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Proportional (P) Integral (I) Derivative (D)

1 0.05 0.01 0.00

2 0.10 0.01 0.00

3 0.15 0.01 0.00

PV

PV1

PV2

From Table 1, it shows that the Proportional (P) values differ for each set which are P

= 0.05, P = 0.10 and P = 0.15. In studying the effect of controller gain, values for Integral (I)

and Derivative (D) remain fixed for each proportional value. Figure 1 clearly shows that at P

= 0.05, the maximum process variable is at 1.6% compared to P = 0.10 and P = 0.15 where the

process variables is at 1.4% and approximately 1.25%, respectively. At P = 0.05, the controller

action is faster compared to P = 0.10 and P = 0.15 whereby P value at 0.15 reaches set point

the fastest. As the proportional value increasing, the controller action becomes slower and thus,

it will slow down the process response.

The proportional value also affects the stability of the process. From Figure 1, at time

= 100, the process reaches it stability first for P = 0.15 in comparison to P = 0.10 and P = 0.05.

P = 0.05 reaches it stability at time = 500 while P = 0.10 is 300. Hence, it can be said that

At P = 0.05, the max process variable is at 1.6%compared to at P = 0.10 and P = 0.15 where

the process variables is at 1.4% and approximately1.25%, respectively. The proportional

control applies corrective action appropriate to eliminateerror. From the graph, larger value of

controller gain will further decreasing the error from the process.Other than reducing the

oscillates number, larger value of P ensure the stability of the process. As seen in figure, for P

= 0.15 at approximate time = 100, the process already reachedstabilization compared to at P =

0.10 and P = 0.05 where the process reached stabilization at time= 200 and time = 500,

respectively. Larger value of P will reduce the time taken for the processto reached the set point

since the controller action becomes slower and slows down the processresponse

Lab 2: Effect of Integral Time

Proportional (P) Integral (I) Derivative (D)

1 0.05 0.01 0.00

2 0.05 0.05 0.00

3 0.05 0.10 0.00

PV1

PV2

PV

From Table 2, it shows that the Integral (I) values differ for each set which are I = 0.01,

I = 0.05 and I = 0.10. In studying the effect of integral time, values for Proportional (P) and

Derivative (D) remain fixed for each proportional value. Figure 2 shows that at I = 0.10, the

maximum process variable is approximately 1.84% compared to I = 0.05 and I = 0.01 where

the process variables are at 1.8% and 1.6%, respectively. Based on the graph above, it can be

concluded that the higher the value of Integral (I), the higher the number of oscillates.

Besides that, another conclusion could be made is that the lower the value of Integral

(I), the higher the stability of the process. From Figure 2, approximately at time = 420, the

process reaches it stability first for I = 0.01 in comparison I = 0.05 and I = 0.10. I = 0.05 reaches

it stability at time = 500 while I = 0.10 is around 550s. Hence, as the integral values increases,

the controller actions and process response become faster. This will lead to the increasing of

time taken for the process to reach the set point.

Lab 3: Effect of Derivative Time

Proportional (P) Integral (I) Derivative (D)

1 0.05 0.01 0.00

2 0.05 0.01 0.05

3 0.05 0.01 0.10

PV

PV2

PV1

From Table 3, it shows that the Derivative (D) values differ for each set which are D =

0.00, D = 0.05 and D = 0.10. In studying the effect of derivative time, values for Proportional

(P) and Integral (I) remain fixed for each derivative value. Figure 3 shows that at D = 0.00, the

maximum process variables is 1.6% comapred to D = 0.05 and D = 0.10 where the process

variables is 1.58% and 1.56%, respectively. The derivative control depends on the rate of

errorchange. From the graph, smaller value of D, increase the overshoot of the graph but do not

haveany effects on the number of oscillates.

We can see by increasing the values of D, the controller action becomes faster.

Consequently, process rate also becomes faster. The major difference between D= 0, D= 1 and

D= 2 can be observed as the D values doubles. This can be seen where the distance between

the peak to peak of the process response curve doubles for every value of D doubles.

Lab 4: Effect of Deadtime

Proportional (P) Integral (I) Derivative (D) Time Delay

1 0.02 0.01 0.00 5

2 0.02 0.01 0.00 7

3 0.02 0.01 0.00 9

Table 4 presents studying impact of dead time at various Time Delay values through 5,

7 and 9 at fixed values of Proportional, Integral and Derivative. Dead time is the delay from

when a controller output (CO) signal is issued until when the measured process variable (PV)

first begins to respond. (Dead Time Is The "How Much Delay" Variable, 2015). In a PID

Control, the impact of a dead time is critical and is unfavorable in a control loop. At TD = 5,

the maximum process variable is at 2.3% compared to at TD = 7 and TD = 9 where the process

variables is at approximately 1.8% and 1.5%, respectively. As as the dead time increases, the

controller action turns out to be slower. Thus, the process rate also turns out to be slower.

Expanding dead time prompts more overshoot and oscillations. Increasing value of time delay,

increases the time taken for the process to reached its set point. This is because of the more

extended time taken for the reaction to achieve half of its final value from the zero instant. For

this situation, the controller gain must be adjusted.

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