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Nalinikanth.M, Ravi Kumar.V
ECE, KIET Korangi, India
Abstract— An embedded system can be defined as the computing device that has computer hardware, either with software embedded in it as one of its most important component. It may be an independent system or a part of a larger system. The emergence of embedded systems is a recent development. As a scientific discipline it resembles the state of microelectronics (and VLSI design, in particular) around 1980. Today’s challenge is similar to back then, except that the stakes are probably higher. Embedded systems will appear in virtually all devices, and intelligent devices have the tendency to oust their "stupid" counterparts from the market place, just like CD players have ousted gramophone players. Thanks to developments in microelectronics, the computing power of the desktop computers is now becoming available on the palmtops. Embedded systems are heterogeneous. Since they are mixtures of hardware and software, trade-off is important design decisions: do we realize a function in hardware or in software? But embedded systems are more heterogeneous than just combining computer science & digital electronics. This paper presents an overview of existing modes of Embedded Systems, architecture & their application. A look has also been given to future deployment of Embedded Systems Keywords— Put your keywords here, keywords are separated by comma.
transducers or commands from a human being such as pressing of a button. The output can be electrical signals to drive another system, an LED or LCD display for displaying of information to the users. Embedded Systems used in process control, automobiles, consumer electronic items etc. fall into this category in a process control system, the inputs are from sensors that convert a physical entity such as temperature or pressure into its equivalent electrical signal. These electrical signals are processed by the system and the appropriate electrical signals are produced. 2.2. Real-time Systems:Embedded Systems in which some specific work has to be done in specific time period are called real-time systems. 2.3 Network Information Appliances:Embedded systems that are provided with network interfaces & accessed by networks such as Local Area Network or the Internet are called networked information appliances.
I. INTRODUCTION An embedded system can be defined as the computing device that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one of its most important component. It may be either an independent system or a part of a larger system. As its software usually embeds in ROM ,it does not need secondary memories as in a computer. Nearly 99% of the processors manufactured end up in embedded systems. Embedded systems find applications in every industrial segment. Embedded systems can be categorized as stand-alone systems, real-time systems, networked information appliances & mobile devices. Just in the 10 years, such changes have occurred more rapidly that they see more revolutionaries than evolutionary. As these systems have brought about radical changes in Electronics and Computer, they have also begun to impact other human activities. II. CATEGORIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM 2.1 Stand-alone Embedded Systems:As the name implies, stand-alone systems work in standalone mode. They take inputs, process them & produce the desired output. The input can be electrical signal from
3.OVERVIEW OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:Every embedded system consists of custom – built hardware built around a Central Processing Unit (CPU). This hardware also contains memory chips onto which software is loaded. The software residing on the memory chip is called the firmware. The embedded system architecture can be represented as a layered architecture as shown in fig-4. The operating system runs above the hardware and the application software run above the operating system. 3.1 Building Block of hardware of an Embedded System:Central Processing Unit (CPU):The CPU is a unit that centrally fetches & processes a set of general-purpose instructions. The CPU instruction set includes instructions for data transfer operations, ALU operations, stack operations, input &output operations & program control, sequencing & supervising operations.
special processing & control circuitry may be required for an embedded system. missiles etc. If the deadlines are missed. microprocessors are more powerful. Memory:The memory is categorized as Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). the same software will run throughout its life. transducers.g. in a process control system.1 Performance:Many embedded systems have time constraints. Program flow Control Unit (CU) 2. You can imagine the damage that can be done if such deadlines are not met in a safety system of a nuclear plant. on the other hand. The size and the weight (i. a constraint can be: “if the temperature exceeds 40 degrees. Its main attraction is that on the chip itself. 1. Application-specific circuitry:Sensors. General Purpose Processor (GPP):a) Microprocessor b) Microcontroller c) Embedded processor d) Digital signals processor (DSP) e) Media Processor 2. SPECIALITIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:While designing the embedded systems. because in such cases. knowledge of microprocessors & Microcontrollers is a prerequisite. 4. depending on its application. For instance. open a valve within 10 milliseconds. Communication interfaces:The embedded systems may need to interact with other embedded systems or they may have to transmit data to a desktop. . the cost is of utmost importance. compactness) are the important parameters in embedded systems used in aircraft.3 Cost:For an embedded system used in safety applications of a nuclear plant or in a spacecraft.e. 4. Execution Unit (EU) . but you need to use many external computers with them. DSP is mainly used for applications in which signal processing is involved. microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP). the power consumption of an embedded system has to be very low. once the software is transferred to the embedded system. ADC etc. For an embedded system designer. The contents of RAM will be erased if power is switched off. However. We do not like a mobile phone that has to be carried on our backs. pipelining &superscaling units) that are additionally present & that result in faster processing of instructions. GPP core(s) or ASIP core (s) integrated into either an Application Specific Integrated Circuit Circuit (ASIC) or a Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI) circuit or an FPGA core integrated with processor unit(s) in a VLSI (ASIC) chip. Application Specific System Processor (ASSP) As Additional Processor 3. So. every inch & every grain matters.5 Software Up gradation capability:Embedded systems are meant for a very specific task. Processor in the System:An embedded system processor chip or Core can be one of the following. To reduce the battery drain & avoid frequent recharging of the battery. cost may not be a very important factor. there will be many other components such as memory. 4.The CPU can be of the following:Microcontroller. Microprocessor:A microprocessor is a single VLSI chip that has a CPU &may also have some other units (for e. 4. Input devices:Unlike the desktops. developers have to keep the below specialties in mind: 4. the I/P devices to an embedded system have very limited capability.: floating-point processing arithmetic unit. it may result in a catastrophe.4 Size:Size is certainly a factor for many embedded systems. A processor has two essential units: 1.2 Power Consumption:Most of the embedded systems operate through a battery. for an embedded system used in consumer electronics or office automation. A micro-controller is a low-cost processor. The circuitry interacts with the processor to carry out the necessary work. 4.” The system meets such deadlines. Block diagram of Component of the Embedded System Hardware:Processor:A processor is the heart of the embedded system. Multiprocessor system using General Purpose processors (GPPS) & Application Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs) 4. Output devices:The output devices of the embedded systems also have very limited capability.
