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Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal

What do we mean by performance?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


We will talk
about static
and dynamic
performance.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
We will answer questions such as:
How fast?
How high?
How far?
How long can an aircraft fly?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Coverage Airplane Performance Drag Polar

Equations of Motions

Static Performance Dynamic Performance


(zero acceleration) (finite acceleration)
Thrust Required Maximum
Thrust Available Velocity Takeoff

Power Required Landing


Power Available
Turning Flight
Maximum Velocity
Rate of Climb Gliding Flight V-n Diagram
Time to Climb
Service Ceiling
Maximum Altitude
Absolute Ceiling
Range and Endurance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
A Prerequisite

Performance analysis
hinges on knowledge of
the airplane drag polar.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


What is a drag polar?

It is a term coined by Eiffel.

The same monsieur of Eiffel tower fame.

The same guy who designed Quiapo bridge


(a.k.a. Quezon bridge)

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Quezon bridge: FEATI’s vantage point

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Gustav’s Tower

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


What is a
drag polar?

It is a graph or an
equation that accounts
for all types of drag in
an airplane and how it
relates to lift.

Not including this type of drag.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


What types of drag are included then?

Let’s have a bulleted list.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


What are the different types of drag?
 Skin friction drag
 Pressure drag
 Profile drag
 Interference drag
 Parasite drag Isang bala ka lang!!!

 Induced drag
 Zero-lift drag
 Drag due to lift
 Wave drag
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag Types

Skin-friction drag. Drag due to frictional


shear stress integrated over the surface.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Types

Pressure drag due to flow separation


(form drag): The drag due to the pressure
imbalance in the drag direction caused by
separated flow.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Types

Profile drag. The sum of skin friction


drag and form drag. (The term profile
drag is usually used in conjunction with
two-dimensional airfoils; it is sometimes
called section drag.)

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Types

Interference drag. An additional


pressure drag caused by the mutual
interaction of the flow fields around
each component of the airplane. The
total drag of the combined body is
usually greater than that of the sum of
its individual parts; the difference is the
interference drag.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag Types

Parasite drag. The term used for the


profile drag for a complete airplane. It is
that portion of the total drag
associated with skin friction and
pressure drag due to flow separation,
integrated over the complete airplane
surface. It includes interference drag.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Types

Induced drag. A pressure drag due to


the pressure imbalance in the drag
direction caused by the induced flow
(downwash) associated with the
vortices created at the tips of finite
wings.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Types

Zero-lift drag. (Usually used in


conjunction with a complete airplane
configuration.) The parasite drag that
exists when the airplane is at its
zero-lift angle of attack, that is,
when the lift of the airplane is zero.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Types
Drag due to lift. (Usually used in
conjunction with a complete airplane.) That
portion of the total airplane drag measured
above the zero-lift drag. It consists of the
change in parasite drag when the airplane is
at an angle of attack different from the
zero-lift angle, plus the induced drag from
the wings and other lifting components of
the airplane.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag Types

Wave drag. The pressure drag


associated with transonic and
supersonic flow (or shock waves,
hence the name). It can be expressed
as the sum the zero-lift wave drag
and wave drag due to lift.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Total Drag!

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Total Drag
for an infinite wing or airfoil:
Total Drag

Skin Friction Drag Pressure Drag

Form Drag (Drag due to flow separation) Induced Drag Wave Drag

Note : Profile Drag = Skin Friction Drag + Form Drag

total drag  profile drag  induced drag


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag Polar
for an infinite wing or airfoil:
2
C
C D  Cd  L
πeAR
profile drag

for a complete airplane:


2
C
CD  CD,0  L
eAR zero-lift drag
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag Polar
2
C
C D  C D ,e  L
eAR
parasite drag coefficient
-profile drag of wing induced drag coefficient
-friction and pressure drag of: lift span
tail surfaces efficiency
fuselage factor
engine nacelles
landing gear
other components exposed to the flow
-a function of angle of attack
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag Polar C 2
C D  C D ,e  L
πeAR
C D ,e  C D , 0  rCL
2

1
C D  C D ,0  (r  2
)C L
eAR
2
CL
CD  CD,0 
πeAR
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Drag polar of a complete airplane

2
C
CD  CD , 0   C D , 0  C D ,i L
eAR
induced drag
parasite drag coefficient
Oswald’s coefficient at
efficiency zero lift
factor

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag polar of a complete airplane
2
C
CD  CD,0  L
eAR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Polar

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Polar

Lockheed C-141A

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Drag Polar

(C L  C Lmin drag ) 2

C D  C D ,min 
πeAR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Why is it called drag polar?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Equations of Motion

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Equations of Motion

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Equations of Motion
For level, unaccelerated flight,

If thrust line is aligned with flight path,

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Equations of Motion
Level, unaccelerated flight
If thrust line is
aligned with
flight path,

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Thrust Required

Required for what?!

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required

Thrust required for steady level


flight at given speed.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight
at a given velocity

NOTE:

TR  D Thrust Required
is a function of
velocity.

It has two
components.

