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You are on page 1of 227

We will talk

about static

and dynamic

performance.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

We will answer questions such as:

How fast?

How high?

How far?

How long can an aircraft fly?

Coverage Airplane Performance Drag Polar

Equations of Motions

(zero acceleration) (finite acceleration)

Thrust Required Maximum

Thrust Available Velocity Takeoff

Power Available

Turning Flight

Maximum Velocity

Rate of Climb Gliding Flight V-n Diagram

Time to Climb

Service Ceiling

Maximum Altitude

Absolute Ceiling

Range and Endurance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

A Prerequisite

Performance analysis

hinges on knowledge of

the airplane drag polar.

What is a drag polar?

(a.k.a. Quezon bridge)

Quezon bridge: FEATI’s vantage point

Gustav’s Tower

What is a

drag polar?

It is a graph or an

equation that accounts

for all types of drag in

an airplane and how it

relates to lift.

What types of drag are included then?

What are the different types of drag?

Skin friction drag

Pressure drag

Profile drag

Interference drag

Parasite drag Isang bala ka lang!!!

Induced drag

Zero-lift drag

Drag due to lift

Wave drag

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag Types

shear stress integrated over the surface.

Drag Types

(form drag): The drag due to the pressure

imbalance in the drag direction caused by

separated flow.

Drag Types

drag and form drag. (The term profile

drag is usually used in conjunction with

two-dimensional airfoils; it is sometimes

called section drag.)

Drag Types

pressure drag caused by the mutual

interaction of the flow fields around

each component of the airplane. The

total drag of the combined body is

usually greater than that of the sum of

its individual parts; the difference is the

interference drag.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag Types

profile drag for a complete airplane. It is

that portion of the total drag

associated with skin friction and

pressure drag due to flow separation,

integrated over the complete airplane

surface. It includes interference drag.

Drag Types

the pressure imbalance in the drag

direction caused by the induced flow

(downwash) associated with the

vortices created at the tips of finite

wings.

Drag Types

conjunction with a complete airplane

configuration.) The parasite drag that

exists when the airplane is at its

zero-lift angle of attack, that is,

when the lift of the airplane is zero.

Drag Types

Drag due to lift. (Usually used in

conjunction with a complete airplane.) That

portion of the total airplane drag measured

above the zero-lift drag. It consists of the

change in parasite drag when the airplane is

at an angle of attack different from the

zero-lift angle, plus the induced drag from

the wings and other lifting components of

the airplane.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag Types

associated with transonic and

supersonic flow (or shock waves,

hence the name). It can be expressed

as the sum the zero-lift wave drag

and wave drag due to lift.

Total Drag!

Total Drag

for an infinite wing or airfoil:

Total Drag

Form Drag (Drag due to flow separation) Induced Drag Wave Drag

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag Polar

for an infinite wing or airfoil:

2

C

C D Cd L

πeAR

profile drag

2

C

CD CD,0 L

eAR zero-lift drag

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag Polar

2

C

C D C D ,e L

eAR

parasite drag coefficient

-profile drag of wing induced drag coefficient

-friction and pressure drag of: lift span

tail surfaces efficiency

fuselage factor

engine nacelles

landing gear

other components exposed to the flow

-a function of angle of attack

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag Polar C 2

C D C D ,e L

πeAR

C D ,e C D , 0 rCL

2

1

C D C D ,0 (r 2

)C L

eAR

2

CL

CD CD,0

πeAR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Drag polar of a complete airplane

2

C

CD CD , 0 C D , 0 C D ,i L

eAR

induced drag

parasite drag coefficient

Oswald’s coefficient at

efficiency zero lift

factor

Drag polar of a complete airplane

2

C

CD CD,0 L

eAR

Drag Polar

Drag Polar

Lockheed C-141A

Drag Polar

(C L C Lmin drag ) 2

C D C D ,min

πeAR

Why is it called drag polar?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Equations of Motion

Equations of Motion

Equations of Motion

For level, unaccelerated flight,

Equations of Motion

Level, unaccelerated flight

If thrust line is

aligned with

flight path,

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Thrust Required

Thrust Required

flight at given speed.

Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

at a given velocity

NOTE:

TR D Thrust Required

is a function of

velocity.

It has two

components.

It has a minimum.

Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

TR D

2

1 1 1 CL

TR D V SC D V S ( C Do C Di ) V S ( C Do

2 2 2

)

2 2 2 eAR

2

L

(1 / 2) V S

2

1

TR V S ( C Do

2 )

2 eAR

2

1 W 1

TR V SC Do (

2

)( )

2 1 V S eAR

2

2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

2

1 W 1

TR V SC Do (

2

)( )

2 1 V S eAR

2

2

zero-lift lift-induced

thrust required thrust required

Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

2

1 W 1

TR V SC Do ( ) f (V )

2

)(

2 1 V S eAR

2

2

Applying a first and a second derivative test to

this function will confirm the existence of a

minimum. This minimum will exist at velocity,

1/ 2

2 1 W

VTR ,min

C Do eAR S

Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

1/ 2

2 1 W

VTR ,min

C Do eAR S

Thrust Required: Alternative Approach

TR D

W

Since L W TR

TR C D

CL / CD

W CL

a minimum thrust required, this equation implies the

existence of a maximum lift-to-drag ratio.

