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Q1- write short notes :

a) Illuminance and Luminance

b) Daylight factor concept
c) Veiling reflection and contrast
d) Color temperature and color rendering index
e) Light control strategies
f) Lux level requirements


a) Illuminance and luminance

Light is a form of a visible energy, which enables us to see things. Light either directly
from the source or reflected off an object, is perceived by our eyes, and analysed
into images in the brain.

When we say that, light is being too bright or too dark, or if a room is over lit or under
lit. we are speaking of it in a very broad sense.

To accurately describe and measure the effects of light we use photometric

quantities, these are:

 Intensity of light (I) or luminous intensity

Light flux emitted in a particular direction from a given light source. It is
measured in the unit of candela (Cd)
It is a measure of the wavelength weighted power emitted by a light source
in a particular direction per unit solid angle.
 Flux (or flow) of light (F) (ɸ)
Light flux is the total quantity of light emitted per second. Measured in lumens
(Lm). It is the total perceived power emitted in all directions.
 Illuminance
Amount of flux falling on unit area i.e. 𝑚2
E= ɸ/surface area
It is a measure of the intensity of the incident light (lux=Lm/m2 )
Other unit of illuminance is foot candles (1 ft-cd = 10.76Lx) Lx is lux
 Luminance
Measure of brightness of surface. Often used to characterize emission or
reflection from the surface. It is an indicator of how bright the surface will
L=I/surface area
Measured in Cd/m2
b) Daylight factor concept:
Day lighting has much greater impact on architecture of a building, affecting
not only the amount of fenestration and its appearance on the façade, but
even the building orientation and shape.
Day lighting depends upon the following factors:
 Season
 Latitude
 Time of day
 Weather conditions

Daylight factors are used in architecture and building design in order to access
the internal natural lighting levels as perceived on the working plane or surface in
question, in order to determine if they will be sufficient for the occupants of the
space to carry out their normal duties.

In a building, at a certain point, the ratio of the illumination to the simultaneous

out door illumination can be taken as constant. This constant ratio, expressed as
a percentage, is the daylight factor.


EI= illumination indoor at point taken

EO= illumination outdoor from unobstructed sky hemisphere


SC is the sky component

ERC is the externally reflected component

IRC is the internally reflected component

Daylight factor concept is only valid under conditions when there is no direct
c) Veiling reflection and contrast:

d) Color temperature and color rendering index:

 The interaction between an object and a light source is called color rendition.
 E.g. Color of a blue vase under a blue light will be heightened as
the color of the light intensifies the color of vase.
 Under red light same vase will appear dull (red absorbed and no
blue light to reflect)
 To solve this problem different light sources throw different amount
of colors.
 The color rendering index (CRI) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light
source to reproduce the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an
ideal or natural light source.
 The color-rendering characteristic of a lamp describe how natural the
surroundings appear in its light.
 Light sources with a high CRI are desirable in color-critical applications.
 Technically, color temperature refers to the temperature to which one would
have to heat a theoretical "black body" source to produce light of the same
visual color.
 At higher temperature, a filament will become bluer in appearance. At lower
temperatures, it will become redder.
e) Light control strategies:
Lighting control allow lighting to be turned down or completely off when it is not
The simplest way to save energy. Maximizing the use of controls involves
developing strategies that utilize the code requirements for various devices,
including on-off controls, dimming controls and systems that combine the use of
both types of equipment. These controls can be quite sophisticated, but in
general. They perform 2 basic functions:
1. They turn lights off when not needed
2. They modulate light output so that no more light than necessary is

The equipment required to achieve these functions varies in comlplexity from

simple timers to intricate electronic dimming circuits, each applicable to
different situations.

Some light control strategies are:

1. Occupancy Sensing: Turning lights on and off according to

occupancy as detected by occupancy sensors
2. Scheduling: Turning lights off according to program using
programmable relays, timers and other time clock devices.
Appropriate for predictable occupancy patterns.
3. Daylighting: Daylighting controls typically employ a photo sensor,
linked to a switching or dimming unit that varies electric light output in
response to available daylight.
4. demand limiting: Reducing electric lighting power during or in
anticipation of power curtailment emergencies.
5. adaptive compensation: Adaptive compensation uses dimming
devices or switching relays combined with automatic timers or
photocells to vary lighting according.

f) Lux level requirement:

Q-2 explain the types of artificial lighting. Explain any 3 types of luminaries for

a) Internal lighting system

b) External lighting system

A-2 Artificial lighting is of prime importance for both interior and exterior spaces.For any
space to be used by humans, one of the core tenets of proper lighting is uniform
illumination, Proper lighting can:

- enhance task performance,

- improve the appearance of an area &

- have positive psychological effects on occupants

Lighting is classified by intended use, depending largely on the distribution of the light
produced by the fixture as :

 GENERAL LIGHTING: (sometimes referred to as ambient light) is intended for

general illumination of an area. this would be a basic lamp on a table or floor, or
a fixture on the ceiling.

