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Direct Design Methods

Introduction

This chapter presents another method for the design of single input single output (SISO)
digital controllers. This method is a direct analytical design method in that the controller
is designed in the z-domain. Controllers in the forward and feedback path are designed.

Direct digital controller design with Controller D(z) in the forward loop:

With the controller D(z), the closed loop pulse transfer function is,
D( z)G ( z)
H ( z) =
1 + D( z)G ( z)
1 H ( z) c( z)
⇒ D( z) = . = both polynomials
G ( z) 1 − H ( z) d ( z)
This implies that for a given plant G(z) and by specifying the pulse transfer function H(z),
the controller D(z) can be obtained mathematically.

Specifications of H(z) & D(z):

1. The characteristic equation of H(z) is specified as
1 − a 1 z −1 + a 2 z −2 +........
b 0 + b 1 z −1 + b 2 z −2 +...... b( z)
⇒ H ( z −1 ) = =
1 + a 1 z −1 + a 2 z −2 +........ a ( z)
For practical systems b 0 = 0 . (This is a result of the general causality condition)
b 1 z −1 + b 2 z −2 +......
H ( z −1 ) =
1 + a 1 z −1 + a 2 z −2 +........
2. From steady state specifications, if the system is to be type I with
e( ∞) = 0 for a unit step → (a)
1
e( ∞) = for a unit ramp → (b)
Kv
then e(z) = R(z)(1- H(z))
1
then (a) Lim ( z − 1) (1 − H ( z)) = 0
z→1 z −1
⇒ H(1) = 1
Tz 1
and (b) Lim ( z − 1) 2
(1 − H ( z)) =
z→1 ( z − 1) Kv
∂H(z) 1
⇒ -T =
∂z z =1 Kv

1

Stability constraints The characteristic equation is c( z ) b ( z) 1 + DG = 0 = 1 + . equation (2) implies: H(z) must contain all unstable zeros of G(z) in its zeros and 1-H(z) must contain all unstable poles of G(z) in its zeros. For that Condition. The following example illustrates how D(z) (in the forward loop) is calculated using specifications for H(z). Therefore such cancellation is not permitted. The following is the proof of (3): From (1) if G(z) has an unstable zero and pole at z1 & p 1 (z . ( z − p 1 ) A 1 ( z) (z . then the closed loop equation is ( z − z1 ) D1 ( z ) ( z − p 1 ) A 1 ( z − z 1 ) D 1 + ( z − z 1 ) B1 ( z − p 1 ) C 1 = 0 ( z − z1 )( z − p 1 )[A 1 D 1 + B1C1 ] = 0 This shows that ( z − z1 )& ( z − p 1 ) become roots of the closed loop characteristic equation. d ( z) a ( z) ⇒ ad + bc = 0 → (1) H ( z) and we also have D( z)G ( z) = → (2) 1 − H ( z) It will be shown later that (3) if D(z) cancels an unstable pole or zero of G(z).p1 )C1 ( z ) D(z) = .3. This means that the system would be unstable.z 1 ) B1 ( z) then G(z) = and if D(z) cancels the unstable zeros and/or poles. 2 . the unstable pole or zero will appear as the root in the closed loop system characteristic equation.

H(z)) 1 for unit step input e = 0 ⇒ Lim( z − 1) (1 − H ( z)) = 0 ⇒ H(1) = 1 z →1 z −1 b 1 + b 2 +.068 ( z + 0.9672)( z − 0.36788 = 0 ← roots 0..− ( −0..Example:  G(s) a  G(z) = (1 − z −1 )Z  =  s s * s(s + a)  z + 0.36788 1 1 Tz 1 for a unit ramp e = = = 1 ⇒ Lim( z − 1) 2 (1 − H ( z)) = Kv 1 z→1 ( z − 1) Kv ∂H ( z) 1 and since H(1) = 1..04837 for a = 0.58198 → (1) 1 − 0.63212 & b 2 = -0.36788 which has a zero at z = 1 (G has a pole at z = 1) 1 H ⇒ D( z) = G 1− H 1 ( z − 1)( z − 0.7859 z + 0.....5 ± j0.05014 z −2 ⇒ H(z) = 1 − 0.36788z −2 Now error e(z) = R(z)(1.41802) ( z − 0.9048) Let the desired c.05014 = 0.c equation corresponding to s2 + s + 1 = 0 ← roots − 0.1 (z − 1)(z − 0.36788z −2 = 0 Let it be required that the velocity constant K v = 1 b 1 z −1 + b 2 z −2 +..39 ± j0. then Lim T = =1 z→1 ∂z Kv b + 2 b 2 + 3b 3 +.36788z −2 ( z − 1)( z − 0.9672 ( z − 1)( z − 0.6 ⇒ 1 − 0.866 o which is discretized (T = 1) as z 2 − 0.7859 + 0..63212z −1 − 0.05014) ⇒ 1 = 1 → (2) 0...07932) = 13.58198 & b 1 + 2 b 2 = 0..7859z −1 + 0..6e j49.7859z −1 + 0.9048) 0. ⇒ = 1 ⇒ b 1 + b 2 +..= 0..63212 z − 0..41802) 3 .= 0..58198 Since we have only two equations (we stop at z -2 ) ⇒ b 1 + b 2 +.456 or 0.05014 0.9672 = 0.7859z −1 + 0.04837 z + 0.7859z + 0. Then H(z) = 1 − 0.53184 ⇒ b 1 = 0.9048)( z − 0.41802) ⇒ 1 − H ( z) = 2 z − 0.

6 * 0. 4 .6 o 1.6 * 0. z = (0. z = (0.8)e Plot the response as well as the control signal u(k) for the original case as well as the three given variations. z = (0.8)e j45o 2.6 * 0.8)e j55o 3. Assignment PROBLEM Repeat the design explained in the example above for the following roots: j49.