Thrust Required: Alternative Approach

Indeed there is a

maximum L/D ratio

exhibited by every

aircraft.

this ratio is an

indicator of

performance

(aerodynamic

efficiency) of an

aircraft.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Thrust Required: Alternative Approach

W W

TR

CL / CD L / D

Thrust Required: Alternative Approach

1

L W V2 SCL q SCL

2

CL2

D q SCD q S CD ,0

Different eAR

points on TR At b:

Small q∞ At a:

curve Large q∞

Large CL (or CL2) and a to support W

correspond D large Small CL and a

D large

to different

angles of

attack.

Thrust Required Computation

TR is thrust required to 1. Select a flight speed, V∞ and calculate CL.

fly at a given velocity W

in level, unaccelerated CL

1

V2 S

flight 2

2. Calculate CD.

CL2

CD CD , 0

eAR

3. Calculate CL/CD and calculate TR.

W

TR

CL

C

D

Example

CP-1: A light, single-engine, propeller-driven, private airplane, approximately

modelled after the Cessna Skylane, having the following characteristics:

Wingspan = 35.8 ft

Wing area = 174 ft2

Normal gross weight = 2950 lb

Fuel capacity: 65 gal of aviation gasoline

Power plant: one-piston engine, 230 hp (SL)

Specific fuel consumption= 0.45 lb/(hp)(h)

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025

Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8

Propeller efficiency = 0.8

Example

Cessna Skylane

Example

At V=200 ft/s = 136.4 mi/h

W 2950

1 CL 0.357

1 1

V2 S (0.002377)(200) 2 (174)

2 2

b 2 (35.8) 2

AR 7.37

S 174

C L2 (0.357) 2

2 CD CD,0 0.025 0.0319

eAR (0.8)(7.37)

L CL 0.357

11.2

D C D 0.0319

W 2950

3 TR 263 lb

L / D 11.2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Example

At other velocities…

1 2 3

Example

CJ-1: A jet-powered executive aircraft, approximately modelled after the

Cessna Citation 3, having the following characteristics:

Wingspan = 53.3 ft

Wing area = 318 ft2

Normal gross weight = 19,815 lb

Fuel capacity: 1119 gal of kerosene

Power plant: two turbofan engines of 3650-lb thrust each at sea level

Specific fuel consumption = 0.6 lb of fuel/(lb thrust)(h)

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.02

Oswald efficiency factor e = 0.81

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Example

Example

At V=500 ft/s = 341 mi/h

W 19815

1 CL 0.210

1 1

V2 S (0.002377)(500) 2 (318)

2 2

b 2 (53.3) 2

AR 8.93

S 318

C L2 (0.21) 2

2 CD CD,0 0.02 0.022

eAR (0.81)(8.93)

L CL 0.21

9.55

D C D 0.022

W 19815

3 TR 2075 lb

L / D 9.55

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Example

At other velocities…

1 2 3

How do we compute for (L/D)max?

At TRmin we found (by differentiating TR 2

1/ 2

1 W

with respect to V and equating to VTR ,min

zero), C Do eAR S

From this formula for V at TRmin, the 2

following relationship (which has already C

been revealed in the graph) can be CD,0 C D ,i

L

derived: eAR

Thus, C L / C D C D , 0eAR / 2C D , 0 eAR / 4C D , 0

and this is a maximum

because an (L/D)max is simultaneous with a TRmin.

How do we compute for (L/D)max?

At TRmin

C L2

CD,0 C D ,i

eAR

Thus,

CL eAR / 4C

C

D max

D,0

How do we compute for TRmin?

2

1/ 2

Or you can substitute

1 W

VTR ,min

C Do eAR S (C L / C D ) max eAR / 4C D , 0

to to

1 W 2

1 W

TR V SC Do (

2

)( ) TR

1 V S eAR

2 CL

2 C

2 D

Effects of compressibility on TR

Effects of altitude on TR

2

1 W 1

TR V SC Do (

2

)( )

2 1 V S eAR

2

1/ 2

2

2 1 W

VTR ,min

Lower C Do eAR S

1/ 2

2 1 W

VTR ,min

Higher C Do eAR S

W

TR ,min

CL

C

D max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Thrust Available

Propeller-Piston Engine

Jet Engine

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Maximum Velocity: Graphical

The intersection

of the TA and TR

curve gives Vmax at

a certain altitude.

Example

Calculate the maximum velocity for the sample jet plane.