It has a minimum.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

TR  D
2
1 1 1 CL
TR  D   V SC D   V S ( C Do  C Di )   V S ( C Do 
2 2 2
)
2 2 2 eAR
2
 L 
 
 (1 / 2)  V S 
2
1
TR   V S ( C Do 
2     )
2 eAR
2
1 W 1
TR   V SC Do  (
2
)( )
2 1  V S eAR
2
2
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

2
1 W 1
TR   V SC Do  (
2
)( )
2 1  V S eAR
2
2

zero-lift lift-induced
thrust required thrust required

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight
2
1 W 1
TR   V SC Do  ( )  f (V )
2
)(
2 1  V S eAR
2
2
Applying a first and a second derivative test to
this function will confirm the existence of a
minimum. This minimum will exist at velocity,
1/ 2
 2 1 W
VTR ,min  
   C Do eAR S 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

1/ 2
 2 1 W
VTR ,min  
   C Do eAR S 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required: Alternative Approach

TR  D
W
Since L  W TR 
TR C D
 CL / CD
W CL

Since we have already established the existence of


a minimum thrust required, this equation implies the
existence of a maximum lift-to-drag ratio.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required: Alternative Approach
Indeed there is a
maximum L/D ratio
exhibited by every
aircraft.

You will see how


this ratio is an
indicator of
performance
(aerodynamic
efficiency) of an
aircraft.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Thrust Required: Alternative Approach

W W
TR  
CL / CD L / D

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required: Alternative Approach
1
L  W   V2 SCL  q SCL
2
 CL2 
D  q SCD  q S  CD ,0  
Different  eAR 
points on TR At b:
Small q∞ At a:
curve Large q∞
Large CL (or CL2) and a to support W
correspond D large Small CL and a
D large
to different
angles of
attack.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thrust Required Computation
TR is thrust required to 1. Select a flight speed, V∞ and calculate CL.
fly at a given velocity W
in level, unaccelerated CL 
1
 V2 S
flight 2
2. Calculate CD.
CL2
CD  CD , 0 
eAR
3. Calculate CL/CD and calculate TR.
W
TR 
 CL 
 C 
 D

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
CP-1: A light, single-engine, propeller-driven, private airplane, approximately
modelled after the Cessna Skylane, having the following characteristics:

Wingspan = 35.8 ft
Wing area = 174 ft2
Normal gross weight = 2950 lb
Fuel capacity: 65 gal of aviation gasoline
Power plant: one-piston engine, 230 hp (SL)
Specific fuel consumption= 0.45 lb/(hp)(h)
Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025
Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8
Propeller efficiency = 0.8

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example

Cessna Skylane

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
At V=200 ft/s = 136.4 mi/h
W 2950
1 CL    0.357
1 1
 V2 S (0.002377)(200) 2 (174)
2 2
b 2 (35.8) 2
AR    7.37
S 174
C L2 (0.357) 2
2 CD  CD,0   0.025   0.0319
eAR  (0.8)(7.37)
L CL 0.357
   11.2
D C D 0.0319
W 2950
3 TR    263 lb
L / D 11.2
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Example
At other velocities…
1 2 3

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
CJ-1: A jet-powered executive aircraft, approximately modelled after the
Cessna Citation 3, having the following characteristics:

Wingspan = 53.3 ft
Wing area = 318 ft2
Normal gross weight = 19,815 lb
Fuel capacity: 1119 gal of kerosene
Power plant: two turbofan engines of 3650-lb thrust each at sea level
Specific fuel consumption = 0.6 lb of fuel/(lb thrust)(h)
Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.02
Oswald efficiency factor e = 0.81
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Example

Cessna Citation III

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
At V=500 ft/s = 341 mi/h
W 19815
1 CL    0.210
1 1
 V2 S (0.002377)(500) 2 (318)
2 2
b 2 (53.3) 2
AR    8.93
S 318
C L2 (0.21) 2
2 CD  CD,0   0.02   0.022
eAR  (0.81)(8.93)
L CL 0.21
   9.55
D C D 0.022
W 19815
3 TR    2075 lb
L / D 9.55
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Example
At other velocities…
1 2 3

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How do we compute for (L/D)max?
At TRmin we found (by differentiating TR  2
1/ 2
1 W
with respect to V and equating to VTR ,min  
zero),    C Do eAR S 
From this formula for V at TRmin, the 2
following relationship (which has already C
been revealed in the graph) can be CD,0   C D ,i
L

derived: eAR
Thus, C L / C D  C D , 0eAR / 2C D , 0  eAR / 4C D , 0
and this is a maximum
because an (L/D)max is simultaneous with a TRmin.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How do we compute for (L/D)max?
At TRmin
C L2
CD,0   C D ,i
eAR

Thus,
 CL   eAR / 4C
 C 
 D  max
D,0

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How do we compute for TRmin?

You can substitute


 2
1/ 2
Or you can substitute
1 W
VTR ,min  
   C Do eAR S  (C L / C D ) max  eAR / 4C D , 0

to to
1 W 2
1 W
TR   V SC Do  (
2
)( ) TR 
1  V S eAR
2  CL 
2  C 
2  D

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of compressibility on TR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of altitude on TR
2
1 W 1
TR  V SC Do  (
2
)( )
2 1 V S eAR
2

1/ 2
2
 2 1 W
VTR ,min  
  Lower C Do eAR S 

1/ 2
 2 1 W
VTR ,min  
  Higher C Do eAR S 

W
TR ,min 
 CL 
 C 
 D  max

Note that the minimum thrust required is independent of altitude.


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Thrust Available

Propeller-Piston Engine

Jet Engine

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Maximum Velocity: Graphical

The intersection
of the TA and TR
curve gives Vmax at
a certain altitude.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the maximum velocity for the sample jet plane.
Intersection of TR
curve and maximum
TA defines maximum
flight speed of airplane.

