12 views

Uploaded by Leandro Az

Prueba de de Z(2)=Pi al cuadrado sobre 6.

- Exam 1 Solutions
- Www.csd.Cs.cmu.Edu Education Bscs Ugcourses
- TI84_Plus_CE_ReferenceGuide_EN.pdf
- Fin118 Unit 4
- Key Review Formulas
- Syllabus
- Math 2310 Solution 2
- Topic 8
- inverse trig function ws 2
- F90-Array
- Demidovich Problems in Mathematical Analysis
- Intro Complex Numbers
- Trig Calculus
- QA20091 em2 21_2
- NxbJzEMCU
- Matlab Tutorial2
- Chain Rule Reverse
- UG-Engg.pdf
- Box Muller
- syllabus

You are on page 1of 5

Source: The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 120, No. 7 (AugustSeptember 2013),

pp. 642-645

Published by: Mathematical Association of America

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.4169/amer.math.monthly.120.07.642

Accessed: 19-04-2017 03:02 UTC

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted

digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about

JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at

http://about.jstor.org/terms

Mathematical Association of America is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access

to The American Mathematical Monthly

This content downloaded from 200.49.224.88 on Wed, 19 Apr 2017 03:02:09 UTC

All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms

NOTES

Edited by Sergei Tabachnikov

2

Daniele Ritelli

dx dy

Z Z

,

0 0 (1 + y)(1 + x 2 y)

we give another solution to the Basel Problem

X 1 2

(2) = = .

n=1

n2 6

X 1 2

= , (1)

n=1

n2 6

has been proved in many different ways. In this note, we focus on the derivation of

(1), taking advantage of the nice interplay between a double integral and a geometric

series, as has appeared in several articles on this subject [1, 5, 3]. As Sir Michael

Atiyah declared in an interview [8]:

Any good theorem should have several proofs, the more the better. For two rea-

sons: usually, different proofs have different strengths and weaknesses, and they

generalize in different directions: they are not just repetitions of each other. . . .

We find that there is always something worthy of attention in a new proof of a known

result. Here, we provide a proof that uses a rational function with the lowest degree

among the functions used in different proofs of the same kind.

The author who inaugurated this approach was Apostol [1], inspired by Beukers

paper [2], where the double integral

1 1

dx dy

Z Z

(2)

0 0 1 xy

was used to prove the irrationality of (2). Apostol, instead, evaluated (2) in two ways:

first, by expanding 1/(1 x y) into a geometric series, and then with a change of

variables corresponding to the rotation of the coordinate axes through the angle /4

http://dx.doi.org/10.4169/amer.math.monthly.120.07.642

MSC: Primary 40A25

This content downloaded from 200.49.224.88 on Wed, 19 Apr 2017 03:02:09 UTC

All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms

radians. By equating the expression so obtained, the value of (2) is found. It is worth

noting that for the second evaluation, we have to compute the elaborate integrals

1/ 2

1 u

Z

I1 = arctan du

0 2 u2 2 u2

and

2

!

1 2u

Z

I2 = arctan du,

1/ 2 2 u2 2 u2

and Kolk is similar [3]. They expand 1/(1 x 2 y 2 ) into a geometric series to obtain

the (2) series, after which they introduce the two-dimensional trigonometric changes

of variables

sin u sin v

x= , y= ,

cos v cos u

to evaluate the double integral. The proof of Hirschhon [6] stems from the double

inequality

2

a a 4n+2

< 2 (arctan a)2 , for 0 < a < 1, (3)

X

2 arctan <

1 + 1 a2 n=0

(2n + 1)2

inequality with regard again to the function f (x, y) = 1/(1 x 2 y 2 ). To obtain (3),

two integrals of f (x, y) over two different regions of the plane are computed. All

these approaches have in common the need to remove a singularity at the point (1, 1)

of the integrand. Our proof is inspired by [5], where another definite integral

1

+

x

Z Z

dx dy (4)

0 0 (1 + x 2 )(1 + x 2 y2)

is computed, first by integrating with respect to x and then with respect to y, and vice

versa. The same integral is considered in the probabilistic proof given in [7], where

integral (4) comes from the product of two positive Cauchy random variables. The

proof of [5], as well our proof, uses functions with no singularity in the domain of

integration, so we can consider that in same sense these proofs are simpler. Moreover,

our proof uses a lower-degree rational function than the one used in [5].

