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Stages in Human Development

Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994)

The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should
pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully
masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier
stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear
as problems in the future.

Approx. ages) Stage & Significant Psychosocial Psychosocial Maladaptations

Psychosocial crisis relations modalities virtues & malignancies

(0-1) Mother to get, hope, sensory

Infant to give in faith distortion
Trust vs mistrust return withdrawal

(2-3) Parents will, impulsivity

Toddler to hold on, determination compulsion
Autonomy vs shame to let go
and doubt

(3-6) Family to go after, purpose, ruthlessness

Preschooler to play courage inhibition
Initiative vs guilt

(7-12) Neighborhood to complete, competence narrow

School-age child and school to make virtuosity
things inertia
Industry vs inferiority

(12-18) Peer groups, to be fidelity, fanaticism

Adolescent role models oneself, loyalty repudiation
to share
Ego-identity vs role-

(20-45) Partners, to lose and love promiscuity

Young adult friends find oneself exclusivity
Intimacy vs isolation in a

(30-65) Household, to make be, care overextension

Middle aged adult co-workers to take care rejectivity
Generativity vs self- of

(50+) Mankind or to be, wisdom presumption

Old adult "my kind" through despair
having been,
Integrity vs despair
to face not