Vmax = 975 ft/s


= 665 mi/h

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Some remarks. Computation of TR
curve assumed constant CD,o

At this speed, drag


divergence effects are
significant, and adds to
the CD,o

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Maximum Velocity: Analytical
 CL 
2
D  T  q SC D  q S  C D , 0   Steady, level flight: T = D
 eAR 
W
CL  Steady, level flight: L = W
q S
 W 2
 W 2
Substitute into

T  q S  C D , 0  2 2 
  q SCD , 0 
 q S eAR  q SeAR drag equation
2 Turn this equation into a quadratic
W
q SCD , 0  qT 
2
 0 equation (by multiplying by q∞)
SeAR and rearranging.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Maximum Velocity: Analytical
Solving the quadratic equation and setting thrust,
T, to maximum available thrust, TA,max results in,

1
 T   W     A
W T
2
4C  2

 A       
D,0

  W  max  S   S   W  max eAR 
Vmax  
 CD,0
 
 
 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Maximum Velocity: Design Considerations
1
 T   W   W   TA 
2
4CD ,0 
2

 A        
  W  max  S   S   W  max eAR 
Vmax  
 CD ,0
 
 
 

• TA,max does not appear alone, but only in ratio: (TA/W)max


• S does not appear alone, but only in ratio: (W/S)
• Vmax does not depend on thrust alone or weight alone, but
rather on ratios
• (TA/W)max: maximum thrust-to-weight ratio
• W/S: wing loading
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Maximum Velocity: Design Considerations
1
 T   W   W   TA 
2
4CD ,0 
2

 A        
  W  max  S   S   W  max eAR 
Vmax  
 CD ,0
 
 
 

• Vmax also depends on density (altitude), CD,0, eAR


• Increase Vmax by
• Increase maximum thrust-to-weight ratio, (TA/W)max
• Increasing wing loading, (W/S)
• Decreasing zero-lift drag coefficient, CD,0

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


1
 T   W   W   T  
Example 2
  A        A   D,0
4C

2

  W  max  S   S   W  max eAR 


Vmax  
Calculate Vmax for the CP-1.  CD,0
 
 
 
Wingspan = 35.8 ft
Wing area = 174 ft2 W 2950
  16.95 lb/ft 2
Normal gross weight = 2950 lb S 174
Fuel capacity: 65 gal of aviation gasoline 4C D , 0 4(0.025)
Power plant: one-piston engine, 230 hp (SL) 
Specific fuel consumption= 0.45 lb/(hp)(h) eAR  (0.8)[(35.8) / 174]
2

Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025  5.4066 x 10-3


Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8
 C D ,0  0.002377(0.025)
Propeller efficiency = 0.8
 5.9425 x 10 5 slug/ft 3
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
1
 T   W   W   T  
Example 2
  A        A   D,0
4C

2

 TA    W  max  S   S   W  max eAR 


Calculate Vmax for the CP-1.   ? Vmax 
 CD,0 
 W  max 



 
TAV  PA  P  0.8(230)(550)  1.012 x 105 (ft  lb)/s

For max TA and PA, V∞ = Vmax

P
TA max 
Vmax

 TA  P 1 34.305
   
 W  max W Vmax Vmax

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate Vmax for the CP-1.
1/ 2
 2 
 34.305   34.305 
Vmax  558.97       5.4066 x 10 3 
 Vmax  max  Vmax  max 
 

Solve this by trial and error.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Why is there a need for a new parameter?

Jets Engines are usually rated in Thrust


Thrust is a Force with units (N = kg m/s2)
For example, the PW4000-112 is rated at 98,000 lb of thrust

Piston-Driven Engines are usually rated in terms of Power


Power is a precise term and can be expressed as:
Energy / Time with units (kg m2/s2) / s = kg m2/s3 = Watts
Note that Energy is expressed in Joules = kg m2/s2
Force * Velocity with units (kg m/s2) * (m/s) = kg m2/s3 = Watts
Usually rated in terms of horsepower (1 hp = 550 ft lb/s = 746 W)

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required

PR vs. V∞ curve qualitatively

resembles TR vs. V∞ curve.

PR = TRV∞

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required
NOTE:

Power Required is
a function of
velocity.

It has two
components.

It has a minimum.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required
PR  TRV
2
1 W 1
TR   V SC Do  (
2
)( ) V
2 1  V S eAR
2
2
2
1 W 1
PR  V SC Do  (
3
)( )
2 1 V S eAR
2
zero-lift power required lift-induced power required
zero-lift PR ~ V3 lift-induced PR ~ 1/V

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required, Minimum
2
1 W 1
PR  V SC Do  ( )  f (V )
3
)(
2 1 V S eAR
2

Get f’(V∞).
Equate to zero.
Solve for V∞ in f’(V∞)=0 to get VPR,min.
Substitute V∞ in f(V∞) to get PR,min.

The results are…

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required, Minimum
The results are…
At PRmin ,
3C D , 0  C Di
and
1
 2 1 W 
2

V , PR ,min 
  3C D , 0eAR S 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required
1/ 2
 2 1 W
VTR ,min  
   C Do eAR S  1
1 4
VPR ,min    VTR ,min
3C D , 0  C Di  3

1
 2 1 W 
2

V , PR ,min 
  3C D , 0eAR S 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required: Alternative Approach
W
PR  TRV  V
CL W 2W
CD PR  TRV 
CL   SCL
CD
1
L  W   V SCL
2

2
3 2
2W C D 1
2W PR  a
V    SCL 3
CL
3/ 2

  SCL CD

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Required: Alternative Approach

3 2
2W C D
PR 
  SCL 3

2W 3 1
PR ,min 
 S  C 32 
 L 
 CD 
  max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the power required curve for (a) the CP-1 at sea level and
(b) the CJ-1 at an altitude of 22,000 ft.
PR  TRV

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
At an altitude of 22,000 ft    0.001184 slug/ft
3

Thrust required is re-computed using this density.

