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Pump is a mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress gases, or
force air into inflatable objects such as tires. The symbols for pumps may closely resemble those for
compressors.

Centrifugal pump is rotodynamic pump that uses a revolving impeller to add to the force and
pressure of fluids.

Gear pump provides continuous, non-pulsing flow making it ideal in chemical installations.

Sump pump is widely used to remove accumulated water from a sump pit or other location.

Vacuum pump is applied to improve the efficiency of steam heating systems in many ways. The most
important consideration is the rapid and efficient removal.

Screw pump is the Archimedes screw pump that is still used in irrigation and agricultural
applications.

Tank is for storing process fluids of various types, under different process conditions.

Onion tank refers to an open top collapsible bladder designed for use as a mobile storage solution
when recovering contaminants.

Compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a medium and compresses it to a smaller volume. A
mechanical or electrical drive is typically connected to a pump that is used to compress the medium.

Axial compressor is widely used in gas turbines, such as jet engines, high speed ship engines and
small scale power stations.

Reciprocation compressor is typically used where high compression ratios are required per stage
without high flow rates, and the process fluid is relatively dry.

Rotary compressor is a type of gas compressor which uses a rotary type positive displacement
mechanism.

Mixing is a device that combine or put some materials together to form one substance or mass.

Mixing vessel is a container that is used to blend several components together.

Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat energy between two process flows. Heat
exchangers transfer heat energy through conductive and convective heat transfer.

Cooling towers transfer heat energy to the outside air through the principle of evaporation.
Cooler is a device, container or room that cools air through the evaporation of water or keeps air cool.

Turbine driver is used to drive pumps and fans at petrochemical plants.

Furnace is a device for heating a continuous current of air by means of a fire contained within the
apparatus and without mingling the fresh air with the products of combustion.

Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.

Oil burner is engineered from the ground up exclusively to burn waste oils.

Automatic stoker is applied to supply hot water to central heating systems.

Plate tower is used extensively in many processes and industrial applications.

Packed tower is a type of packed bed used to perform separation processes.

Elevator is used to control the position of the nose of the aircraft and the angle of attack of the wing.

Mixing reactor is widely used in the chemical industry to promote mixing.

Gate valve is a device used to control the flow of liquids and gases.

Check valve, also known as one-way valve, is to prevent the line of medium back.

Globe valve is a mechanism used to control or stop the flow of liquid or gas through a pipe.

Ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it.

Butterfly valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange.

Angle valve is oriented at an angle of 90 deg of gate valve.

All lines to be fine in relation to process piping lines.

Major pipeline is used to connect the equipment in any position.

Major straight line is sued to connect the equipment in the same horizontal or vertical position.
Process connection help to create the process flow between equipments. Double click process
connection to edit description.

Compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a medium and compresses it to a smaller volume. A
mechanical or electrical drive is typically connected to a pump that is used to compress the medium.

Pump refers to a mechanical apparatus using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress
gases, or force air into inflatable objects such as tires. The symbols for pumps may closely resemble
those for compressors.

Mixing is a gear that combine some materials or put them together to form one substance or mass.

Mixing vessel is a container that is used to blend several components together.

Heat exchanger is an equipment used to transfer heat energy between two process flows. Heat
exchangers transfer heat energy through conductive and convective heat transfer.

Cooling towers transfer heat energy to the outside air through the principle of evaporation.

Cooler is a device, container or room that cools air through the evaporation of water or keeps cool.

Furnace means a tool for heating a continuous current of air by means of a fire contained within the
apparatus and without mingling the fresh air with the products of combustion.

Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.

Tank is used to store process fluids of various types, under different process conditions.

Gate valve is a device used to control the flow of liquids and gases.

Check valve, also known as one-way valve, is to prevent the line of medium back.

Globe valve refers to a mechanism used to control or stop the flow of liquid or gas through a pipe.

Ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it.

Butterfly valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange.
Angle valve is oriented at a 90 deg angle of gate valve.

All lines are fine in relation to process piping lines.

Major pipeline is for connection of the equipment in any position.

Major Straight line is sued to connect the equipment in the same horizontal or Vertical position.

Process connection help to create the process flow between equipments. Double click process
connection to edit description.

Flange is a projecting flat rim, collar, or rib on an object, serving for strengthening or attachment or
(on a wheel) for maintaining position on a rail.

