Introduction to Computer Networks and

Data Communications – Eighth Edition

Chapter 1

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter you should be able to:

 Define the basic terminology of computer networks
 Recognize the individual components of the big picture of computer networks
 Outline the basic networks
 Cite the reasons for using a network model and explain how they apply to current network
 List the layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite and describe the duties of each layer
 List the layers of the OSI model and describe the duties of each layer
 Compare the OSI and TCP/IP models and list their differences and similarities

Chapter Outline
1. Introduction

2. The Language of Computer Networks

3. The Big Picture of Networks

4. Common Examples of Communications Networks
a. The desktop computer and the Internet
b. A laptop computer and a wireless connection
c. Cell phone systems
d. Other common network systems

5. Convergence

6. Network Architectures
a. The TCP/IP protocol suite
b. The OSI model
c. Logical and physical connections

Examples of computer networks include banking. and WAN to LAN connections. they are necessary to understanding the big picture of how . transportation. Once considered primarily the domain of communications engineers and technicians. The Language of Computer Networks To better understand the area of computer networks. Summary Lecture Notes Introduction The world of computer networks and data communications is a surprisingly vast and increasingly significant field of study. home computer users. computer programmers. you should understand the basic broad categories of computer networks and data communications. The TCP/IP Protocol Suite In Action 8. and telecommunications. retail sales. LAN to LAN connections. and everyday citizens. education. It is virtually impossible for the average person on the street to spend 24 hours without directly or indirectly using some form of computer network. Even though each of these connections will be covered in more detail later. Try to reach a basic understanding of WAN to WAN connections. you should be able to define each of the following terms: • computer network • local area network • metropolitan area network • campus area network • wide area network • personal area network • data communications • voice network • data network • telecommunications • network management Each of these terms is a topic area under the network umbrella. The Big Picture of Networks Sometimes a big picture can help to give an idea of what is going on in a particular subject area. office managers. system designers.7. For example. Examine Figure 1-1. these are the ones that will be discussed in detail in this text. computer networks now involve business managers. While there may be more broad topic areas.

Know the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (Internet Model) layers including the basic functions performed at each layer: Physical. bridge. Large software applications operate the same way. Network Architecture Models To keep the pieces of a network working together harmoniously and to allow modularity between the pieces. The Internet model is the model used to support all activities on the Internet. Network. Communications software is no exception. Common Examples of Communications Networks Understand each of the following networks. Different procedures perform different tasks. Describe how this network works in simple terms. . and Application. and communications line. Network Access Layer. For example. hub. accountants keep the books. convergence of companies (such as SBC and AT&T). Transport. managers control operations. As the size of the applications grows. Be sure to talk about forms of convergence in this chapter and all subsequent chapters. laborers perform the manual duties. and the whole would not function without the proper operation of each of its parts. You should also know the terms server. engineers test the products. Secretaries do the paperwork. it is necessary to use a network architecture model. or communications model. that places the appropriate network pieces in layers. Describe one or more applications that use each network:  The desktop computer and the Internet  A laptop computer and a wireless connection  Cell phone systems  Other common network systems o Sensor networks o Business mainframe systems o Satellite systems Convergence Convergence is happening at all levels: convergence of products (like the Blackberry). Each layer in the model defines what services are provided by either hardware or software or both. most organizations that produce some type of product or perform a service have a division of labor. communications network. scientists design products. and convergence of technologies (such as token ring giving way to Ethernet). node.networks intercommunicate. the need for a division of labor becomes increasingly important. Rarely is one person capable of performing all these duties. Examine the figure from the text or create your own example for each. router.

