- readme.pdf
- IMNPD Ftooh
- PublicServiceCommission Form7 v1.0
- astrononyindia.pdf
- NOTICE.txt
- intro-nmos-cmos.pdf
- Apple Watch Assignmemnt
- Calculating Fertilizer Rates.pdf
- map_Sarawak_Kuching.pdf
- Tutorial 4.pdf
- Changes in Saffron Volatile Profile According to Its Storage Time
- Tutorial 0 Solutions.pdf
- FOMS(1)
- Design of Two-Stage CMOS Op-Amp and Analyze the Effect of Scaling.pdf
- 160801 GDP Poster Presentation Assessment Form Group
- Infrared receiver vs1838b.pdf
- Improvement of Plant Regeneration
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs11104-014-2131-8.pdf
- hydro
- Effects of Storage and Cultivation on Crocin Content
- water quality hydroponuics
- Phenological Assortative Mating in Flowering Plants
- The hydroponic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) by using hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × C (gariepinus) pond water Potentials and constraints
- Effect of Music on Plants – an Overview
- Lack of Correlation Between AT Frequency.pdf
- README.txt
- The Effects of Storage and Cultivation on Crocin Content of Dried Stigmas
- 1.pdf
- Bromothymol Blue Aqueous MSDS
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Yes Please
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- John Adams
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- Steve Jobs
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- The Master
- Bel Canto
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- The Wallcreeper
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- The Cider House Rules
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- The Constant Gardener: A Novel

Miller Effect

Cascode BJT Amplifier

2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 1

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics

Prototype Common Emitter Circuit

**Ignore “low frequency” High frequency model
**

capacitors

2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 2

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics

Multisim Simulation

**Mid-band gain
**

∣Av∣= g m RC = 40 mS∗5.1 k =20446.2 dB

Half-gain point

2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 3

e. Laker (based on P. 2008 Kenneth R. Common base and common collector amplifiers do not suffer from the Miller effect. V. This phenomenon is called the “Miller effect” and the capacitive multiplier “1 – K ” acting on C equals the common emitter amplifier mid-band gain. i. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 4 . K =− g m RC . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Introducing the Miller Effect The feedback connection of C between base and collector causes it to appear to the amplifier like a large capacitor 1− K C has been inserted between the base and emitter terminals. one side of C is connected directly to ground. since in these amplifiers.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 5 . C is in parallel with R . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics High Frequency CC and CB Models ground B C B C E E Common Collector Common Base C is in parallel with R . B C 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V.

Laker (based on P. V. . - V 1− V 2 V 1− K V 1 V1 V1 V1 Z I= = = => Z 1= = = Z Z Z I 1 I 1− K 1− K V2 V2 Z Z => Z 2= = =− = ≈Z −I 2 −I 1 1 −1 1− K K if K >> 1 Let's examine Miller's Theorem as it applies to the HF model for the BJT CE amplifier. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 6 . . 2008 Kenneth R. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Miller's Theorem I Z I 1= I I 2= I + + + + V1 V 2= K V1 V1 i c2 V 2 = K V1 <=> .

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter Miller Effect Analysis IC Determine effect of C : B V C V Using phasor notation: o IR I R =− g m V I C C C or g mV V o= − g m V I C RC where E I C = V − V o s C Note: The current through C depends only on V ! I C = V g m V RC − I C RC s C 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 7 . V.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter Miller Effect Analysis II From slide 7: I C = V g m V RC − I C RC s C Collect terms for I C and V : 1 s RC C I C = 1 g m RC s C V 1 g m RC s C s 1 g m RC C IC = V = V 1 s RC C 1 s RC C Miller Capacitance Ceq: C eq =1− K C =1 g m RC 2008 Kenneth R. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 8 . Laker (based on P. V.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 9 . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter Miller Effect Analysis III C eq = 1 g m RC C For our example circuit: 1 g m RC =10.040⋅5100=205 C eq =205⋅2 pF ≈410 pF 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Apply Miller's Theorem to BJT CE Amplifier Z Z Z 1= Z 2= 1− K 1 1− K 1 For the BJT CE Amplifier: Z = and K =− g m RC j C 1 1 1 => Z 1= j 1 g m RC C and Z 2= ≈ 1 j C j 1 C g m RC C eq =1 g m RC C Miller's Theorem => important simplification to the HF BJT CE Model 2008 Kenneth R. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 10 . V. Laker (based on P.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 11 . gmV L . Laker (based on P. gmV - ++ + V sig RB r V C ro RC RL V'sig (b) gmV RB∥r . 20 log 10 AM 1 f = ' C in H 2 C in Rsig C in= C C eq =C C 1 g m R'L 0 f f (Hz log scale) H (c) (d) 2008 Kenneth R.≈0 ' ++ + R'L= r o∥ RC∥ RL C V sig V C R'L Vo Rsig B rx B' C . . V. V'sig = V sig E R B∥r Rsig R'L (a) R'sig = r ∥ RB∥Rsig V o − g m R'L Thevenin ≈ ' |Vo/Vsig| (dB) V sig 1 j C in Rsig R'sig B' I C C -6 dB/octave ++ + -20 dB/decade ' −3 dB V sig V C C eq ' R Vo . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Simplified HF Model R'sig B' I C C .