Reducer is the component in a pipeline that reduces the pipe size from a larger to a smaller bore
(inner diameter).

Need fresh looking process flow diagram symbols for your design? These process flow diagram
symbols are a cinch to pop in. And their crisp, fine detail will make spectacular, easy-to-understand
diagrams and presentations to your customers.

Pressure transmitter is used to measure pressure, typically of gases or liquids.

Pressure recorder, as its name implies, is used to record the pressure.

Indicator is a thing that indicates the state or level of something.

Thermomter is an instrument for measuring and indicating temperature.

Flow transmitter is a device used as a means of measuring the flow of a specific substance, usually
liquid, through a series of pipelines or tubing.

Welding cannot take its proper place as an engineering tool unless means are provided for conveying the information
from the designer to the workmen. Welding symbols provide the means of placing complete welding information on
drawings. The scheme for symbolic representation of welds on engineering drawings used in this manual is
consistent with the "third angle" method of projection. This is the method predominantly used in the United States.

The joint is the basis of reference for welding symbols. The reference line of the welding symbol (fig. 3-2) is used to
designate the type of weld to be made, its location, dimensions, extent, contour, and other supplementary
information. Any welded joint indicated by a symbol will always have an arrow side and an other side. Accordingly, the
terms arrow side, other side, and both sides are used herein to locate the weld with respect to the joint.

The tail of the symbol is used for designating the welding and cutting processes as well as the welding specifications,
procedures, or the supplementary information to be used in making the weld. If a welder knows the size and type of
weld, he has only part of the information necessary for making the weld. The process, identification of filler metal that
is to be used, whether or not peening or root chipping is required, and other pertinent data must be related to the
welder. The notation to be placed in the tail of the symbol indicating these data is to be establish by each user. If
notations are not used, the tail of the symbol may be omitted.

3-5. ELMENTS OF A WELDING SYMBOL

A distinction is made between the terms "weld symbol" and "welding symbol". The weld symbol (fig. 3-3) indicates the
desired type of weld. The welding symbol (fig. 3-2) is a method of representing the weld symbol on drawings. The
assembled "welding symbol" consists of the following eight elements, or any of these elements as necessary:
reference line, arrow, basic weld symbols, dimensions and other data, supplementary symbols, finish symbols, tail,
and specification, process, or other reference. The locations of welding symbol elements with respect to each other
are shown in figure 3-2.
3-6. BASIC WELD SYMBOLS

a. General. Weld symbols are used to indicate the welding processes used in metal joining operations, whether the
weld is localized or "all around", whether it is a shop or field weld, and the contour of welds. These basic weld
symbols are summarized below and illustrated in figure 3-3.

b. Arc and Gas Weld Symbols. See figure 3-3.

c. Resistance Weld Symbols. See figure 3-3.

d. Brazing, Forge, Thermit, Induction, and Flow Weld Symbols.

(1) These welds are indicated by using a process or specification reference in the tail of the welding symbol as shown
in figure 3-4.

(2) When the use of a definite process is required (fig. 3-5), the process may be indicated by one or more of the letter
designations shown in tables 3-1 and 3-2.
NOTE

Letter designations have not been assigned to arc spot, resistance spot, arc seam, resistance seam, and projection
welding since the weld symbols used are adequate.
Piping Coordination Systems - Symbols for
Isometrics
Butt weld Socket Weld Threaded
Image Fittings Fittings Image
Symbol Symbol Symbol

Elbow 90 Elbow 90

Elbow 45 Elbow 45

Tee equal Tee equal

Tee reducing Tee reducing

Cap Cap

Reducer Reducer
... ... ...
concentric concentric

Reducer Reducer
... ... ...
eccentic eccentic

Butt weld Socket Weld Threaded


Image Fittings Fittings Image
Symbol Symbol Symbol

Flanges Weld Neck Socket Weld Threaded Slip-On Lap-Joint Blind Flanges

Symbol Symbol

Image Image
Flanges Weld Neck Socket Weld Threaded Slip-On Lap-Joint Blind Flanges

Socket or
Butt weld Flanged
Image Valves Threaded Valves Image
Symbol Symbol
Symbol

