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Stages in Human Development

Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994)

The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should
pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully
masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier
stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear
as problems in the future.

Approx. ages) Stage & Significant Psychosocial Psychosocial Maladaptations


Psychosocial crisis relations modalities virtues & malignancies

(0-1) Mother to get, hope, sensory


Infant to give in faith distortion
Trust vs mistrust return withdrawal

(2-3) Parents will, impulsivity


Toddler to hold on, determination compulsion
Autonomy vs shame to let go
and doubt

(3-6) Family to go after, purpose, ruthlessness


Preschooler to play courage inhibition
Initiative vs guilt

(7-12) Neighborhood to complete, competence narrow


School-age child and school to make virtuosity
things inertia
Industry vs inferiority
together

(12-18) Peer groups, to be fidelity, fanaticism


Adolescent role models oneself, loyalty repudiation
to share
Ego-identity vs role-
oneself
confusion

(20-45) Partners, to lose and love promiscuity


Young adult friends find oneself exclusivity
Intimacy vs isolation in a
another

(30-65) Household, to make be, care overextension


Middle aged adult co-workers to take care rejectivity
Generativity vs self- of
absorption

(50+) Mankind or to be, wisdom presumption


Old adult "my kind" through despair
having been,
Integrity vs despair
to face not
being