Our starting point, as with most of the papers on this subject, is that (1) is equiva-

lent to

X 1 2

= . (5)

n=0

(2n + 1)2 8

In our proof we will show (5) starting from the double integral

dx dy

Z Z

. (6)

0 0 (1 + y)(1 + x 2 y)

This content downloaded from 200.49.224.88 on Wed, 19 Apr 2017 03:02:09 UTC

All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms

If we integrate (6) first with respect to x and then to y, we find that

1

dx

1 arctan( y x) x=

Z Z Z

dy = dy

0 1+y 0 1 + x2y 0 1+y y x=0

dy

Z

=

2 0 y(1 + y)

2u 2

Z

= du = , (7)

2 0 u(1 + u 2 ) 2

where we used the change of variable y = u 2 in the last step. Reversing the order of

integration yields

Z

dy 1 1 x2

Z Z Z

dx = dy dx

0 0 (1 + y)(1 + x 2 y) 0 1x

2

0 1+y 1 + x2y

1 1 ln x

Z Z

= ln dx = 2 dx. (8)

0 1 x 2 x 2

0 x 2 1

ln x 2

Z

dx = . (9)

0 x2 1 4

Now split the integration domain in (9) between [0, 1] and [1, ) and change the

variable x = 1/u in the second integral, so that

1

ln x ln x

ln x

Z Z Z

dx = dx + dx

0 x2 1 0 x2 1 1 x2 1

1 1

ln x ln u

Z Z

= dx + du. (10)

0 x 1

2

0 u2 1

1

ln x 2

Z

dx = . (11)

0 x2 1 8

Equation (5) now follows, expanding, as in [5], the denominator of the integrand on

the left-hand side of (11) into a geometric series and using the Monotone Convergence

Theorem (see [4, pp. 9596]). Thus, we have:

1 1 + 1

ln x ln x

Z Z Z

(x 2n ln x) dx.

X

dx = dx = (12)

0 x2 1 0 1 x2 n=0 0

1 1 Z 1

x 2n+1 x 2n 1

Z

2n

(x ln x) dx = ln x + dx = , (13)

0 2n + 1 0 0 2n + 1 (2n + 1)2

This content downloaded from 200.49.224.88 on Wed, 19 Apr 2017 03:02:09 UTC

All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms

so that considering (13), we can write (12) as

1 +

ln x 1

Z X

dx = , (14)

0 x 1

2

n=0

(2n + 1)2

REFERENCES

1. T. Apostol, A proof that Euler missed: Evaluating (2) the easy way, Math. Intelligencer 5 (1983) 5960,

available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03026576.

2. F. Beukers, A note on the irrationality of (2) and (3), Bull. London Math. Soc. 11 (1979) 268272,

available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1112/blms/11.3.268.

3. F. Beukers, E. Calabi, J.A.C. Kolk, Sums of generalized harmonic series and volumes, Nieuw Arch. Wisk.

11 (1993) 217224.

4. M. Capinski, E. Kopp, Measure, Integral and Probability, second edition, Springer, New York, 2004.

2

5. J.D. Harper, Another simple proof of 1 + 212 + 312 + = 6 , Amer. Math. Monthly 110 (2003) 540541,

available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3647912.

2

6. M.D. Hirschhon, A simple proof that (2) = 6 , Math. Intelligencer 22 (2011) 8182, available at http:

//dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00283-011-9217-4.