PR  TRV

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How do we compute for (CL3/2/CD)max?
2
CL
3C D , 0  C Di 
eAR
C L  3C D , 0eAR

 
3
C 2  1  3eAR 
3

3 4
 L   3C eAR 4
D , 0

 CD  4 C 
4 CD,0 3 1 
  max D,0
 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How do we compute for (CL3/2/CD)max?

At PRmin
3C D , 0  C Di
Thus,
3
C 2
3
  3eAR  4
 L    1 
 CD  4  C 13 
  max  D,0 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


(CL/CD)max VS (CL3/2/CD)max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Locating (L/D)max in the PR curve

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How do we compute for PR,min?
You can substitute
1 Or you can substitute
 2 1 W  2 3
  C 2   3eAR 
3 4
V , PR ,min
  3C D , 0eAR S   L    1 
   CD  4  C 13 
  max  D,0 
to 2 to
1 W 1
PR  V SC Do  (
3
)( )
2 1 V S eAR 2W 3 1
2 PR 
ρ S  C 3 2 
 L 
 CD 
 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of altitude on PR
1
 0  2
V ALT  V0  
  
1
 0  2
PR , ALT  PR , 0  
  
1
 2 1 W  2

V , PR ,min  
  3C D , 0eAR S 
 

2W 3 1
PR 
 S  C 32 
 L 
 CD 
 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of altitude on PR  0 
1
2
V ALT  V0  
  
1
 0  2
PR , ALT  PR , 0  
  

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of altitude on PR  0 
1
2
V ALT  V0  
  
1
 0  2
PR , ALT  PR , 0  
  

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


SUMMARY
thrust required
1 W2 1
TR   V SC Do  (
2
)( )
2 1  V S eAR
2
2 power required
W 1 W 2
1
TR  PR  V SC Do  (
3
)( )
CL / CD 2 1 V S eAR
2
2W 3 1
PR 
 S  C 32 
 L 
 CD 
 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


SUMMARY
At minimum thrust required At minimum power required

C D , 0  C D ,i 3C D , 0  C Di

  3C D , 0eAR 
3

 CL   eAR / 4C C 2  1  3eAR 
3 3 4
4
 C   L 
 D  max  CD  4  C D , 0 13 
D,0
  max 4C D , 0
 
1/ 2
 2 W  2
1
W 
2
1 1
VTR ,min   V , PR ,min 
   C Do eAR S   
 3C D , 0eAR S 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Power Available

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Available

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Power Available VS Thrust Available

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Maximum Velocity: Graphical

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Maximum Velocity: Graphical

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of Altitude on Maximum Velocity

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Effects of Altitude on Maximum Velocity

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Minimum Velocity
It is true, Chuck Norris’ legendary kick can also cause a stall,
but…

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Minimum Velocity
Sometimes minimum or stall velocity
is dictated by powerplant considerations.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Rate of Climb

T  D  W sin 
L  W cos

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Rate of Climb
T  D  W sin 
TV  DV  WV sin 

TV  DV
 V sin 
W
R / C  V sin 
TV  DV
R/C 
W

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Rate of Climb
TV  DV
R/C 
W

Power Available ~ Power Required


(for small Ѳ)
T  D  W sin 

excess power  TV  DV


excess power
R/C 
W
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Rate of Climb
maximum excess power
( R / C ) max 
W

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Rate of Climb VS Altitude

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the rate of climb vs velocity at sea level for (a) the CP-1 and
(b) the CJ-1.
At V = 150 ft/s PR = 32,600 ft-lb/s and PA = 10,120 ft-lb/s. Hence,
excess power PA  PR 10120 - 32600
(R / C)     23.3 ft/s  1398 ft/min
W 2950 2950

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
At V = 500 ft/s PR = 1884 hp and PA = 6636 hp. Hence,

excess power PA  PR 6636 - 1884


(R / C)    550  132 ft/s  7914 ft/min
W 19815 19815

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


R/Cmax: Analytical
For a piston-propeller aircraft:
 W / S Z   T 3 / 2  Z
1/ 2

R / C max     1  
3

 3  C D , 0   W  max  6 2T / W max L / D max Z 
2 2

For a jet aircraft:


 P 
R / C max    0.8776
W /S 1
 W  max  C D ,0 L / D 3max
/2

Where:
3
Z  1 1
L / D 2max T / W 2max
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
What is a Ceiling?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Absolute Ceiling

R/C  0

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Service Ceiling
( R / C ) max  100 ft / min

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the absolute and service ceilings for (a) the CP-1 and (b) the CJ-1.
maximum excess power
( R / C ) max 
W

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the absolute and service ceilings for (a) the CP-1 and (b) the CJ-1.
(a) the CP-1 (b) the CJ-1

service ceilings = 25,000 ft service ceilings = 48,000 ft


absolute ceilings = 27,000 ft absolute ceilings = 49,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Time to Climb
dh dh
R/C  dt 
dt R/C
h2
t   dt
h1

h2
dh
t
h1
R/C

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Time to Climb: Graphical
h2
dh
t
h1
R/C

