ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics

Miller Effect
Cascode BJT Amplifier

2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 1

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics

Prototype Common Emitter Circuit

Ignore “low frequency” High frequency model
capacitors

2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 2

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics

Multisim Simulation

Mid-band gain
∣Av∣= g m RC = 40 mS∗5.1 k =20446.2 dB

Half-gain point

2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 3

e. Laker (based on P. 2008 Kenneth R. Common base and common collector amplifiers do not suffer from the Miller effect. V. This phenomenon is called the “Miller effect” and the capacitive multiplier “1 – K ” acting on C  equals the common emitter amplifier mid-band gain. i. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 4 . K =− g m RC . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Introducing the Miller Effect The feedback connection of C  between base and collector causes it to appear to the amplifier like a large capacitor 1− K  C  has been inserted between the base and emitter terminals. one side of C  is connected directly to ground. since in these amplifiers.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 5 . C  is in parallel with R . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics High Frequency CC and CB Models ground B C B C E E Common Collector Common Base C  is in parallel with R . B C 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V.

Laker (based on P. V. . - V 1− V 2 V 1− K V 1 V1 V1 V1 Z I= = = => Z 1= = = Z Z Z I 1 I 1− K 1− K V2 V2 Z Z => Z 2= = =− = ≈Z −I 2 −I 1 1 −1 1− K K if K >> 1 Let's examine Miller's Theorem as it applies to the HF model for the BJT CE amplifier. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 6 . . 2008 Kenneth R. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Miller's Theorem I Z I 1= I I 2= I + + + + V1 V 2= K V1 V1 i c2 V 2 = K V1 <=> .

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter Miller Effect Analysis IC  Determine effect of C : B V C V Using phasor notation: o IR I R =− g m V  I C C  C or g mV  V o= − g m V  I C  RC  where E I C =  V − V o  s C   Note: The current through C  depends only on V  ! I C = V   g m V  RC − I C RC  s C    2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 7 . V.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter Miller Effect Analysis II From slide 7: I C = V   g m V  RC − I C RC  s C    Collect terms for I C and V  :   1 s RC C   I C =  1 g m RC  s C  V   1 g m RC  s C  s  1 g m RC  C  IC = V = V   1 s RC C    1 s RC C   Miller Capacitance Ceq: C eq =1− K  C =1 g m RC  2008 Kenneth R. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 8 . Laker (based on P. V.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 9 . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Common Emitter Miller Effect Analysis III C eq = 1 g m RC  C  For our example circuit: 1 g m RC =10.040⋅5100=205 C eq =205⋅2 pF ≈410 pF 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. V.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Apply Miller's Theorem to BJT CE Amplifier Z Z Z 1= Z 2= 1− K 1 1− K 1 For the BJT CE Amplifier: Z = and K =− g m RC j C 1 1 1 => Z 1= j 1 g m RC  C  and Z 2= ≈ 1 j C j 1 C g m RC  C eq =1 g m RC  C  Miller's Theorem => important simplification to the HF BJT CE Model 2008 Kenneth R. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 10 . V. Laker (based on P.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 11 . gmV L . Laker (based on P. gmV - ++ + V sig RB r V C ro RC RL V'sig (b) gmV RB∥r  . 20 log 10 AM 1 f = ' C in H 2  C in Rsig C in= C C eq =C  C  1 g m R'L 0 f  f (Hz log scale) H (c) (d) 2008 Kenneth R.≈0 ' ++ + R'L= r o∥ RC∥ RL C V sig V C R'L Vo Rsig B rx B' C . . V. V'sig = V sig E R B∥r  Rsig R'L (a) R'sig = r ∥ RB∥Rsig  V o − g m R'L Thevenin ≈ ' |Vo/Vsig| (dB) V sig 1 j  C in Rsig R'sig B' I C  C -6 dB/octave ++ + -20 dB/decade ' −3 dB V sig V C C eq ' R Vo . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Simplified HF Model R'sig B' I C  C .

Wide bandwidth. The cascode amplifier will meet all of these criteria. 2008 Kenneth R. Reasonably high input impedance.” which has persisted in modern terminology. Reasonable voltage gain. 2. V. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics The Cascode Amplifier A two transistor amplifier used to obtain simultaneously: 1. a cascode is a combination of a common emitter stage cascaded with a common base stage. Laker (based on P. 3. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 12 . (In “olden days” the cascode amplifier was a cascade of grounded cathode and grounded grid vacuum tube stages – hence the name “cascode. None of the conventional single transistor designs will meet all of the criteria above.