802. a very of operating systems are available which can be ported on to the embedded system.Financial dealing through cash & cheques are now slowly paving way for transactions using smart cards and ATM (Automatic Teller Machine. electronic toy. industrial control & entertainment sector. 5. microwave oven. Developing embedded systems for security applications is one of the most lucrative businesses nowadays. RECENT TRENDS IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:5. embedded systems can be provided networking capability through communication interfaces such as Ethernet.5 Wireless technologies:. telecommunications. These include pharmaceutical. due to the availability of crosscompilers.Availability of a number of tools for development. nuclear energy. low-cost systems. APPLICATION AREAS:.4 Computer Networking:. The measuring equipment we use in laboratories to measure parameters such as weight. data communication. The children need embedded systems to play smart video games & to operate automatic chocolate 6.7 Security:. the object-oriented languages like C++ & Java are now catching up. routers.3 Operating Systems:Unlike the desktop on which the options for an operating system are limited. This equipment’s include diagnostic aids such as ECG. The range of embedded system is vast & includes all industrial & commercial sectors. 6. Personal Digital Assistants. leading to small. . digital diary. 6. 6.Computer networking products such as bridges.2 Mobile Devices:Mobile devices such as mobile phones. In broad terms embedded systems are programmable devices or systems which are generally used to control or monitor things like processes machinery.Almost every medical equipment in the hospital is an embedded system.1 Processor Power:The growing importance of embedded systems can be gauged by the availability of processors about 150 varieties of processors are available from around 50 semiconductor vendors.6 Development Tools:. has a small micro-controller and memory. most of the development is now done in high-level languages such as C. are all embedded systems. 6. 6 Development of embedded system was done mostly in assembly languages. & it interacts with the smart card reader / ATM machine & acts as an electronic wallet. Smart card. CONCLUSION:An embedded system is closely integrated with the main system It may not interact directly with the environment. the embedded systems technology.Testing & measurement are the fundamental requirements in all scientific and engineering activities.Security of persons and information has always been a major issue. of the size of a credit card.Advances in mobile communications are paving way for many interesting applications using embedded systems. temperature. Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN).4 Communication Interfaces and Networking Capability:With the availability of low-cost chips.5 Programming Languages:Fig.3 Medical electronics:. cement. sugar. voltage. oil exploration.PLDs& FPGA pave the way for reducing the components on an embedded system. They perform control. are a special category of an embedded system.2 Industrial automation:. The objective of this study is to enlighten readers about the application of embedded systems.5. DVD player. 5. Thus embedded systems contain programmed instruction running via processor chips. 6.Today a lot of industries use embedded systems for process control.8 Finance:. We need to project our homes and offices. current etc. also expanded as Any Time Money) machine. 5. 6. 5.1 AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINE (ATM):10. debugging & testing as well as for modeling the embedded systems is now paving way for the fast development of robust & reliable systems. Asynchronous Transfer Mode & relay switches are the embedded systems that implement the necessary data communication protocols. & also the information we transmit & store. However. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS:7. Embedded systems are rapidly becoming a catalyst for change in the computing. blood pressure measuring devices & X-ray scanners etc. 7. remote controls for TV & air conditioner etc. 6. electricity generation & transmission.11b wireless LAN & infrared. smart phones etc.In today’s world the electronic devices have been dominated. 6. 5.6 Instrumentation:. environmental equipment & communications. protection & monitoring tasks. 5.7 Programmable Hardware:. & the impact of the technology on various markets. EEG.1 Consumer appliances:At home we use a number of embedded systems that include digital camera.
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