Intersection of TR

curve and maximum

TA defines maximum

flight speed of airplane.

= 665 mi/h

Example

Some remarks. Computation of TR

curve assumed constant CD,o

divergence effects are

significant, and adds to

the CD,o

Maximum Velocity: Analytical

CL

2

D T q SC D q S C D , 0 Steady, level flight: T = D

eAR

W

CL Steady, level flight: L = W

q S

W 2

W 2

Substitute into

T q S C D , 0 2 2

q SCD , 0

q S eAR q SeAR drag equation

2 Turn this equation into a quadratic

W

q SCD , 0 qT

2

0 equation (by multiplying by q∞)

SeAR and rearranging.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Maximum Velocity: Analytical

Solving the quadratic equation and setting thrust,

T, to maximum available thrust, TA,max results in,

1

T W A

W T

2

4C 2

A

D,0

W max S S W max eAR

Vmax

CD,0

Maximum Velocity: Design Considerations

1

T W W TA

2

4CD ,0

2

A

W max S S W max eAR

Vmax

CD ,0

• S does not appear alone, but only in ratio: (W/S)

• Vmax does not depend on thrust alone or weight alone, but

rather on ratios

• (TA/W)max: maximum thrust-to-weight ratio

• W/S: wing loading

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Maximum Velocity: Design Considerations

1

T W W TA

2

4CD ,0

2

A

W max S S W max eAR

Vmax

CD ,0

• Increase Vmax by

• Increase maximum thrust-to-weight ratio, (TA/W)max

• Increasing wing loading, (W/S)

• Decreasing zero-lift drag coefficient, CD,0

1

T W W T

Example 2

A A D,0

4C

2

Vmax

Calculate Vmax for the CP-1. CD,0

Wingspan = 35.8 ft

Wing area = 174 ft2 W 2950

16.95 lb/ft 2

Normal gross weight = 2950 lb S 174

Fuel capacity: 65 gal of aviation gasoline 4C D , 0 4(0.025)

Power plant: one-piston engine, 230 hp (SL)

Specific fuel consumption= 0.45 lb/(hp)(h) eAR (0.8)[(35.8) / 174]

2

Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8

C D ,0 0.002377(0.025)

Propeller efficiency = 0.8

5.9425 x 10 5 slug/ft 3

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

1

T W W T

Example 2

A A D,0

4C

2

Calculate Vmax for the CP-1. ? Vmax

CD,0

W max

TAV PA P 0.8(230)(550) 1.012 x 105 (ft lb)/s

P

TA max

Vmax

TA P 1 34.305

W max W Vmax Vmax

Example

Calculate Vmax for the CP-1.

1/ 2

2

34.305 34.305

Vmax 558.97 5.4066 x 10 3

Vmax max Vmax max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Why is there a need for a new parameter?

Thrust is a Force with units (N = kg m/s2)

For example, the PW4000-112 is rated at 98,000 lb of thrust

Power is a precise term and can be expressed as:

Energy / Time with units (kg m2/s2) / s = kg m2/s3 = Watts

Note that Energy is expressed in Joules = kg m2/s2

Force * Velocity with units (kg m/s2) * (m/s) = kg m2/s3 = Watts

Usually rated in terms of horsepower (1 hp = 550 ft lb/s = 746 W)

Power Required

PR = TRV∞

Power Required

NOTE:

Power Required is

a function of

velocity.

It has two

components.

It has a minimum.

Power Required

PR TRV

2

1 W 1

TR V SC Do (

2

)( ) V

2 1 V S eAR

2

2

2

1 W 1

PR V SC Do (

3

)( )

2 1 V S eAR

2

zero-lift power required lift-induced power required

zero-lift PR ~ V3 lift-induced PR ~ 1/V

Power Required, Minimum

2

1 W 1

PR V SC Do ( ) f (V )

3

)(

2 1 V S eAR

2

Get f’(V∞).

Equate to zero.

Solve for V∞ in f’(V∞)=0 to get VPR,min.

Substitute V∞ in f(V∞) to get PR,min.

Power Required, Minimum

The results are…

At PRmin ,

3C D , 0 C Di

and

1

2 1 W

2

V , PR ,min

3C D , 0eAR S

Power Required

1/ 2

2 1 W

VTR ,min

C Do eAR S 1

1 4

VPR ,min VTR ,min

3C D , 0 C Di 3

1

2 1 W

2

V , PR ,min

3C D , 0eAR S

Power Required: Alternative Approach

W

PR TRV V

CL W 2W

CD PR TRV

CL SCL

CD

1

L W V SCL

2

2

3 2

2W C D 1

2W PR a

V SCL 3

CL

3/ 2

SCL CD

Power Required: Alternative Approach

3 2

2W C D

PR

SCL 3

2W 3 1

PR ,min

S C 32

L

CD

max

Example

Calculate the power required curve for (a) the CP-1 at sea level and

(b) the CJ-1 at an altitude of 22,000 ft.