Determine RE for the desired voltage gain. 2008 Kenneth R. R2. 2. 3. Cb and Cbyp are to act as “open circuits” at dc and act as “short circuits” at all operating frequencies of interest. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics The Cascode Circuit CE Stage CB Stage i C1 i c2 i B1 v-out i b2 i e1 i c1 i E1 i C2 i e2 i b1 i B2 Rb i E2 veg1 vcg2 RB= R2∥ R3 Rin1 = = = low i e1 i c2 ac equivalent circuit Comments: 1.e. R3. Laker (based on P. min. and RC set the bias levels for both Q1 and Q2. R1. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 13 . i.

Show reduction in Miller effect Vout 2. g m1= g m2= g m 2008 Kenneth R. Hence. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 14 . both stages have about same collector current i c1≈ ic2 and same gm. The base current of the CB stage is: i e1 i c2 i b1= = 1 1 c. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Mid-Band Small Signal Model i c1 1. The emitter current of the CB stage is i c2 Rin1= low the collector current of the CE stage.) i e1=i c2 Rb i e2 b. Evaluate small-signal voltage gain i b1 OBSERVATIONS i e1 a. (This i b2 also holds for the dc bias current.

Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 15 . the voltage drop i b2 i c2 from Q2 collector to ground. is: Rc r 1 r 1 vcg2 = veg1=−r 1 i b1=− i c2=− i e1 1 1 Rb i e2 Therefore. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Small Signal Analysis cont. V. the CB Stage input resistance is: veg1 r  1 Rin1= = =r e1 −i e1 1 vcg2 Rin1 r e1 r AvCE− Stage = ≈− =− 1 => C eq =1 e1  C  2 C  vsig RE RE RE 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P. The input resistance Rin1 to the CB stage i c1 Vout is the small-signal “RC” for the CE stage i b1 i e1 ic2 i b1= = 1 1 i e1 Rin1= low The CE output voltage.

HF cutoff is much higher then a CE Amplifier due to the reduced Ceq. 2. Laker (based on P.cont. i c1 Now. => RE OBSERVATIONS: 1. Voltage gain Av is about the same as a stand-along CE Amplifier. 2008 Kenneth R. V. find the CE collector current in terms of Vout i b1 the input voltage Vsig: Recall i c1≈ ic2 vsig i b2≈ i e1 Rsig∥RBr  21 RE i c2 i b2  vsig  vsig i c2= i b2 ≈ ≈ Rsig∥RB r  2 1 RE 1 RE Rb i e2 for bias insensitivity: 1 RE ≫ Rsig∥RBr  2 vsig i c2≈ . Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 16 . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Small Signal Analysis .

V. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Approximate Cascode HF Voltage Gain RC − V out RE Av = ≈ V sig ' 1 j  C in Rsig where r e1 C in =C  C eq =C 1  C C 2 C  ' RE Rsig = Rsig∥RB≈ Rsig 2008 Kenneth R. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 17 . Laker (based on P.

2008 Kenneth R. IE1 Rin1= low 2. IE2 3.1 of the collector current IC1. 4. Choose IE1 – make it relatively large to I1 IC1 reduce Rin 1 = r e1=V T / I E1 to push out HF v-out break frequencies.7 V calculate R3. IE2 and VBE2 = 0. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 18 . Choose bias resistor string such that its current I1 is about 0. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Biasing 1. Choose RC for suitable voltage swing IC2 VC1G and RE for desired gain. Given RE. Laker (based on P.

6. Laker (based on P. V. V B1G −V B2G . Next determine R2. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 19 .7 V −V B2G0. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Biasing . =V B1G −V B2G 7. =V B1G −V BE1−V B2G V BE2 R2 = I1 .≈ V B1G−0.7 V. R1 = I1 2008 Kenneth R. The Q2 collector bias VC2G= VB1G . Then calculate R1.7 V VCC −V B1G . The collector swing of Q2 will be small. I1 Since the CE-Stage gain is very small: a. VB1G v-out b.7 V  with the known current. 5. Its drop VR2 = 1 V VCE2 =V C2G −V Re= V C2G−V B2G−0.cont. Set V B1G−V B2G ≈1 V ⇒ VCE2≈1 V VC2G VB2G This will limit VCB2 VCB2=V CE2−V BE2=0.3 V which will keep Q2 forward active.0.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example VCC-ICRE-1. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 20 .7 ICRC v-out VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE 1.0 =12 V =12 V VCE2=1 ICRE+0.7 ICRE I E2≈ I C2= I E1≈ I C1 ⇒ I C1≈ I E2 Cascode circuit Typical Bias Conditions 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P.

VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE 1. ICRE+0. 2008 Kenneth R.025 V / I E =5  . For example VCE2=1 =12 V if |AV| = 10.0 2. Set desired gain magnitude. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont. ICRC 1.7 3.7 or r  1. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 21 . Since the CE stage gain is very small. V. ICRE VCE2 can be small. Use VCE2 = VB1G – VB2G = 1 V. Laker (based on P. then RC/RE = 10. Choose IE1 – make it a bit high to lower re1 VCC-ICRE-1. Try IE1 = 5 mA => r e1 =0.

∣Av∣= R =10 VCC-ICRE-1. Laker (based on P. 1. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont. RC ICRC V CC =12 I C =5 mA.7 E VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE Determine RC for a 5 V drop across RC. V.0 5V RC = −3 =1000  VCE2=1 5⋅10 A ICRE+0. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 22 .7 RC RC RE = = =100  ICRE ∣Av∣ 10 2008 Kenneth R.

7=5⋅10−3⋅1000.5 V −1.0 VCC 12 R1  R2 R3= = =12 k  VCE2=1 I 1 1⋅10 −3 ICRE+0. RE =100 VCC-ICRE-1.2 V 2008 Kenneth R.7 V =12 V −0. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 23 .7 V =9. I1 V CC =12 RC =1 k  I C =5 mA. Laker (based on P.8 V V B1B2=1. VCE1=ICRC–1–ICRE 1.0 V V B2G= I C RE 0. V.7 ICRC Make current through the string of bias resistors I1 = 1 mA. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont.7 We now calculate the bias voltages: ICRE V CC − I C RE −1.7=1.

RE =100 V B1G−V B2G=1.2 V v-out R3=1. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 24 . V.2 V I C =5 mA.0 V R2=1 k  R1 =12000−1200−1000=9.8 k  R1 =10 k  V CC =12 RC =1 k  V B2G=1. V B2G=10−3 R3=1.0 V 2008 Kenneth R. Laker (based on P.2 k  V B1G−V B2G=1⋅10−3 R2=1. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Cascode Bias Example cont.

4 mA.9710.3290.639 V Check IC1: I C1= = =3. That's a little low. 2008 Kenneth R.5 k Ohms and re-simulate.339 12 V −8. V.36 mA RC 1000  IC1 about 3. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Multisim Results – Bias Example IC1 V CC −7. Increase R3 to 1. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 25 . Laker (based on P.

9410.0480. 2008 Kenneth R. V.551 12 V −6.46 mA RC 1000  That's better! Now measure the gain at a mid-band frequency with some “large” coupling capacitors. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Improved Biasing 10 uF 10 uF V CC −5. Laker (based on P. say 10 µF inserted. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 26 .540 V Check IC1: I C1= = =5.

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Single Frequency Gain 10 uF v-out 10 uF Gain |Av| of about 8. Laker (based on P. V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 27 .OK for rough calculations. . Some atten- uation from low CB input impedance (RB = R2||R3)and some from 5 Ohm re.75 at 100 kHz. 2008 Kenneth R.

V. capacitors 18.84 dB Low frequency break point with 10 µF. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 28 . Laker (based on P.84 dB High frequency break point – internal capacitances only 2008 Kenneth R. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Bode Plot for the Amplifier 18.

V. Laker (based on P. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 29 . ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Scope Plot – Near 5 V Swing on Output 2008 Kenneth R.

V. Lopresti 2006) update 15Oct08 KRL 30 . Laker (based on P. ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics Determine Bypass Capacitors Low Frequency f ≤ fmin v-out From CE stage determine Cb 10 10 Cb ≥ ≈ F 2  f min RB∥r bg 2 f min RB∥1 RE RB= R2∥R3 From CB stage determine Cbyp 10 C byp≥ F 2  f min  1 RE  r 1  where RS -> RE 2008 Kenneth R.