2

7. L. Pace, Probabilistically proving that (2) = 6 , Amer. Math. Monthly 118 (2011) 641643, available at

http://dx.doi.org/10.4169/amer.math.monthly.118.07.641.

8. M. Raussen, C. Skau, Interview with Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer, Notices Amer. Math. Soc. 52

(2005) 225233.

daniele.ritelli@unibo.it

for the Birthday Problem

Matthias Arnold and Werner Gla

Abstract. We approximate the probability for at least k = 2 or 3 of n persons having the same

birthday if we ignore leap years and assume that each day is equally likely. Although there are

exact formulas available in the literature, a possible drawback to using them in the classroom

is that these formulas are comparatively cumbersome. As an alternative, we suggest an easily

computable approximation that still provides a close fit. Furthermore, the approximation al-

lows an easy answer to the question of how many people are needed, so that the probability of

at least two or three of them having the same birthday exceeds a given value.

The famous birthday problem is concerned with the probability of matching birthdays

in a randomly selected group of people. Most students are surprised to learn that the

probability for at least one match exceeds 0.5 if more than 22 persons are involved.

Numerous authors generalize the birthday problem to, for example, more than two

http://dx.doi.org/10.4169/amer.math.monthly.120.07.645

MSC: Primary 62E17, Secondary 41A10

This content downloaded from 200.49.224.88 on Wed, 19 Apr 2017 03:02:09 UTC

All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms

- Exam 1 SolutionsUploaded bySHINeeXInfinite
- Www.csd.Cs.cmu.Edu Education Bscs UgcoursesUploaded by1985 production
- TI84_Plus_CE_ReferenceGuide_EN.pdfUploaded byPaulDahlberg
- Fin118 Unit 4Uploaded byayadi_ezer6795
- Key Review FormulasUploaded byRema Nov
- SyllabusUploaded byShreya Pandit
- Math 2310 Solution 2Uploaded byapi-3835421
- Topic 8Uploaded byzila cute
- inverse trig function ws 2Uploaded byapi-314332531
- F90-ArrayUploaded byFernando L
- Demidovich Problems in Mathematical AnalysisUploaded byjwcstar7985
- Intro Complex NumbersUploaded byash1968
- Trig CalculusUploaded bywteguh99
- QA20091 em2 21_2Uploaded byapi-25895802
- NxbJzEMCUUploaded byfrank_grimes
- Matlab Tutorial2Uploaded byAsterix
- Chain Rule ReverseUploaded byJosué Quintanilla
- UG-Engg.pdfUploaded byShubham Jain
- Box MullerUploaded byDavid James
- syllabusUploaded byPoornanand Naik
- Gate SyllabusUploaded byAmit Pathak
- dddrUploaded byAnonymous N3LpAX
- Calculus A Complete Introduction (Teach Yourself), 4th Edition.pdfUploaded byRohan Vijay Sarode
- MA201Uploaded bykargo
- pgecet syllbus.docxUploaded byNelson Johnson
- Lesson Planning OdesUploaded byabhinavka123
- Gate-2014-Exam-Syllabus-for-Instrumentation-Engineering.pdfUploaded byநந்த_குமார்
- Surface IntegrationUploaded byMora Spirit
- 02 Definite IntegrationUploaded byHarshdeep Maurya
- VUTU6OKMUploaded byRamya Datta