PR TRV

Example

Example

At an altitude of 22,000 ft 0.001184 slug/ft

3

PR TRV

Example

How do we compute for (CL3/2/CD)max?

2

CL

3C D , 0 C Di

eAR

C L 3C D , 0eAR

3

C 2 1 3eAR

3

3 4

L 3C eAR 4

D , 0

CD 4 C

4 CD,0 3 1

max D,0

How do we compute for (CL3/2/CD)max?

At PRmin

3C D , 0 C Di

Thus,

3

C 2

3

3eAR 4

L 1

CD 4 C 13

max D,0

(CL/CD)max VS (CL3/2/CD)max

Locating (L/D)max in the PR curve

How do we compute for PR,min?

You can substitute

1 Or you can substitute

2 1 W 2 3

C 2 3eAR

3 4

V , PR ,min

3C D , 0eAR S L 1

CD 4 C 13

max D,0

to 2 to

1 W 1

PR V SC Do (

3

)( )

2 1 V S eAR 2W 3 1

2 PR

ρ S C 3 2

L

CD

Effects of altitude on PR

1

0 2

V ALT V0

1

0 2

PR , ALT PR , 0

1

2 1 W 2

V , PR ,min

3C D , 0eAR S

2W 3 1

PR

S C 32

L

CD

Effects of altitude on PR 0

1

2

V ALT V0

1

0 2

PR , ALT PR , 0

Effects of altitude on PR 0

1

2

V ALT V0

1

0 2

PR , ALT PR , 0

SUMMARY

thrust required

1 W2 1

TR V SC Do (

2

)( )

2 1 V S eAR

2

2 power required

W 1 W 2

1

TR PR V SC Do (

3

)( )

CL / CD 2 1 V S eAR

2

2W 3 1

PR

S C 32

L

CD

SUMMARY

At minimum thrust required At minimum power required

C D , 0 C D ,i 3C D , 0 C Di

3C D , 0eAR

3

CL eAR / 4C C 2 1 3eAR

3 3 4

4

C L

D max CD 4 C D , 0 13

D,0

max 4C D , 0

1/ 2

2 W 2

1

W

2

1 1

VTR ,min V , PR ,min

C Do eAR S

3C D , 0eAR S

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Power Available

Power Available

Power Available VS Thrust Available

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Maximum Velocity: Graphical

Maximum Velocity: Graphical

Effects of Altitude on Maximum Velocity

Effects of Altitude on Maximum Velocity

Minimum Velocity

It is true, Chuck Norris’ legendary kick can also cause a stall,

but…

Minimum Velocity

Sometimes minimum or stall velocity

is dictated by powerplant considerations.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Rate of Climb

T D W sin

L W cos

Rate of Climb

T D W sin

TV DV WV sin

TV DV

V sin

W

R / C V sin

TV DV

R/C

W

Rate of Climb

TV DV

R/C

W

(for small Ѳ)

T D W sin

excess power

R/C

W

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Rate of Climb

maximum excess power

( R / C ) max

W

Rate of Climb VS Altitude

Example

Calculate the rate of climb vs velocity at sea level for (a) the CP-1 and

(b) the CJ-1.

At V = 150 ft/s PR = 32,600 ft-lb/s and PA = 10,120 ft-lb/s. Hence,

excess power PA PR 10120 - 32600

(R / C) 23.3 ft/s 1398 ft/min

W 2950 2950

Example max

Example

At V = 500 ft/s PR = 1884 hp and PA = 6636 hp. Hence,

(R / C) 550 132 ft/s 7914 ft/min

W 19815 19815

Example

max

R/Cmax: Analytical

For a piston-propeller aircraft:

W / S Z T 3 / 2 Z

1/ 2

R / C max 1

3

3 C D , 0 W max 6 2T / W max L / D max Z

2 2

P

R / C max 0.8776

W /S 1

W max C D ,0 L / D 3max

/2

Where:

3

Z 1 1

L / D 2max T / W 2max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

What is a Ceiling?

Absolute Ceiling

R/C 0

Service Ceiling

( R / C ) max 100 ft / min

Example

Calculate the absolute and service ceilings for (a) the CP-1 and (b) the CJ-1.

maximum excess power

( R / C ) max

W

Example

Calculate the absolute and service ceilings for (a) the CP-1 and (b) the CJ-1.