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Time to Climb
H0
H
dh y  mx  b
t
( R / C ) max H0
0 H  ( R / C ) max  H 0
( R / C ) max,0
( R / C ) max,0
H  (H 0  H )

Altitude, H
H0 dh ( R / C ) max
t
( R / C ) max,0 0 H 0  H H0

H0  H0 
t ln 
( R / C ) max,0  H 0  H 

Maximum Rate of Climb, (R/C)max


( R / C ) max,0

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Gliding Flight
T 0
D  W sin 
L  W cos

sin  D

cos L
1
tan  
L
D

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Gliding Flight
1
tan  
L
D
1
  tan 1
L
D
1
 min  tan 1

L
 
 D  max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Gliding Flight 1
  tan 1
L
D
h L
R h
tan  D
h L
Rmax   h( ) max
tan  D

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Gliding Flight

To maximize range, glide at smallest  (at (L/D)max )


A modern sailplane may have a glide ratio as high as 60:1
So  = tan-1(1/60) ~ 1°

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured
along the ground covered by the CP-1 and the CJ-1 in a power-off glide
that starts at an altitude of 10,000 ft.

10,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
CP-1: A light, single-engine, propeller-driven, private airplane, approximately
modelled after the Cessna Skylane, having the following characteristics:

Aspect Ratio = 7.37


Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025
Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8

L D max  eAR / 4CD,0


  (0.8)(7.37) / 4(0.025)  13.61

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured
along the ground covered by the CP-1 in a power-off glide that starts at an
altitude of 10,000 ft.
1 1
 min  tan1
 tan 1
 4.2
 L D max 13.61

10,000 ft L
Rmax  h( ) max  10000(13.61)
D
 136,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
CJ-1: A jet-powered executive aircraft, approximately modelled after the
Cessna Citation 3, having the following characteristics:

Aspect Ratio = 8.93


Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.02
Oswald efficiency factor e = 0.81

L D max  eAR / 4CD,0


  (0.81)(8.93) / 4(0.02)  16.9

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured
along the ground covered by the CJ-1 in a power-off glide that starts at an
altitude of 10,000 ft.
1 1 1
 min  tan1
 tan  3.39
 L D max 16.9

10,000 ft L
Rmax  h( ) max  10000(136.9)
D
 169,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
For the CP-1, calculate the equilibrium glide velocities at altitudes of
10,000 ft and 2,000 ft, each corresponding to the minimum glide angle.

1 At (L/D)max
L  W cos    V SC L
2

2 C L2
CD,0   C D ,i
eAR
2 cos  W C L  C D , 0eAR
V 
 CL S
C L  (0.025) (0.8)(7.37)
CL corresponding to (L/D)max C L  0.634

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
For the CP-1, calculate the equilibrium glide velocities at altitudes of
10,000 ft and 2,000 ft, each corresponding to the minimum glide angle.

W 2950 (2 cos 4.2)(16.95)


  16.95 lb/ft 2 V 
S 174 0.0017556(0.634)
V  174.3 ft/s at h  10,000 ft
 min  4.2
(2 cos 4.2)(16.95)
V 
2 cos  W 0.0022409(0.634)
V 
 CL S V  154.3 ft/s at h  2,000 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Weight Equation
W  W1  W f

dW dW f

dt dt
W  W f

W – Weight of the airplane at any instant during flight.


W0 – Gross weight of the airplane, including everything: full fuel
load, payload, crew, structures, etc.
Wf – Weight of fuel: this is an instantaneous value, and it
changes as fuel is consumed during flight.
W1 –Weight of the airplane when the fuel tanks are empty.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
SFC VS TSFC

lb of fuel lb of fuel
SFC  TSFC 
BHPhour  lb of thrust hour 

dW f dW f
W f dt W f dt
c  ct   
P P T T
V
ct  c
 pr

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Piston-Propeller
To cover longest distance use minimum pounds of fuel per mile.

lb of fuel lb of fuel
SFC  
HP hour  (HP) mile V

lb of fuel SFCHP 
  ( SFC)TR
mile V

To cover longest distance fly at minimum thrust required.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Piston-Propeller
W  W f
ds
V   ds  V dt
dt  dW 
ds  V   
dW f  ctT 
ct   dt  dt   dW f
T ctT  dW W
ds  V   
 ctT W
 dW f 
ds  V   
 dW  L
 ctT  V L dW
ds  V     
 ct D  W ct D W

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Piston-Propeller
V L dW V L W0
ds   R ln
ct D W ct D W1
R W1  pr LW0 V
V L dW R ct  c
R   ds    ln
c D W1  pr
0
c D W
W0 t

Assumptions made: level,


R W1
V L dW unaccelerated flight with
R   ds   
ct D W constant TSFC and L/D.
0 W0

BREGUET RANGE EQUATION

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Piston-Propeller aerodynamics

 pr L
W0 structures
R ln and materials

propulsion c D W1
To maximize range:
Fly at largest propeller efficiency
Lowest possible SFC
Highest ratio of W0 to W1 (fly with the largest fuel weight)
Fly at maximum L/D (minimum TR)

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the maximum range for the CP-1.

 pr  L 
W0
Rmax    ln
c  D  max W1
Normal gross weight = 2950 lb
Fuel capacity: 65 gal of aviation gasoline
Specific fuel consumption= 0.45 lb/(hp)(h)
Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.025
Oswald efficiency factor, e = 0.8
Propeller efficiency = 0.8

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the maximum range for the CP-1.
lb 1 hp 1h 7
c  0.45  2.27 x 10 ft -1

