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1.0 THE HEAT INTEGRATION Figure 1(c), Increasing both the heating-
CHARACTERISTICS OF DISTILLATION utility duty above the pinch temperature by
the reboiler duty, QREB, and the cooling-
The complete distillation column runs utility duty below the pinch temperature by
within two temperature levels one decided the condenser duty, QCOND.
by reboiler which consumes (QREB) and
other by condenser which rejects (QCOND) The condenser and reboiler should
heat to atmosphere. The heating and operate on the same side of the pinch
cooling duties associated with a distillation temperature to maximize heat integration.
column are the reboiler and condenser If both the reboiler and condenser are
duties which is both the condenser and integrated with the process, this can make
the reboiler require smaller amounts of the column difficult to start up and control.
heating and cooling for feed and product
The appropriate placement principle can
only be applied if the process has the
capacity to provide or accept the required
heat duties. For this purpose, the grand
composite curve can be used.

Figure 2(a): An inappropriately placed

distillation column

Figure 1 Placement of distillation columns

(a) above the pinch temperature, (b) below
the pinch temperature and (c) across the
pinch temperature.

Figure 1(a),The reboiler requires an

additional QREB of heat from the process or
heating utilities and the condenser Figure 2(b): A distillation column that can
releases QCOND of heat for use by the only be partially integrated
process above the pinch temperature.
Figure 1(b),The reboiler removes QREB of The reboiler and condenser is considered
heat from the process and the condenser as box. Therefore, this box can be
releases an additional QCOND of heating to matched with the grand composite
the process or cooling utilities. The net representing the remainder of the process.
heats required above and below the
The grand composite curve would include
process remain at QHU and QCU,
all heating and cooling duties for the

process, including those associated with inappropriately placed distillation column

separator feed and product heating and is shifted above the heat recovery pinch
cooling, but excluding reboiler and by changing its pressure, the condensing
condenser loads. A grand composite stream, which is a hot stream, is
curve is shown in Figure 2(a). The shiftedfrom below to above the pinch. The
distillation column reboilers, and reboiling stream, which is a cold stream,
condenser duties are shown separately stays above the pinch. Then, if the
and are matched against it. The reboiler inappropriately placed distillation column
and condenser duties are on opposite is shifted below the pinch, then the
sides of the heat recovery pinch and the reboiling stream, which is a cold stream, is
column does not fit. In Figure 2(b), shifted from above to below the pinch. The
although the reboiler and condenser condensing stream stays below the pinch.
duties are both above the pinch, the heat
duties prevent a fit.
Various heat-pumping schemes have
been proposed as a means of saving
energy in distillation.For heat pumping to
be economic on a stand-alone basis, it
must operate across a small temperature
difference, which for distillation means
close boiling mixtures.
Figure 2(c) : A column appropriately
placed above the pinch Capital cost changes should be
considered together, along with the energy
cost changes, in order to achieve an
optimum trade-off between capital and
energy costs. Distillation capital costs;
the classical optimization in distillation is to
trade-off capital cost of the column against
energy cost for the distillation by changing
the reflux ratio. Heat exchanger network
capital costs; the optimization of the
capital energy trade-off might undo part of
Figure 2 (d) : A column appropriately
the savings achieved by appropriate
placed below the pinch
The distillation columns shown in Figure
2(c) and 2(d) above is both fit. Figure 2(c)
shows a case in which the reboiler duty 4.0 HEAT INTEGRATION
can be supplied by hot utility. The CHARACTERISTIC OF DISTILLATION
condenser duty must be integrated with SEQUENCES
the rest of the process. Another example
is shown in Figure 2(d). This distillation Two problems :
column also fits. The reboiler duty must be 1. Distillation and heat integration
supplied by integration with the process. can be decoupled.
Part of the condenser duty in Figure 2(d) 2. First developed without heat
must also be integrated, while the integration and reboiler.
remainder of the condenser duty can be
rejected to cold utility. Besides, if an

Non intergrated and intergrates shows
the energy saving can achieved non
integrated tend to turn out to be best
total cost . it must emphasized that this
decouple depends on the absent
constraints limiting the heat
Best outcome

The best few non integrated Figure (b) Thermally coupling the indirect
sequences tend to turn out to be sequences changes the load and levels
the best few integrated sequences
in term of total cost. single Solution
sequences lowest cost
Constraints can applied by
reducing the capital cost (the
overall heat load is reduced , and
heat must be supplied at the
highest temperature for the system
which there is trade off which the
load is reduced but the level
required to supply heat) from figure
4 (a)
In indirect sequences is thermally
coupled the heat load is reduces
but now all the heat rejected at the
lowest temperature, there is benefit
of reduced but a disadvantage of Figure 4 (C) two different sequences
heat rejection at more extreme
Try to make two different sequence and
levels as figure 4 (b)
see the same component .If there is
different sequences there is two effect on
separation. Causes as figure 4 (C)
1. An unnecessary load on the
separation, leading to higher heat
loads and vapor rates
2. A widening of the temperature
differences across columns since ,
light non key component causes a
decrease in condenser
temperature and heavy non key
Figure 4 (a) Thermally coupling the direct component causes and increase
sequences changes the load and levels reboiler.