(a) the CP-1 (b) the CJ-1

absolute ceilings = 27,000 ft absolute ceilings = 49,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Time to Climb

dh dh

R/C dt

dt R/C

h2

t dt

h1

h2

dh

t

h1

R/C

Time to Climb: Graphical

h2

dh

t

h1

R/C

Time to Climb

H0

H

dh y mx b

t

( R / C ) max H0

0 H ( R / C ) max H 0

( R / C ) max,0

( R / C ) max,0

H (H 0 H )

Altitude, H

H0 dh ( R / C ) max

t

( R / C ) max,0 0 H 0 H H0

H0 H0

t ln

( R / C ) max,0 H 0 H

( R / C ) max,0

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Gliding Flight

T 0

D W sin

L W cos

sin D

cos L

1

tan

L

D

Gliding Flight

1

tan

L

D

1

tan 1

L

D

1

min tan 1

L

D max

Gliding Flight 1

tan 1

L

D

h L

R h

tan D

h L

Rmax h( ) max

tan D

Gliding Flight

A modern sailplane may have a glide ratio as high as 60:1

So = tan-1(1/60) ~ 1°

Example

Calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured

along the ground covered by the CP-1 and the CJ-1 in a power-off glide

that starts at an altitude of 10,000 ft.

10,000 ft

Example

CP-1: A light, single-engine, propeller-driven, private airplane, approximately

modelled after the Cessna Skylane, having the following characteristics:

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025

Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8

(0.8)(7.37) / 4(0.025) 13.61

Example

Calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured

along the ground covered by the CP-1 in a power-off glide that starts at an

altitude of 10,000 ft.

1 1

min tan1

tan 1

4.2

L D max 13.61

10,000 ft L

Rmax h( ) max 10000(13.61)

D

136,000 ft

Example

CJ-1: A jet-powered executive aircraft, approximately modelled after the

Cessna Citation 3, having the following characteristics:

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.02

Oswald efficiency factor e = 0.81

(0.81)(8.93) / 4(0.02) 16.9

Example

Calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured

along the ground covered by the CJ-1 in a power-off glide that starts at an

altitude of 10,000 ft.

1 1 1

min tan1

tan 3.39

L D max 16.9

10,000 ft L

Rmax h( ) max 10000(136.9)

D

169,000 ft

Example

For the CP-1, calculate the equilibrium glide velocities at altitudes of

10,000 ft and 2,000 ft, each corresponding to the minimum glide angle.

1 At (L/D)max

L W cos V SC L

2

2 C L2

CD,0 C D ,i

eAR

2 cos W C L C D , 0eAR

V

CL S

C L (0.025) (0.8)(7.37)

CL corresponding to (L/D)max C L 0.634

Example

For the CP-1, calculate the equilibrium glide velocities at altitudes of

10,000 ft and 2,000 ft, each corresponding to the minimum glide angle.

16.95 lb/ft 2 V

S 174 0.0017556(0.634)

V 174.3 ft/s at h 10,000 ft

min 4.2

(2 cos 4.2)(16.95)

V

2 cos W 0.0022409(0.634)

V

CL S V 154.3 ft/s at h 2,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Weight Equation

W W1 W f

dW dW f

dt dt

W W f

W0 – Gross weight of the airplane, including everything: full fuel

load, payload, crew, structures, etc.

Wf – Weight of fuel: this is an instantaneous value, and it

changes as fuel is consumed during flight.

W1 –Weight of the airplane when the fuel tanks are empty.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

SFC VS TSFC

lb of fuel lb of fuel

SFC TSFC

BHPhour lb of thrust hour

dW f dW f

W f dt W f dt

c ct

P P T T

V

ct c

pr

Range: Piston-Propeller

To cover longest distance use minimum pounds of fuel per mile.

lb of fuel lb of fuel

SFC

HP hour (HP) mile V

lb of fuel SFCHP

( SFC)TR

mile V

Range: Piston-Propeller

W W f

ds

V ds V dt

dt dW

ds V

dW f ctT

ct dt dt dW f

T ctT dW W

ds V

ctT W

dW f

ds V

dW L

ctT V L dW

ds V

ct D W ct D W

Range: Piston-Propeller

V L dW V L W0

ds R ln

ct D W ct D W1

R W1 pr LW0 V

V L dW R ct c

R ds ln

c D W1 pr

0

c D W

W0 t

R W1

V L dW unaccelerated flight with

R ds

ct D W constant TSFC and L/D.

0 W0

Range: Piston-Propeller aerodynamics

pr L

W0 structures

R ln and materials

propulsion c D W1

To maximize range:

Fly at largest propeller efficiency

Lowest possible SFC

Highest ratio of W0 to W1 (fly with the largest fuel weight)

Fly at maximum L/D (minimum TR)

Example

Estimate the maximum range for the CP-1.

pr L

W0

Rmax ln

c D max W1

Normal gross weight = 2950 lb

Fuel capacity: 65 gal of aviation gasoline

Specific fuel consumption= 0.45 lb/(hp)(h)

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025

Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8

Propeller efficiency = 0.8

Example

Estimate the maximum range for the CP-1.