Gate Gate

Globe Globe

Ball Ball

Plug Plug

Butterfly ... Butterfly

Needle Needle

Diaph ... Diaph

Y-type Y-type

Three Three
way way

Check Check

Bottom ... ... Bottom


Relief ... ... Relief

Control Control
... ...
straight straight

Control Control
... ...
angle angle

Socket or
Butt weld Flanged
Image Valves Threaded Valves Image
Symbol Symbol
Symbol

Miscellaneous Symbol Image Miscellaneous

Branch outlet Branch outlet


Weldolet Weldolet

Branch outlet Branch outlet


Nipolet Nipolet

Flanged branch Flanged branch


outlet outlet
Flangolet Flangolet

Spade Spade

Spectacle Spectacle
blind blind
Hammer Hammer
blind blind

Spacer Spacer

Restriction Restriction
orifice orifice

Field Weld
Field Weld
Butt weld
Butt weld

Pipe to pipe Pipe to pipe


connection connection

Pipe bend Pipe bend


with with
special radius special radius

Sight glass Sight glass

Direction of
hand wheel Hand wheel
wrench

Y-type Y-type
strainer strainer

Conical Conical
strainer strainer
Conical
strainer
built-in

Orifice
assembly (typical) Orifice
showing assembly
position of taps

Meter run
orifice assembly
Meter run
(typical)
flanged / butt weld

Miscellaneous Symbol Image Miscellaneous

Formula of Calculations Weight


Calculation of S.S.Sheets, Circle, Pipes, Round Bar & Flat Bar

Weight of S.S. Sheets & Plates ::


Length ( Mtrs ) X Width ( Mtrs ) X Thick ( MM ) X 8 = Wt. Per PC
Length ( fit ) X Width ( Mtrs ) X Thick ( mm ) X = Wt. Per PC
Weight of S.S. Circle
Dia ( mm ) X Dia (mm ) X Thick ( mm ) / 160 = Gms. Per PC
Dia ( mm ) X Dia (mm ) X Thick ( mm ) X 0.00000063 = Kg. Per PC.
Weight of S.S. Pipe
O.D. ( mm ) W Thick ( mm ) X W.Thick ( mm ) X 0.0248 = Wt. Per Mtr.
O.D. ( mm ) W Thick ( mm ) X W.Thick ( mm ) X 0.00758 = Wt. Per Mtr.
Weight of S.S. Round Bar.
Dia ( mm ) X Dia (mm ) X 0.00623 = Wt. Per. Mtr.
Dia ( mm ) X Dia (mm ) X 0.0019 = Wt. Per. Feet.
Weight of S.S. Square Bar
Dia ( mm ) X Dia ( mm ) X 0.00788 = Wt. Per. Mtr
Dia ( mm ) X Dia ( mm ) X 0.0024 = Wt.Per. Feet.
Weight of S.S. Hexagonal Bar
Dia ( mm ) X Dia ( mm ) X 0.00680 = Wt. Per.Mtr
Width ( mm ) X Dia ( mm ) X 0.002072 = Wt. Per Feet
Weight of S.S. Flate Bar
Width (mm ) X Thick ( mm ) X 0.00798 = Wt.Per Mtr.
Width (mm ) X Thick ( mm ) X 0.00243 = Wt.Per Feet.
Weight of Brass Pipe / Copper Pipe
O.D. ( mm ) Thick ( mm ) X Thick (mm ) X 0.0260 = Wt. Per Mtr.
Weight of Lead Pipe.
O.D. ( mm ) Wt ( mm ) X Wt ( mm ) X 0.0345 = Wt. Per Mtr.
Weight of Aluminium Pipe
O.D. ( mm ) Thick ( mm ) X Thick ( mm ) X 0.0083 = Wt.Per. Mtr.
Weight of Aluminium Sheet
Length ( Mtr ) X Width ( Mtr ) X Thick ( mm ) X 2.69 = Wt.Per PC
Weight of Conversion of Mtr to Feet
Wt of 1 Mtr. 3.2808 = Wt.Per Feet.
Barlows Formula for calculating bursting pressure
P = 2ST/Dort DP/2S or S DP/2t or D = 2st/p
P = Bursting Pressure P. si.
S = Tensile Strength of tube.
T = Well Thickness ( In Inches )
D = Outside diameter ( In Inches )