(hp)(h) 550 ft - lb/s 3600 s


L D max  eAR / 4CD,0  13.61
Since aviation gasoline weighs 5.64 lb/gal, W f  65(5.64)  367 lb
W1  2950  367  2583 lb

 pr  L  W0 0.8  2950 
Rmax    ln  7
(13.62) ln   6.38 x 10 6
ft  1207 mi
c  D  max W1 2.27 x 10  2583 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Jet Aircraft
To cover longest distance use minimum pounds of fuel per mile.
lb of fuel lb of fuel
TSFC  
lb of thrust hour  lb of thrust  milesV

lb of fuel (TSFC )TA



mile V

TR 1 2W 1
  S CD  1
V 2   SCL CL 2
CD

To cover longest distance fly at maximum L1/2/D.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Jet Aircraft
W1 12
V L dW 2 2 CL
R   R (W0  W1 )
12 12

c D W
W0 t ct  S CD

Assumptions made: level,


V  2W   SC L unaccelerated flight with
constant TSFC and L1/2/D.
W1 12
2 C L C D dW
R  
W0
 S ct W1 2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Range: Jet Aircraft

12
2 2 CL
R (W0  W1 )
12 12

ct  S CD

To maximize range:
Fly at minimum TSFC
Maximum fuel weight
Maximum L1/2/D
Fly at high altitudes (low density)

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How is (CL1/2/CD)max computed?
1/ 2 1/ 2
CL CL
  f (C L ) Where K  1 / πeAR
C D , 0  KC L
2
CD

f ' (C ) 
C D,0  KC L (1 / 2)C L
2
 1 / 2
 C L (2 KC L )
1/ 2

0
L
C D,0  KC L
2 2

C D,0  KC L (1 / 2)C L
2
 1 / 2
 C L (2 KC L )  0
1/ 2

C D , 0  3KC L  3C D ,i
2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


How is (CL1/2/CD)max computed?
C D , 0  3KC L  C L  C D , 0 3K
2

C D , 0  3C D ,i  C D ,i  (1 / 3)C D , 0

C D  C D , 0  (1 / 3)C D , 0  (4 / 3)C D , 0

 CL

1/ 2

 
 C D , 0 3K 
1/ 2
 27
 
1
1/ 4


 C  3 
 D  max (4 / 3)C D , 0  256 K (C D,0 ) 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Summary
CL C D max  1 /(4 KC D , 0 ) C D , 0  C D ,i

1/ 4
 CL 1/ 2
  27 1 
    C D , 0  3C D ,i
 C   256 K (C ) 3 
 D  max  D,0 
3
C 2  1  
3 4
 L  
3 
 CD  4  KC D , 0 13  3C D , 0  C D ,i
  max  
Where K  1 / πeAR
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Example
Estimate the maximum range for the CJ-1.


2 CL 
12
2
Rmax    (W01 2  W11 2 )
ct   S  C D  max

Normal gross weight = 19,815 lb


Fuel capacity: 1119 gal of kerosene
Specific fuel consumption = 0.6 lb of fuel/(lb thrust)(h)
Parasite drag coefficient CD,o = 0.02
Oswald efficiency factor e = 0.81

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the maximum range for the CJ-1.
lb 1h  4 -1
ct  0.6  1.667 x 10 s
(lb)(h) 3600 s
1/ 4
 CL   27 
1/ 4
1/ 2
1  27  (0.81)(8.93) 
        23.4
 C   256 K (C ) 3  3
 D  max  D,0   256 (0.02) 

Since kerosene weighs 6.67 lb/gal, W f  1119(6.67)  7463 lb

W1  19815  7463  12352 lb

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the maximum range for the CJ-1.

2  CL 
12
2
Rmax    (W0  W1 )
12 12

ct   S  C D 
 max

2 2
Rmax  4
(23.4)(19815  12352 )
12 12

1.667 x 10 0.001184(318)

Rmax  19.2 x 10 ft  3630 miles


6

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
What do we mean by endurance?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Endurance: Piston-Propeller
To stay in the air for the longest time,
fly at minimum pounds of fuel per hour.
lb of fuel
SFC 
HP hour 

lb of fuel
a (SFC)(PR )
hour 

For maximum endurance, fly at minimum power required.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Endurance: Piston-Propeller

W0
dW 1 dW L dW
c  dt   E 
dt P cP W1
c DV W

 CL   SC L dW
W0
P  DV /  E cC
W1 D 2 W32
 dW
E W0 W0
dW
E   dt   
 CL
2   S 1 2 W11 2  W0 1 2 
32
0 W1
cP W1 c DV E
c CD
V  2W   SC L Assumptions made: level, unaccelerated flight
with constant SFC, η and L3/2/D.
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Endurance: Piston-Propeller

 CL
W 
32
E 2   S 
12
1
1 2
 W0
1 2

c CD
To maximize endurance, fly at:
Largest propeller efficiency, η
Lowest possible SFC
Largest fuel weight
Fly at maximum CL3/2/CD
Flight at sea level

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the maximum endurance for the CP-1.
  C L 

 
32
Emax    2   S  W1  W0
12 1 2 1 2

c  C D  max
3
C 2 3
  4
 L   1  3eAR   12.81
 CD  4  1 
  max C
 D,0 
3

1 2 1 
(12.81)2(0.002377)(174) 
0.8 1
E 7
 1/ 2 
 2583 2950 
1/ 2
2.7 x 10
E  5.19 x 10 4 s  14.4 h