lb 1 hp 1h 7

c 0.45 2.27 x 10 ft -1

L D max eAR / 4CD,0 13.61

Since aviation gasoline weighs 5.64 lb/gal, W f 65(5.64) 367 lb

W1 2950 367 2583 lb

pr L W0 0.8 2950

Rmax ln 7

(13.62) ln 6.38 x 10 6

ft 1207 mi

c D max W1 2.27 x 10 2583

Range: Jet Aircraft

To cover longest distance use minimum pounds of fuel per mile.

lb of fuel lb of fuel

TSFC

lb of thrust hour lb of thrust milesV

mile V

TR 1 2W 1

S CD 1

V 2 SCL CL 2

CD

Range: Jet Aircraft

W1 12

V L dW 2 2 CL

R R (W0 W1 )

12 12

c D W

W0 t ct S CD

V 2W SC L unaccelerated flight with

constant TSFC and L1/2/D.

W1 12

2 C L C D dW

R

W0

S ct W1 2

Range: Jet Aircraft

12

2 2 CL

R (W0 W1 )

12 12

ct S CD

To maximize range:

Fly at minimum TSFC

Maximum fuel weight

Maximum L1/2/D

Fly at high altitudes (low density)

How is (CL1/2/CD)max computed?

1/ 2 1/ 2

CL CL

f (C L ) Where K 1 / πeAR

C D , 0 KC L

2

CD

f ' (C )

C D,0 KC L (1 / 2)C L

2

1 / 2

C L (2 KC L )

1/ 2

0

L

C D,0 KC L

2 2

C D,0 KC L (1 / 2)C L

2

1 / 2

C L (2 KC L ) 0

1/ 2

C D , 0 3KC L 3C D ,i

2

How is (CL1/2/CD)max computed?

C D , 0 3KC L C L C D , 0 3K

2

C D , 0 3C D ,i C D ,i (1 / 3)C D , 0

C D C D , 0 (1 / 3)C D , 0 (4 / 3)C D , 0

CL

1/ 2

C D , 0 3K

1/ 2

27

1

1/ 4

C 3

D max (4 / 3)C D , 0 256 K (C D,0 )

Summary

CL C D max 1 /(4 KC D , 0 ) C D , 0 C D ,i

1/ 4

CL 1/ 2

27 1

C D , 0 3C D ,i

C 256 K (C ) 3

D max D,0

3

C 2 1

3 4

L

3

CD 4 KC D , 0 13 3C D , 0 C D ,i

max

Where K 1 / πeAR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Example

Estimate the maximum range for the CJ-1.

2 CL

12

2

Rmax (W01 2 W11 2 )

ct S C D max

Fuel capacity: 1119 gal of kerosene

Specific fuel consumption = 0.6 lb of fuel/(lb thrust)(h)

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.02

Oswald efficiency factor e = 0.81

Example

Estimate the maximum range for the CJ-1.

lb 1h 4 -1

ct 0.6 1.667 x 10 s

(lb)(h) 3600 s

1/ 4

CL 27

1/ 4

1/ 2

1 27 (0.81)(8.93)

23.4

C 256 K (C ) 3 3

D max D,0 256 (0.02)

Example

Estimate the maximum range for the CJ-1.

2 CL

12

2

Rmax (W0 W1 )

12 12

ct S C D

max

2 2

Rmax 4

(23.4)(19815 12352 )

12 12

1.667 x 10 0.001184(318)

6

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

What do we mean by endurance?

Endurance: Piston-Propeller

To stay in the air for the longest time,

fly at minimum pounds of fuel per hour.

lb of fuel

SFC

HP hour

lb of fuel

a (SFC)(PR )

hour

Endurance: Piston-Propeller

W0

dW 1 dW L dW

c dt E

dt P cP W1

c DV W

CL SC L dW

W0

P DV / E cC

W1 D 2 W32

dW

E W0 W0

dW

E dt

CL

2 S 1 2 W11 2 W0 1 2

32

0 W1

cP W1 c DV E

c CD

V 2W SC L Assumptions made: level, unaccelerated flight

with constant SFC, η and L3/2/D.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Endurance: Piston-Propeller

CL

W

32

E 2 S

12

1

1 2

W0

1 2

c CD

To maximize endurance, fly at:

Largest propeller efficiency, η

Lowest possible SFC

Largest fuel weight

Fly at maximum CL3/2/CD

Flight at sea level

Example

Estimate the maximum endurance for the CP-1.

C L

32

Emax 2 S W1 W0

12 1 2 1 2

c C D max

3

C 2 3

4

L 1 3eAR 12.81

CD 4 1

max C

D,0

3

1 2 1

(12.81)2(0.002377)(174)

0.8 1

E 7

1/ 2

2583 2950

1/ 2

2.7 x 10

E 5.19 x 10 4 s 14.4 h

Endurance: Jet Aircraft

To stay in the air for the longest time,

fly at minimum pounds of fuel per hour.

lb of fuel

TSFC

lb of thrust hour

lb of fuel

a (TSFC)(TA )a (TSFC)(TR )

hour

Endurance: Jet Aircraft

dW 1 dW 1 C L W0

ct dt E ln

dt TA ctTA ct C D W1

E W1

dW Assumptions made:

E dt level, unaccelerated

0

cT

W0 t A

flight with constant

W1

TSFC and L/D.

