple thr
eads (up to four entries), which carries greater axial feed per lap.
48
Screws trapezoidal profile: Resists great efforts and is employed in the constru
ction of spindles and nuts, which transmit motion more smoothly and uniformly to
some components of machine tools such as, lathe, planer and milling machine.
Screws trapezoidal profile are also used in thread-worm and crowns (helical gear
s).
Screws mixed Profile: This thread is widely used in building sets and screw nut
with recirculating ball. The ball screws are elements of high transmission effic
iency, transforming rotary motion into linear motion and vice versa, by means of
transmission spheres. For its power transfer and minimum friction, is used in m
achining centers for CNC (Computerized Numerical Control).
49
Calculations of square profile Thread:
Where, p: Step, distance from the beginning of a fillet to the other, measured p
arallel to the axis. From: outside diameter. di: internal diameter. dm: mean dia
meter, sum of external and internal diameters divided by two. on: progress, axia
l displacement on a back spindle (will step times the number of entry). Calculat
ing Torque Drive
Where, coefficient of friction of the screw c: coefficient of friction of the pa
ste; dc: diameter of the collar. Sizing
50
Inside Diameter
Height of nut
Where, H: height of the nut. Verification of Surface Pressure
Where, P: surface pressure, n: number of fillets [height of the nut (H) divided
by the thread pitch (p)]. Example: Scale bolt and nut to a hand press. Basic Inf
ormation: Maximum force to be applied: 15 KN; number of entries from the thread:
1; Nut Material: Grey Cast Iron (r 155 MPa), screw Material: steel ABNT 1020 (e
= 210 MPa), Factor of safety 2. 1. Calculate the allowable stress for the bolt:
adm = e / Sg = 210 / 2 = 105 MPa. 2. Calculate the diameter traction / compress
ion: internal screw with the formula of
51 di = 13.5 mm 3. Designate a step function of the internal diameter, which is
performed by consulting the table: Standard Dimensions for trapezoidal thread -
PROTEC: For di = 13.5 mm, p = 4 mm. from = di + p = 17.5 mm dm = (di + de) / 2 =
15.5 mm = 4. 1 = 4 mm 4. Check which is the coefficient of friction bolt / scre
w in the light of your materials (you should see table): Coefficient of friction
screw / screw - PROTEC: 5 = 0.18. Calculate the torque for the bolt:
T = 30963.42 N.mm 6. Check the inner diameter when subjected to torsional twist
using the formula. Do not forget to use torsional strain (tau permissible). The
larger the formulas found between traction and torsion should be considered: adm
= 0.577. adm = 0.577. 105 = 60.58 MPa
di = 13.73 mm in July. Calculate the number of fillets: n = 27.4 / 4 n = 6.85 8.
Calculate the height of the nut: adm = r / Sg = 155 / 2 = 77.5 MPa.
52
H = 27.4 mm 9. Check the surface pressure
P = 22.5 MPa as the maximum value indicated for surface pressure between parafus
oporca iron-steel is 100 MPa (as PROTEC), so the sizing is correct.
4.6 Gears
Toothed wheels are standard used to transmit motion and power between two axes.
Are also used to vary the number of rotations and direction of rotation from one
shaft to another. There are various types of gears,€being the most common descr
ibed below: Cylindrical Spurs: It's one of the best known. The teeth are paralle
l to each other and parallel to the axis. Are the gears that are simpler and are
heavily used in machines for the variation of rotation, transmitting motion bet
ween parallel shafts. The gear with more teeth is called a coma, while the lowes
t is called the pinion.
53
Cylindrical helical teeth: This type of gear has teeth parallel to each other, b
ut oblique to the axis. Can transmit motion axes are not parallel. The helical t
eeth function more smoothly compared to Spurs. Therefore, they are used in syste
ms with greater speed, producing less noise.
Bevel gears: Is the form of truncated cone and may have straight or helical teet
h. These are the shafts that transmit motion between competitors, ie, that form
90 ° to each other.
Rack:
A bar rack is provided with teeth designed to engage a cog. With this system, we
can transform rotary motion into rectilinear motion and vice versa. You can als
o have helical teeth. One application is the steering system of automobiles.
54
Worm:
The screw is used when one wants to reduce the movement between competing priori
ties. The teeth of the gear that engages the worm is concave, ie has a negative
curvature in the teeth.
Characteristics of gears: Di = internal diameter = external diameter Dp = primit
ive diameter and thickness = v = go = P = step head of the tooth (modulus) = b f
oot of the tooth height h = L = width of tooth gear z = number of teeth
To spur gears with helical teeth, one should add the feature of the helix angle
(or). It also has a normal pace (Pn) and a circular (Pc)
55
Bevel gear units have the following addition: ae = ap external angle = angle pri
mitive ai = ac = internal angle of the cone angle complementary l = tooth width
Helical threads to have the following characteristics ach = bevel angle rc = rad
ius of the concave surface
endless beyond:
56
Tables
57th
58
59
60
61
Symbols of the 62 sets of bearings (sizes and types)
Tolerances for shafts and holes
63
64
65
Bibliography
Dobrovolski, V. Elements of Machines. Moscow: Mir, 1970. NSK. General Catalogue.
2006. SKF. Introduction to Bearings Bearings. In 1996. PROVENZA, Francesco. Des
igner machines. São Paulo: PRO-TEC, 5th ed., 1985. SHIGLEY, Joseph E. Elements o
f Machines. Volume I and II. New York: Scientific and Technical Books Publisher,
1980. Elements of Machines. Volume I and II. Book travel Technician Mechanical
Telecurso 2000.
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