Wide bandwidth. The cascode amplifier will meet all of these criteria. 2008 Kenneth R. Reasonably high input impedance.” which has persisted in modern terminology. Reasonable voltage gain. 2. V. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics The Cascode Amplifier A two transistor amplifier used to obtain simultaneously: 1. a cascode is a combination of a common emitter stage cascaded with a common base stage. Laker (based on P. 3. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 12 . (In “olden days” the cascode amplifier was a cascade of grounded cathode and grounded grid vacuum tube stages – hence the name “cascode. None of the conventional single transistor designs will meet all of the criteria above.

Determine RE for the desired voltage gain. 2008 Kenneth R. R2. 2. 3. Cb and Cbyp are to act as “open circuits” at dc and act as “short circuits” at all operating frequencies of interest. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics The Cascode Circuit CE Stage CB Stage i C1 i c2 i B1 v-out i b2 i e1 i c1 i E1 i C2 i e2 i b1 i B2 Rb i E2 veg1 vcg2 RB= R2∥ R3 Rin1 = = = low i e1 i c2 ac equivalent circuit Comments: 1.e. R3. Laker (based on P. min. and RC set the bias levels for both Q1 and Q2. R1. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 13 . i.

Show reduction in Miller effect Vout 2. g m1= g m2= g m 2008 Kenneth R. Hence. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 14 . both stages have about same collector current i c1≈ ic2 and same gm. The base current of the CB stage is: i e1 i c2 i b1= = 1 1 c. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Mid-Band Small Signal Model i c1 1. The emitter current of the CB stage is i c2 Rin1= low the collector current of the CE stage.) i e1=i c2 Rb i e2 b. Evaluate small-signal voltage gain i b1 OBSERVATIONS i e1 a. (This i b2 also holds for the dc bias current.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 15 . the voltage drop i b2 i c2 from Q2 collector to ground. is: Rc r 1 r 1 vcg2 = veg1=−r 1 i b1=− i c2=− i e1 1 1 Rb i e2 Therefore. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Small Signal Analysis cont. V. the CB Stage input resistance is: veg1 r 1 Rin1= = =r e1 −i e1 1 vcg2 Rin1 r e1 r AvCE− Stage = ≈− =− 1 => C eq =1 e1 C 2 C vsig RE RE RE 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. The input resistance Rin1 to the CB stage i c1 Vout is the small-signal “RC” for the CE stage i b1 i e1 ic2 i b1= = 1 1 i e1 Rin1= low The CE output voltage.

HF cutoff is much higher then a CE Amplifier due to the reduced Ceq. 2. Laker (based on P.cont. i c1 Now. => RE OBSERVATIONS: 1. Voltage gain Av is about the same as a stand-along CE Amplifier. 2008 Kenneth R. V. find the CE collector current in terms of Vout i b1 the input voltage Vsig: Recall i c1≈ ic2 vsig i b2≈ i e1 Rsig∥RBr 21 RE i c2 i b2 vsig vsig i c2= i b2 ≈ ≈ Rsig∥RB r 2 1 RE 1 RE Rb i e2 for bias insensitivity: 1 RE ≫ Rsig∥RBr 2 vsig i c2≈ . Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 16 . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Small Signal Analysis .

V. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Approximate Cascode HF Voltage Gain RC − V out RE Av = ≈ V sig ' 1 j C in Rsig where r e1 C in =C C eq =C 1 C C 2 C ' RE Rsig = Rsig∥RB≈ Rsig 2008 Kenneth R. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 17 . Laker (based on P.

