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# CSEC Physics June 2015 Paper 2 Question 4

4a

## Newtons three laws of motion:

i. 1st law: A body remains in a state of rest or uniform motion/speed in a straight line
unless compelled by an external resultant or unbalanced force to act otherwise.

ii. 2nd law: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to
applied resultant/ unbalanced force and takes place in the direction in which the
force acts.

iii. 3rd law: If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts an equal but
oppositely directed force on body A.

4 b (i)

The initial momentum (p) of a test dummy in a car before it crashes into a wall is calculated
from:

p = mu
Where:

## Mass (m) of dummy = 70 kg, and

Initial velocity of dummy (u) = 26 ms-1

## p = (70) (26) = 1820 kgms-1 or Ns

4 b (ii)

The average force (F) exerted on the dummy by a seatbelt is determined from:

dp
F1 = dt or F1 = ma

dv m( vu)

F1 = m ( dt = t1

Where:

## Mass (m) = 70 kg,

Initial velocity (u) = 26 ms-1,
Final velocity of dummy (v) = 0 ms-1 (since it is brought to rest)
Duration of collision (t1) = 0.1 s
( 70 kg ) ( 026 ) m s1
F1 = 0.1 s = -18200 N

4 b (iii)

The duration of collision (t2) with a new force (F2) can be calculated by rearranging the formula:

m( vu)
F2 t2 , to make (t2) the subject

m(vu)
t2 = F2

## Where the new force (F2) = -45 000 N

70 (026)
t2 = 45000 = 0.0404 s
CSEC Physics June 2015 Paper 2 Question 5

5 a (i). Figure 3 (A) below shows a graph of Volume of a gas vs. Temperature in Celsius. The
graph is in a straight line which does not pass through the origin, but has a y-intercept.

When the graph is extrapolated to cut the x-axis at zero value, it cuts the x-axis at -273oC.
This temperature is called absolute zero.

Figure 3 (B) below shows a graph of Volume of a gas vs. Temperature in Kelvin.
Absolute zero is taken to be ZERO on the Kelvin scale, so that the graph passes through
the origin.

5 a (ii) The mathematical relationship between the Kelvin and Celsius Temperature scale
is:

T / K = / C + 273
5 b (i) The Volume of a gas changes with pressure, at constant temperature.

To calculate the new volume of the gas, use the Ideal Gas Equation:

P1 V 1 P 2 V 2
=
T1 T2

## P1V1 = P2V2 (Boyles Law)

To calculate the new volume (V2), rearrange the formula (P1V1 = P2V2) to make (V2) the subject:

P1 V 1
=V 2
P2

P1 V 1
V 2 =
P2

Where:

## Initial Pressure (P1) = 5 atmospheres

Initial Volume (V1) = 50 ml
Final Pressure (P2) = 1 atmosphere

## ( 5 atmospheres ) (50 ml)

V 2 = = 250 ml
(1 atmosphere)
5 b (ii) The pressure of a gas changes with the temperature, at constant volume.

To calculate the new pressure of the gas, use the Ideal Gas Equation:

P1 V 1 P 2 V 2
=
T1 T2

## Since Volume is constant (V1 = V2), the equation becomes:

P 1 P2
= ( Pressure Law)
T1 T 2

P1 P2
To calculate the new pressure (P2), rearrange the formula ( T 1 = T 2 ) to make (P2) the subject:

P1 T 2
=P2
T1

P1 T 2
P2 =
T1

Where:

## Initial pressure (P1) = 5 atmosphere

Initial temperature (T1) = 25 oC = (25 + 273) K = 298 K
Final temperature (T2) = 60 oC = (60 + 273) K = 333 K

( 5 atmospheres ) (333 K )
P2 = =5.59 atmospheres
(298 K )
CSEC Physics June 2015 Paper 2 Question 6

6 a (i) Figure 4 below shows an incident ray parallel to the Principal Axis of a Diverging Lens
which diverges as it emerges from the lens. (It diverges as though it travelled in a straight line
from the principal focus on the incident side of the lens.

The focal length is the distance between the optical centre of the lens and the principal
focus (f)

## Image Distance ( v ) Image Size

=
6 a (ii) Magnification (M) = Object Distance (u ) Object Size

6 b (i) An object (AB) is placed in front of a converging lens. To calculate the position (v) of an
image formed by the lens, rearrange the real-is-positive formula:

1 1 1
= + To make (v) the subject:
f u v

1 1 1
= +
f u v

1 1 1
=
v f u

Where:

## Focal length of a converging lens (f) = +10 cm

Object distance (u) = 20 cm
1 1 1 21 1
= = =
v 10 20 20 20

v = +20 cm
The image is formed on the opposite side of the lens to the Object (AB)

Image Distance ( v ) 20 cm
= =1
6 b (ii) Magnification (M) = Object Distance (u ) 20 cm

6 b (iii) The image formed by the lens is real (since the image distance calculated v = +20 cm
and real-is-positive).