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Endurance: Jet Aircraft
To stay in the air for the longest time,
fly at minimum pounds of fuel per hour.

lb of fuel
TSFC 
lb of thrust hour 
lb of fuel
a (TSFC)(TA )a (TSFC)(TR )
hour 

For maximum endurance, fly at minimum thrust required.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Endurance: Jet Aircraft
dW 1 dW 1 C L W0
ct    dt   E ln
dt TA ctTA ct C D W1

E W1
dW Assumptions made:
E   dt    level, unaccelerated
0
cT
W0 t A
flight with constant
W1
TSFC and L/D.
1 L dW
E  
c D W
W0 t

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Endurance: Jet Aircraft

1 C L W0
E ln
ct C D W1
To maximize endurance, fly at:
Minimum TSFC
Maximum fuel weight
Maximum L/D

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the maximum endurance for the CJ-1.

1  CL  W0
Emax    ln
ct  C D  max W1
1 19815
Emax  4
(16.9) ln
1.667 x 10 12352

E  4.79 x 10 s  13.3 h
4

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Graphical Summary

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Well done, you have endured this long!

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Coverage Airplane Performance

Equations of Motions

Static Performance Dynamic Performance


(zero acceleration) (finite acceleration)
Thrust Required Maximum
Thrust Available Velocity Takeoff

Power Required Landing


Power Available
Turning Flight
Maximum Velocity
Rate of Climb Gliding Flight V-n Diagram
Time to Climb
Service Ceiling
Maximum Altitude
Absolute Ceiling
Range and Endurance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Dynamic Performance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Ground Roll (Liftoff Distance)
Preliminary (purely kinematic) considerations

dV F
F  ma  m ds  Vdt  tdt
dt m
s t
F F F t2
dV  dt s   ds'   t ' dt ' 
m 0 0
m m 2

V t 2
F F F  Vm  1 V 2 m
V   dV '   dt '  t s   
0 0
m m m  F  2 2F

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll (Liftoff Distance)
Forces in an aircraft during takeoff ground roll

Rolling resistance
mr = 0.02 relatively smooth paved surface
mr = 0.10 grass field

F  T  D  R  T  D  mr W  L  m
dV
dt
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Coefficient of Rolling Friction

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll
Is the assumption
of a constant force
reasonable?

V 2m
s
2F

F  T  D  m r W  L 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll
Is the assumption
of a constant force
reasonable?

1
L   V SC L
2

2
1  CL 
2
D   V S  C D0   
2

 
2  eAR 


16h b 2

1  16h b 
2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Effect
Reduction of induced
drag by a factor Φ≤1.


16h b 
2

1  16h b 
2

1  C
2

D   V S  C D0   
2 L
 
2  eAR 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Effect

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll
Is the assumption of a
constant force
reasonable?
T is approximately constant
(especially for a jet)
The difference between the
drag and friction combined
and the thrust is also
approximately constant

F  T  D  m r W  L   constant?

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll
Assume T is constant.
Assume an average value of
T-[D+μR(W-L)].
Shevell suggests computing
this average at V=0.7VLO.
Feff  T  [ D  m r W  L ]ave

2
VLO (W g )
sLO 
2 Feff

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll
2W
VLO  1.2Vstall  1.2
  SCL ,max

1.44W 2
sLO 
g  SC L ,max {T  [ D  m R (W  L)]ave }

2
1.44W
sLO 
g  SC L ,maxT

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Ground Roll
1.44W 2 1.44W 2
sLO  sLO 
g  SC L ,max {T  [ D  m R (W  L)]ave } g  SC L ,maxT

Lift-off distance:
Is very sensitive to weight; varies as W2
Depends on ambient density
May be decreased by:
Increasing wing area, S
Increasing CL,max
Increasing thrust, T

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ-1 at sea level. Assume a paved
runway; hence, μr = 0.02. Also, during the ground roll, the angle of attack
of the airplane is restricted by the requirement that the tail not drag the
ground; therefore, assume that CL,max during ground roll is limited to 1.0.
Also, when the airplane is on the ground, the wings are 6 ft above the
ground.


16h b 
2
 0.764
1  16h b 
2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
2W 2(19815)
VLO  1.2Vstall  1.2  1.2  230 ft/s
  SCL ,max 0.002377(318)(1.0)

0.7VLO  160.3 ft/s


1
L   V SCL  (1 / 2)(0.002377)(160.3) 2 (318)(1.0)  9712 lb
2

2
1  C
2

D   V S  C D0   
2 L
 
2  eAR 
1  1.0 2

 (0.002377)(160.3) (318) 0.02  0.764
2
  520.7 lb
2   (0.81)(8.93) 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
1.44W 2
sLO 
g  SC L ,max {T  [ D  m R (W  L)]ave }

1.44(19815) 2
sLO 
32.2(0.002377)(318)(1.0){7300  [520.7  (0.02)(19815  9712)]}

sLO  3532 ft

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Total Takeoff Distance
35 ft (jet-powered civilian transport)
50 ft (all other airplanes)

ground roll

Total takeoff distance as per FAR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Takeoff Segments

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Balanced Field Length

A+B
Additional distance travelled such that
Distance up to V1 the distance required to clear an obstacle
equals
the distance required for a full stop

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Distance to clear obstacle
Analysis is based on pull up maneuver

sa  R sin 

Where, 6.96(Vstall ) 2
R
g
h
  cos (1  )
1

R
h is the obstacle height.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Landing Roll
0 t
F
s ds 
m 0
t ' dt ' Can we assume a
constant landing
L

Ft 2 force just as we
sL   did in takeoff
m 2 performance?
2
V m
sL  
2F
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Landing Roll

0 0
F  T  D  R  T  D  m r W  L   m
dV
dt
F  ( D  R)  [ D  m r W  L ]  m
dV
dt
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Landing Roll
F  [ D  m r W  L ]  m
dV
dt
Assume a constant
effective force,
Feff  [ D  m r W  L ]ave

Compute this average


by evaluating the
quantity at 0.7VT ,
where VT is the
touchdown velocity.