2008 Kenneth R. IE1 Rin1= low 2. IE2 3.1 of the collector current IC1. 4. Choose IE1 – make it relatively large to I1 IC1 reduce Rin 1 = r e1=V T / I E1 to push out HF v-out break frequencies.7 V calculate R3. IE2 and VBE2 = 0. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 18 . Choose bias resistor string such that its current I1 is about 0. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Biasing 1. Choose RC for suitable voltage swing IC2 VC1G and RE for desired gain. Given RE. Laker (based on P.

6. Laker (based on P. V. V B1G −V B2G . Next determine R2. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 19 .7 V −V B2G0. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Biasing . =V B1G −V B2G 7. =V B1G −V BE1−V B2G V BE2 R2 = I1 .≈ V B1G−0.7 V. R1 = I1 2008 Kenneth R. The Q2 collector bias VC2G= VB1G . Then calculate R1.7 V VCC −V B1G . The collector swing of Q2 will be small. I1 Since the CE-Stage gain is very small: a. VB1G v-out b.7 V with the known current. 5. Its drop VR2 = 1 V VCE2 =V C2G −V Re= V C2G−V B2G−0.cont. Set V B1G−V B2G ≈1 V ⇒ VCE2≈1 V VC2G VB2G This will limit VCB2 VCB2=V CE2−V BE2=0.3 V which will keep Q2 forward active.0.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example VCC-ICRE-1. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 20 .7 ICRC v-out VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE 1.0 =12 V =12 V VCE2=1 ICRE+0.7 ICRE I E2≈ I C2= I E1≈ I C1 ⇒ I C1≈ I E2 Cascode circuit Typical Bias Conditions 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P.

VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE 1. ICRE+0. 2008 Kenneth R.025 V / I E =5 . For example VCE2=1 =12 V if |AV| = 10.0 2. Set desired gain magnitude. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont. ICRC 1.7 3.7 or r 1. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 21 . Since the CE stage gain is very small. V. ICRE VCE2 can be small. Use VCE2 = VB1G – VB2G = 1 V. Laker (based on P. then RC/RE = 10. Choose IE1 – make it a bit high to lower re1 VCC-ICRE-1. Try IE1 = 5 mA => r e1 =0.

∣Av∣= R =10 VCC-ICRE-1. Laker (based on P. 1. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont. RC ICRC V CC =12 I C =5 mA.7 E VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE Determine RC for a 5 V drop across RC. V.0 5V RC = −3 =1000 VCE2=1 5⋅10 A ICRE+0. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 22 .7 RC RC RE = = =100 ICRE ∣Av∣ 10 2008 Kenneth R.

7=5⋅10−3⋅1000.5 V −1.0 VCC 12 R1 R2 R3= = =12 k VCE2=1 I 1 1⋅10 −3 ICRE+0. RE =100 VCC-ICRE-1.2 V 2008 Kenneth R.7 V =12 V −0. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 23 .7 V =9. I1 V CC =12 RC =1 k I C =5 mA. Laker (based on P.8 V V B1B2=1. VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE 1.0 V V B2G= I C RE 0. V.7 ICRC Make current through the string of bias resistors I1 = 1 mA. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont.7 We now calculate the bias voltages: ICRE V CC − I C RE −1.7=1.

RE =100 V B1G−V B2G=1.2 V v-out R3=1. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 24 . V.2 V I C =5 mA.0 V R2=1 k R1 =12000−1200−1000=9.8 k R1 =10 k V CC =12 RC =1 k V B2G=1. V B2G=10−3 R3=1.0 V 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P.2 k V B1G−V B2G=1⋅10−3 R2=1. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont.

4 mA.9710.3290.639 V Check IC1: I C1= = =3. That's a little low. 2008 Kenneth R.5 k Ohms and re-simulate.339 12 V −8. V.36 mA RC 1000 IC1 about 3. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Multisim Results – Bias Example IC1 V CC −7. Increase R3 to 1. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 25 . Laker (based on P.

9410.0480. 2008 Kenneth R. V.551 12 V −6.46 mA RC 1000 That's better! Now measure the gain at a mid-band frequency with some “large” coupling capacitors. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Improved Biasing 10 uF 10 uF V CC −5. Laker (based on P. say 10 µF inserted. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 26 .540 V Check IC1: I C1= = =5.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Single Frequency Gain 10 uF v-out 10 uF Gain |Av| of about 8. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 27 .OK for rough calculations. . Some atten- uation from low CB input impedance (RB = R2||R3)and some from 5 Ohm re.75 at 100 kHz. 2008 Kenneth R.