All other connections between peer layers are logical connections and exist in the software only. Note how a data packet grows with additional information at each layer. . Show how a web browser request message originates at the application layer of one computer and proceeds down through the layers. and up through the layers of the receiving machine. across the network. See Figure 1-16. We will return to this encapsulation numerous times in later chapters. 3. student in school lab. home user via Internet service provider • Laptop computer and a wireless connection – student at school. Note further how the router only examines the data packet up to the network or IP layer. traffic control systems • Satellite network – GPS 2. This is called encapsulation. Examine Figure 1-14. Quick Quiz 1. Logical and Physical Connections To avoid future confusion. The TCP/IP Protocol Suite In Action The In Action example in this first chapter follows a packet as it moves down through the layers of the transmitting device and then up through the layers of the receiving device. its understanding is necessary as many networks and products often refer to the OSI model for definition. you must know the difference between a logical connection and a physical connection. Identify each of the different forms of networks and list an example of each. Define the five layers of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite and the seven layers of the OSI model. See pages 14-17 for the TCP/IP layers and pages 17-19 for the OSI layers. Note that the only physical connection in a network is at the physical or interface layer.Even though the OSI model is not the actual model used to support the Internet. hanging out at the coffee shop • Sensor network – manufacturing plant. • Business mainframe systems – motor vehicle licensing branch • Desktop computer and the Internet – business employee accessing corporate database.

2.Discussion Topics 1. encapsulation. a local area network? . Are there any other examples in business where one particular technology or method has won out over the competition? What were the reasons that lead to this particular technology winning? Teaching Tips 1. Further Readings and Resources For each chapter. 3. Ask each student how they have used a network today. Discuss an example of a business that incorporates layers of management and show how the work progresses through the layers. please visit the Instructor’s web site (http://facweb. data communications? c. telecommunications? d. Emphasize the important reasons for using an architectural model: compatibility.cs. Are there any networks that have not been addressed in the chapter? What are their applications? 4. a computer network? b. Be sure to emphasize that each of the terms introduced in the Language of Computer Networks section will be discussed in detail in future chapters. Solutions to Review Questions 1.depaul. 2. separation of work responsibilities. 3. and a good pedagogical tool for learning networks. Emphasize that telecommunications is the study of voice systems but that the distinction between data and voice is growing smaller each day. What is the definition of: for the latest references to relevant materials.

f. j. and support of a network and its hardware and software. laptops. What kind of applications might use a sensor network? Assembly line. Why is a network architecture model useful? . c. or a campus. i. Telecommunications: study of telephones and the systems that transmit telephone signals. Local area network: networks small in geographic size spanning a room. What language does a microcomputer have to talk to interface to the Internet? Some form of TCP/IP. g. Network management: design. office management software. Personal area network: a network of a few meters. a wide area network? i. b. What kind of applications might use a desktop computer to Internet network? Web browsing. d. metropolitan area network h. What kind of applications might use a business mainframe network? Service industry. countries. convergence? a. 5. a campus area network? g. e. A campus area network is a set of local area networks extending between nearby buildings on a college or business campus. Convergence: coming together of two areas of technology or two companies. a personal area network? f. Computer network: interconnection of computers and computing equipment using either wires or radio waves over small or large geographic areas. Metropolitan area network: a network covering a metropolitan area and offers high speed connections between businesses h. installation. a building. retail industry. multiple states. What is the relationship between a subnetwork and a node? A subnetwork is composed of nodes and communication links. 6. network management? j. 2. 3. and other devices. Wide area network: large networks encompassing parts of states. and the world. entertainment 4. 7. e. interconnecting wireless devices such as PDAs. Data communications: transfer of digital or analog data using digital or analog signals.

and distributed video and music systems. TCP/IP application layer covers OSI presentation and application layers. physical. List the five layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite. List the seven layers of the OSI model. 8. mail. 10. no session layer in TCP/IP. Physical. web browsing. network. session.Allows for compatibility between products and allows products to interoperate. work on homework on computer. remote monitoring of windows and doors. What is the difference between a logical connection and a physical connection? Logical connection exists in software but physical connection is a communication link. driving on highway. technologies are converging. Suggested Solutions to Exercises 1. Answers will vary. data link. . application. 24-hour banking withdrawal. network access. 2. remote control of appliances. transport. and check your e-mail. Could include alarms. Could include riding mass transit. network. If you could design your own home. How does convergence apply to the communications industry? Companies are always converging. 9. presentation. what kinds of computer network or data communications labor-saving devices would you incorporate? Answers will vary. Create a list of all the things you do in an average day that use data communications and computer networks. Telnet. 13. indoor and outdoor video surveillance. application. motion sensors. How do the layers of the OSI model compare with the layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite? Network access layer covers OSI physical and data link layers. transport. other layers similar between two models. What are some of the more common applications found in the TCP/IP protocol suite? FTP. 12. 11.