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Landing Roll
V m 2 1.69W 2
sL   sL  
2F g  SCL ,max [ D  m R (W  L)]0.7VT
2
VT (W / g )
sL  
2[ D  m R (W  L)]0.7VT μR = 0.4 for paved surface

2W
VT  1.3Vstall  1.3
  SCL ,max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Landing Roll

1.69W 2 0
sL  
g  SCL ,max [TR  D  m R (W  L)]0.7VT
with spoilers
with reverse thrust

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
Estimate the landing ground roll distance at sea level for the CJ-1. No thrust
reversal is used; however, spoilers are employed such that L = 0. The spoilers
increase the zero-lift, drag coefficient by 10 percent. The fuel tanks are
essentially empty, so neglect the weight of any fuel carried by the airplane.
The maximum lift coefficient, with flaps fully employed at touchdown, is 2.5.

2W 2(12353)
VT  1.3Vstall  1.3  1.3  148.6 ft/s
  SCL ,max 0.002377(318)(2.5)

0.7VT  104 ft/s

C D , 0  0.02  0.1(0.02)  0.022

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Example
CL  0  L  0

1 1
D   V SCD0  90.002377)(104) 2 (318)(0.022)  89.9 lb
2

2 2

1.69W 2
sL  
g  SCL ,max ( D  m RW ) 0.7VT

1.69(12353) 2
sL    842 ft
32.2(0.002377)(318)(2.5)[89.9  0.4(12352)]

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Total Landing Distance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Approach Distance
L  W cos 

D  T  W sin 

D T 1 T
sin     
W W L D W
h f  R  R cos 

Vf
2
50  h f
R sa  
0.2 g tan 
from pull up maneuver analysis
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Flare Distance

s f  R sin 

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
Level Turn
L cos   W Turn Radius
V2
R
Fr  L2  W 2 g n2 1

L Turn Rate
n Load Factor
W d V g n 2  1
  
dt R V
Fr  W n 2  1

V2
Fr  m
R

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Constraints on n and V∞
At any given velocity the maximum possible load
factor for a sustained level turn is constrained by
the maximum thrust available.
1/ 2
1 
 V
2
 2    T  1 2 CD,0  
nmax      V 
 K (W / S )  W  max 2 W / S 
 

1
K
eAR

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Constraints on n and V∞
n is also constrained
by CLmax
1 2 C L , max
nmax   V
2 W /S 1
cos max 
nmax
1/ 2
1 
  V
2
 T  2 CD,0  
  1
nmax  2     V 
 K (W / S )  W  max 2 W / S 
 

LT 
nmax   
D  W  max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Constraints on n and V∞
n is also constrained by regulation.
Example:
n  4.4 (utility category)

V∞ is constrained by stall.

2 W n
Vstall 
ρ S C L ,max

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Minimum Turn Radius
Minimum R occurs at the right combination of n and V ∞.

4 K (W / S )
(V ) Rmin 
  (T / W )
V2
R
4 KC D , 0 g n2 1
nRmin  2
(T / W ) 2

4 K (W / S )
Rmin 
g  (T / W ) 1  4 KC D , 0 /(T / W ) 2

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Maximum Turn Rate
Maximum ω occurs at the right combination of n and V∞.
1/ 4
 K 
1/ 2
 2(W / S ) 
(V )max    
 C 
    D,0  g n2 1
1/ 2 
 T /W  V
nmin   1
 KC D , 0 
 


 T / W  CD,0  
1/ 2

max  q     
W / S  2 K  K  

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Pull-Up Maneuver V 2
m 
 L  W cos 
R

V2
m  L W
R

V2
R
g n  1

g n  1

V

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Pull-Down Maneuver

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Pull-Down Maneuver
V2
m  L W
R

V2
R
g n  1

g n  1

V

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


For large load factors
R for level turn, pull-up and pull down

V2
R
gn

ω for level turn, pull-up and pull down

gn

V

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


For large load factors
Minimum R for level turn, pull-up and pull down

2 W
Rmin 
  gCL ,max S

Maximum ω for level turn, pull-up and pull down

 C L ,max nmax
max  g
2(W / S )

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal
1
V-n Diagram L
n  2
 V2 SCL
W W
1 2 C L , max
nmax   V
2 W
S

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Topics Discussed Airplane Performance

Equations of Motions

Static Performance Dynamic Performance


(zero acceleration) (finite acceleration)
Thrust Required Maximum
Thrust Available Velocity Takeoff

Power Required Landing


Power Available
Turning Flight
Maximum Velocity
Rate of Climb Gliding Flight V-n Diagram
Time to Climb
Service Ceiling
Maximum Altitude
Absolute Ceiling
Range and Endurance

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


References
• John D. Anderson. Introduction to Flight
• John D. Anderson, Airplane Performance and Design

Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal


Thank you
for
listening!
Aircraft Performance | AERO BOARD PREP 2016 | LF Banal