1 L dW

E

c D W

W0 t

Endurance: Jet Aircraft

1 C L W0

E ln

ct C D W1

To maximize endurance, fly at:

Minimum TSFC

Maximum fuel weight

Maximum L/D

Example

Estimate the maximum endurance for the CJ-1.

1 CL W0

Emax ln

ct C D max W1

1 19815

Emax 4

(16.9) ln

1.667 x 10 12352

E 4.79 x 10 s 13.3 h

4

Graphical Summary

Well done, you have endured this long!

Coverage Airplane Performance

Equations of Motions

(zero acceleration) (finite acceleration)

Thrust Required Maximum

Thrust Available Velocity Takeoff

Power Available

Turning Flight

Maximum Velocity

Rate of Climb Gliding Flight V-n Diagram

Time to Climb

Service Ceiling

Maximum Altitude

Absolute Ceiling

Range and Endurance

Dynamic Performance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Ground Roll (Liftoff Distance)

Preliminary (purely kinematic) considerations

dV F

F ma m ds Vdt tdt

dt m

s t

F F F t2

dV dt s ds' t ' dt '

m 0 0

m m 2

V t 2

F F F Vm 1 V 2 m

V dV ' dt ' t s

0 0

m m m F 2 2F

Ground Roll (Liftoff Distance)

Forces in an aircraft during takeoff ground roll

Rolling resistance

mr = 0.02 relatively smooth paved surface

mr = 0.10 grass field

F T D R T D mr W L m

dV

dt

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Coefficient of Rolling Friction

Ground Roll

Is the assumption

of a constant force

reasonable?

V 2m

s

2F

F T D m r W L

Ground Roll

Is the assumption

of a constant force

reasonable?

1

L V SC L

2

2

1 CL

2

D V S C D0

2

2 eAR

16h b 2

1 16h b

2

Ground Effect

Reduction of induced

drag by a factor Φ≤1.

16h b

2

1 16h b

2

1 C

2

D V S C D0

2 L

2 eAR

Ground Effect

Ground Roll

Is the assumption of a

constant force

reasonable?

T is approximately constant

(especially for a jet)

The difference between the

drag and friction combined

and the thrust is also

approximately constant

F T D m r W L constant?

Ground Roll

Assume T is constant.

Assume an average value of

T-[D+μR(W-L)].

Shevell suggests computing

this average at V=0.7VLO.

Feff T [ D m r W L ]ave

2

VLO (W g )

sLO

2 Feff

Ground Roll

2W

VLO 1.2Vstall 1.2

SCL ,max

1.44W 2

sLO

g SC L ,max {T [ D m R (W L)]ave }

2

1.44W

sLO

g SC L ,maxT

Ground Roll

1.44W 2 1.44W 2

sLO sLO

g SC L ,max {T [ D m R (W L)]ave } g SC L ,maxT

Lift-off distance:

Is very sensitive to weight; varies as W2

Depends on ambient density

May be decreased by:

Increasing wing area, S

Increasing CL,max

Increasing thrust, T

Example

Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ-1 at sea level. Assume a paved

runway; hence, μr = 0.02. Also, during the ground roll, the angle of attack

of the airplane is restricted by the requirement that the tail not drag the

ground; therefore, assume that CL,max during ground roll is limited to 1.0.

Also, when the airplane is on the ground, the wings are 6 ft above the

ground.

16h b

2

0.764

1 16h b

2

Example

2W 2(19815)

VLO 1.2Vstall 1.2 1.2 230 ft/s

SCL ,max 0.002377(318)(1.0)

1

L V SCL (1 / 2)(0.002377)(160.3) 2 (318)(1.0) 9712 lb

2

2

1 C

2

D V S C D0

2 L

2 eAR

1 1.0 2

(0.002377)(160.3) (318) 0.02 0.764

2

520.7 lb

2 (0.81)(8.93)

Example

1.44W 2

sLO

g SC L ,max {T [ D m R (W L)]ave }

1.44(19815) 2

sLO

32.2(0.002377)(318)(1.0){7300 [520.7 (0.02)(19815 9712)]}

sLO 3532 ft

Total Takeoff Distance

35 ft (jet-powered civilian transport)

50 ft (all other airplanes)

ground roll

Takeoff Segments

Balanced Field Length

A+B

Additional distance travelled such that

Distance up to V1 the distance required to clear an obstacle

equals

the distance required for a full stop

Distance to clear obstacle

Analysis is based on pull up maneuver

sa R sin

Where, 6.96(Vstall ) 2

R

g

h

cos (1 )

1

R

h is the obstacle height.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Landing Roll

0 t

F

s ds

m 0

t ' dt ' Can we assume a

constant landing

L

Ft 2 force just as we

sL did in takeoff

m 2 performance?