V. capacitors 18.84 dB Low frequency break point with 10 µF. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 28 . Laker (based on P.84 dB High frequency break point – internal capacitances only 2008 Kenneth R. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Bode Plot for the Amplifier 18.

V. Laker (based on P. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 29 . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Scope Plot – Near 5 V Swing on Output 2008 Kenneth R.

V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 30 . Laker (based on P. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Determine Bypass Capacitors Low Frequency f ≤ fmin v-out From CE stage determine Cb 10 10 Cb ≥ ≈ F 2 f min RB∥r bg 2 f min RB∥1 RE RB= R2∥R3 From CB stage determine Cbyp 10 C byp≥ F 2 f min 1 RE r 1 where RS -> RE 2008 Kenneth R.

- Sapiens: A Brief History of HumankindYuval Noah Harari
- Yes PleaseAmy Poehler
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New AmericaGeorge Packer
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital RevolutionWalter Isaacson
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic FutureAshlee Vance
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi DeltaRichard Grant
- John AdamsDavid McCullough
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New AmericaGilbert King
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & PowerDaniel Yergin
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The ClimateNaomi Klein
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic GeniusSylvia Nasar
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True StoryDave Eggers
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of CancerSiddhartha Mukherjee
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham LincolnDoris Kearns Goodwin
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit ManJohn Perkins
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't IgnoreJay Sekulow
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy AnswersBen Horowitz
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in AmericaAndrew Yang
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first CenturyThomas L. Friedman
- Bad Feminist: EssaysRoxane Gay
- How To Win Friends and Influence PeopleDale Carnegie
- Steve JobsWalter Isaacson
- Angela's Ashes: A MemoirFrank McCourt

- Leaving Berlin: A NovelJoseph Kanon
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A NovelMatthew Quick
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)Viet Thanh Nguyen
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A NovelJonathan Safran Foer
- The Light Between Oceans: A NovelM.L. Stedman
- The Incarnations: A NovelSusan Barker
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A NovelAlexandra Kleeman
- Life of PiYann Martel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A NovelAdelle Waldman
- We Are Not Ourselves: A NovelMatthew Thomas
- The First Bad Man: A NovelMiranda July
- The Rosie Project: A NovelGraeme Simsion
- The Blazing World: A NovelSiri Hustvedt
- The Flamethrowers: A NovelRachel Kushner
- Brooklyn: A NovelColm Tóibín
- A Man Called Ove: A NovelFredrik Backman
- The MasterColm Tóibín
- Bel CantoAnn Patchett
- Interpreter of MaladiesJhumpa Lahiri
- The Kitchen House: A NovelKathleen Grissom
- Beautiful Ruins: A NovelJess Walter
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A NovelGarth Stein
- Wolf Hall: A NovelHilary Mantel
- The WallcreeperNell Zink
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A NovelJohn Irving
- The Cider House RulesJohn Irving
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A NovelTom Wolfe
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A NovelFrancine Prose
- The Perks of Being a WallflowerStephen Chbosky
- The Constant Gardener: A NovelJohn le Carre

- readme.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- IMNPD FtoohUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- PublicServiceCommission Form7 v1.0Uploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- astrononyindia.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- NOTICE.txtUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- intro-nmos-cmos.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Apple Watch AssignmemntUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Calculating Fertilizer Rates.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- map_Sarawak_Kuching.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Tutorial 4.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Changes in Saffron Volatile Profile According to Its Storage TimeUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Tutorial 0 Solutions.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- FOMS(1)Uploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Design of Two-Stage CMOS Op-Amp and Analyze the Effect of Scaling.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- 160801 GDP Poster Presentation Assessment Form GroupUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Infrared receiver vs1838b.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Improvement of Plant RegenerationUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs11104-014-2131-8.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- hydroUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Effects of Storage and Cultivation on Crocin ContentUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- water quality hydroponuicsUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Phenological Assortative Mating in Flowering PlantsUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- The hydroponic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) by using hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × C (gariepinus) pond water Potentials and constraintsUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Effect of Music on Plants – an OverviewUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Lack of Correlation Between AT Frequency.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- README.txtUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- The Effects of Storage and Cultivation on Crocin Content of Dried StigmasUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- 1.pdfUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha
- Bromothymol Blue Aqueous MSDSUploaded byAkshay Ramrekha