The local area network is connected to the mainframe. enjoying your favorite latte. 6. The CEO of the first company meets with his legal team. which is connected to an ISP which is connected to the Internet. 8. access your e-mail. List all the different network connections involved in this operation. which is connected to an ISP which is connected to the Internet. All physical communications proceed only through the lowest layer. . List all the different network connections involved in this operation. List all the different network connections involved in this operation. With your new cell phone.3. you submit a request for driving directions from a nearby intersection to your destination. 4. a DSL modem. you download a Web page from the Internet. Your company is connected to the Internet and has both local area networks and a mainframe computer. this does not follow the OSI model. No. Your cellphone is connected to the cellphone network. Using a laptop computer with a wireless connection into the company’s local area network. the CEO of the first company sends an email to the CEO of the second company to offer a couple suggestions concerning the joint venture. using the wireless network available at the coffee shop. which is connected to the Internet (a wide area network). 7. you have just taken a snapshot of your best friend. Does this scenario follow the OSI model? Explain. Upper layers do not communicate directly. 5. List all the different networks involved in this operation. You pull out your laptop and. You are driving in a new city and have just gotten lost. You are working from home using a microcomputer. and a telephone connection to the Internet. Possible answers might include: Laptop using a wireless connection into company’s local area network. Possible answers might include: Desktop computer connected to an Internet service provider which is connected to the Internet. Using your car’s built-in navigational system. and the legal team consults a number of middle managers in the proposed product area. Your company is connected to the Internet via a router and is connected to a local area network. Meanwhile. You decide to send this snapshot to the e-mail account of a mutual friend across the country. Laptop computer is connected to wireless connection in the coffee shop. List all the different network connections involved in this operation. Two companies consider pooling resources to perform a joint venture. You are sitting at the local coffee shop.

The data link layer performs the error checking when the data arrives at the next computer on the transmission path. but if it wants to create a session. and back. the data-link layer provides flow control. 13. You want to download a file from a remote site using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Is there a logical or physical connection between the lawyers? What about between the two parties? Physical between the lawyers but logical between the two parties. Answer should be very similar to Figure 1-16. What characteristics distinguish a personal area network from other types of networks? Very short distance and wireless. into the remote computer. and the transport layer provides error checking. 10. the flow control provided by the data link layer is between two adjacent devices at the data link level. The lawyers for both parties meet and try to work out a settlement. TCP/IP doesn’t have a presentation layer. 11. To perform the file transfer. Are these different forms of flow control? Explain. through routers. it can do so at the transport or application layer. 14. Not exactly. your computer issues a Get File command. isn’t this redundant? Explain. 15. but these features are often done elsewhere. Once again. Replace “Get Web Page” in application layer with “Get File” and at all other similar points. You are watching a television show and somebody is suing somebody else. and the transport layer provides flow control. The transport layer performs the error checking only when the data arrives at the final destination machine. Similarly. essentially used for eliminating wires between electronic and peripheral devices. If the data link layer provides error checking. 9.Your GPS device connects to a satellite network. The layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite and OSI are different. 12. Isn’t a metropolitan area network just a big local area network? . while flow control provided by the transport layer as only between the end- points of the connection (at the transport level). Show the progression of messages as the Get File command moves from your computer. such as in the application layer. Which layers are “missing” from the TCP/IP suite? Are they really missing? TCP/IP doesn’t have session layer.

e-mail f. network access/physical e. The physical connection is a wire or airwave that is used to transmit the e-mail as a signal. 16. network d. physical. . network access. and very resilient to failures. transport g. but a metropolitan area network is almost always fiber optic. You are sending and receiving e-mail messages with a friend. transport 18. end-to-end flow control TCP/IP answers are: a. This is a logical connection. For each of the functions in the previous exercise. application f. List the TCP/IP protocol suite layer that performs each of the following functions: a. multiplexing c. data compression b. physical e. error detection g. presentation b. Is this e-mail session a logical connection or a physical connection? Explain your answer. list the OSI layer that performs that function. OSI answers are: a. data link. routing d. transport c. very high speed. application f. definition of a signal’s electrical characteristics e. network d. transport 17. transport g. network access. application b.Many similarities. transport c.