2

V m

sL

2F

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Landing Roll

0 0

F T D R T D m r W L m

dV

dt

F ( D R) [ D m r W L ] m

dV

dt

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Landing Roll

F [ D m r W L ] m

dV

dt

Assume a constant

effective force,

Feff [ D m r W L ]ave

by evaluating the

quantity at 0.7VT ,

where VT is the

touchdown velocity.

Landing Roll

V m 2 1.69W 2

sL sL

2F g SCL ,max [ D m R (W L)]0.7VT

2

VT (W / g )

sL

2[ D m R (W L)]0.7VT μR = 0.4 for paved surface

2W

VT 1.3Vstall 1.3

SCL ,max

Landing Roll

1.69W 2 0

sL

g SCL ,max [TR D m R (W L)]0.7VT

with spoilers

with reverse thrust

Example

Estimate the landing ground roll distance at sea level for the CJ-1. No thrust

reversal is used; however, spoilers are employed such that L = 0. The spoilers

increase the zero-lift, drag coefficient by 10 percent. The fuel tanks are

essentially empty, so neglect the weight of any fuel carried by the airplane.

The maximum lift coefficient, with flaps fully employed at touchdown, is 2.5.

2W 2(12353)

VT 1.3Vstall 1.3 1.3 148.6 ft/s

SCL ,max 0.002377(318)(2.5)

Example

CL 0 L 0

1 1

D V SCD0 90.002377)(104) 2 (318)(0.022) 89.9 lb

2

2 2

1.69W 2

sL

g SCL ,max ( D m RW ) 0.7VT

1.69(12353) 2

sL 842 ft

32.2(0.002377)(318)(2.5)[89.9 0.4(12352)]

Total Landing Distance

Approach Distance

L W cos

D T W sin

D T 1 T

sin

W W L D W

h f R R cos

Vf

2

50 h f

R sa

0.2 g tan

from pull up maneuver analysis

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Flare Distance

s f R sin

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

Level Turn

L cos W Turn Radius

V2

R

Fr L2 W 2 g n2 1

L Turn Rate

n Load Factor

W d V g n 2 1

dt R V

Fr W n 2 1

V2

Fr m

R

Constraints on n and V∞

At any given velocity the maximum possible load

factor for a sustained level turn is constrained by

the maximum thrust available.

1/ 2

1

V

2

2 T 1 2 CD,0

nmax V

K (W / S ) W max 2 W / S

1

K

eAR

Constraints on n and V∞

n is also constrained

by CLmax

1 2 C L , max

nmax V

2 W /S 1

cos max

nmax

1/ 2

1

V

2

T 2 CD,0

1

nmax 2 V

K (W / S ) W max 2 W / S

LT

nmax

D W max

Constraints on n and V∞

n is also constrained by regulation.

Example:

n 4.4 (utility category)

V∞ is constrained by stall.

2 W n

Vstall

ρ S C L ,max

Minimum Turn Radius

Minimum R occurs at the right combination of n and V ∞.

4 K (W / S )

(V ) Rmin

(T / W )

V2

R

4 KC D , 0 g n2 1

nRmin 2

(T / W ) 2

4 K (W / S )

Rmin

g (T / W ) 1 4 KC D , 0 /(T / W ) 2

Maximum Turn Rate

Maximum ω occurs at the right combination of n and V∞.

1/ 4

K

1/ 2

2(W / S )

(V )max

C

D,0 g n2 1

1/ 2

T /W V

nmin 1

KC D , 0

T / W CD,0

1/ 2

max q

W / S 2 K K

Pull-Up Maneuver V 2

m

L W cos

R

V2

m L W

R

V2

R

g n 1

g n 1

V

Pull-Down Maneuver

Pull-Down Maneuver

V2

m L W

R

V2

R

g n 1

g n 1

V

For large load factors

R for level turn, pull-up and pull down

V2

R

gn

gn

V

For large load factors

Minimum R for level turn, pull-up and pull down

2 W

Rmin

gCL ,max S

C L ,max nmax

max g

2(W / S )

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

1

V-n Diagram L

n 2

V2 SCL

W W

1 2 C L , max

nmax V

2 W

S

Topics Discussed Airplane Performance

Equations of Motions

(zero acceleration) (finite acceleration)

Thrust Required Maximum

Thrust Available Velocity Takeoff

Power Available

Turning Flight

Maximum Velocity

Rate of Climb Gliding Flight V-n Diagram

Time to Climb

Service Ceiling

Maximum Altitude

Absolute Ceiling

Range and Endurance

References

• John D. Anderson. Introduction to Flight

• John D. Anderson, Airplane Performance and Design

Thank you

for

listening!

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

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