- David Hilbert. La búsqueda de la certidumbre.Uploaded byLeandro Az
- David Hilbert. La búsqueda de la certidumbre.Uploaded byLeandro Az
- Linear Functionals - S. MrówkaUploaded byLeandro Az
- 137-209-1-SMUploaded byAngelito Mogollon
- Manual Servicio Bomba Ksb MegachemUploaded byFrancisco Pulgar Pizarro
- Mantenimiento programadoUploaded byLeandro Az
- MAN_DR_Hamiltoniana.pdfUploaded byLeandro Az
- Einstein, Hilbert and Equations of GravitationUploaded byLeandro Az
- Einstein, Hilbert and Equations of GravitationUploaded byLeandro Az
- criteriosdeconvergenciaparaseries-120619234633-phpapp02Uploaded byRomel Huaraca Paredes
- criteriosdeconvergenciaparaseries-120619234633-phpapp02Uploaded byRomel Huaraca Paredes
- anafunap2Uploaded byLeandro Ribeiro
- 201608 Full IssueUploaded byLeandro Az
- Pigna Sobre M. MorenoUploaded byLeandro Az
- Notices of AMS 2016Uploaded byLeandro Az
- On Integrals Related to and Extensions of the Lebesgue Integrals - T. H. Hildebrandt (AMS, 1917)Uploaded byLeandro Az
- La Demostración Elemental de TNPUploaded byLeandro Az
- Orígenes de.la.Teoria.de.DistribucionesUploaded byAnonymous TlGnQZv5d7
- Etnocentrismo.rtfUploaded byLeandro Az
- The UnforgivenUploaded byLeandro Az
- Teoria. Segunda Parte_2016Uploaded byLeandro Az
- Ejercicio de programacion linealUploaded byLeandro Az
- Undertaker With FireUploaded byLeandro Az
- Preliminaries PDEUploaded byLeandro Az
- pág 33-40Uploaded byLeandro Az
- Jean Pierre SerreUploaded byCarlos Pérez
- Carta de Serge Lang a Mordell y Siegel Smf Gazette 63-17-36Uploaded byLeandro Az
- Sistema en ParaleloUploaded byLeandro Az
- Tratamientos Tópicos de La PsoriasisUploaded byLeandro Az

- Anathemas Sunday OrthodoxyUploaded byDavid Fotis Cheung
- 1984 - Psychoanalytic Approach.docUploaded byAndra Picus
- AA AllisonDalton CharlottesWeb LessonPlan 10ppUploaded byRaghunathan Srinivasan
- HSC Drama EssayUploaded byRachael Jones
- Blog Importance of Industrial Training for Hospitality StudentsUploaded byjazebel3
- sample_capstone_project_Part1.pdfUploaded byKaran Singhania
- Ahuvia Mika, Israel Among the AngelsUploaded byPosa Nicolae Toma
- SopUploaded bySidhartha Katta
- Law of Torts IUploaded bymaharaj.vvv1051
- Ayers Model Resume - April 2019Uploaded byLauren Ayers
- Tyler Durden - Ev QuestionsUploaded byJoseph John
- Unit2-b(AS)Uploaded bypunte77
- Ethical values of Corporate movieUploaded byτυσηαρ ηαβιβ
- Between My Finger and My ThumbUploaded byNicola Longo
- FrankensteinUploaded byernansanga
- Annotated Lesson Plan: The Age of ExplorersUploaded byLara Landry
- Concept of Constitution-Polsci Slide( Roel G. Eroma)Uploaded byCELINE
- Tony Buzan - The mind map bookUploaded byFernando
- cur516 week 8 1Uploaded byapi-295055860
- Hewitt9thwkbk04b.docUploaded byLove Bordamonte
- BACHELOR’S DEGREE PROGRAMME (BDP)Uploaded bymx2811
- The Nine Personality TypesUploaded bySidrodelaCruz
- Sociologia Organ UmssUploaded byBrayan Torrez Balderrama
- PERF Management.Uploaded byanzani
- Indian-Hindu-Vedic-Astronomy-Astrology-Palmistry-Books-Download-9112415115-165-BooksUploaded bybandarat
- Deep Trance Medium Beatrice BunnerUploaded bywoojer
- The Pope's Infallible MagisteriumUploaded byQuo Primum
- numathUploaded byvipimohan11
- Macbeth AnalysisUploaded byJames
- epese 565r team presentationUploaded byapi-314686973