1. Provides majority illuminance and surface brightness.

2. It is a general lighting which is used to provide basic illuminance to different
It helps to reduce contrast between bright light sources and their
3. it facilitates basic visibility for safe utilization of space.
4. It could be direct or indirect
5. Design ambient light to illuminate majority of the space to about one third
the task illumination level.
6. Example: uplighters ,down lighters ,grid lighting, strips, coves, fluorescent

 ACCENT LIGHTING: is mainly decorative, intended to highlight pictures, plants, or

other elements of interior design or landscaping
1. Highlights particular architectural features or artwork.

2. If the ambient light level is too high, no amount of accent lighting will
increase the brightness of a feature enough to make the contrast apparent

3. Selective use of accent lighting increases its effect. Too much accent lighting
will wash out the impact of any single feature.

4. Accent lighting can be used for statues, paintings, moldings, graphics etc.
E.g.: low voltage spot lights ,truck lights, mini spots, picture lights, uplighters

 TASK LIGHTING: is mainly functional & is usually the most concentrated, for
purposes such as reading, cooking, drafting and the like. For example
reproductions may require task lighting levels up to 1500 lux and some inspection
tasks or surgical procedures require even higher levels

1. Increases the illuminance of a particular task at close range.

2. The type of lighting and the light level vary with the task.
3. General reading will require a lower light level than detailed accounting
4. Computer use may require light on an adjacent written task, but not on the
computer screen itself.
5. Provide task lighting that is under the control of each worker.

Methods of artificial lighting:


 This is the most common, with fixtures on or recessed in the ceiling casting light
 This tends to be the most used method, used in both offices and homes
 Although it is easy to design it has dramatic problems with glare and excess
energy consumption due to large number of fittings

2. UPLIGHTING (indirect)
 is less common, often used to bounce indirect light off the ceiling and back
 It is commonly used in lighting applications that require minimal glare and
uniform general luminance levels
 It uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a space and can minimize disabling
glare on computer displays and other dark glossy surfaces.
 It gives a more uniform light output in operation.
 indirect lighting is completely dependent upon the reflectance value of the
 indirect lighting can create a diffused and shadow free light effect
 it can be regarded as an uneconomical lighting principle.
3. FRONT LIGHTING: is quite common, but tends to make the subject look flat as its
casts almost no visible shadows.

4. SIDE LIGHTING: Lighting from the side is the less common, as it tends to produce
glare near eye level.

5. BACK LIGHTING either around or through an object is mainly for accent.


A body housing the lighting source which has been design to produce a particular
spatial distribution of light by using reflector or diffuser surfaces. Certain light fittings
incorporate part or all or the auxiliary equipment necessary for correct functioning
of the light source.

The main function of a luminaire is to distribute, diffuse, and direct light.

Luminaire efficiency is defined by ratio of

total lumens emitted by the luminaire
total lamp lumen output

Luminaire consist some or all the following components:

a) Lamps
b) Reflector (to direct light in desired direction)
c) Shielding (to reduce discomfort by glare and control distribution of light)
d) Housing (troffer) to contain these and other necessary parts

Internal lighting systems:

External lighting systems:

Q-3 explain with sketches strategies adopted for daylighting of an office building and

Q-4 Describe any 3 kinds of electric lamps available in the market. Suggest suitable
lamps for

a) Street light
b) Studio light in an institutional building
c) Stadiums


There are 4 types of lamps available in the market, namely:

a) Incandescent
It is the production of light via temperature elevation. The most common
example is a filament heated to white state by the circulation of an electrical
current. The energy supplied is transformed into heat by joule effect and into
luminous flux.
They are based on the principle of a filament rendered incandescent in a
vacuum or neutral atmosphere which prevents combustion.
- An electric current passes through a thin filament, heating it until it produces
- The enclosing glass bulb prevents the oxygen in the air from reaching the hot
filament, which otherwise would be destroyed rapidly by oxidation.
- Luminous efficacy: 10-16 Lm/W
- 5% light and 95% heat
- Low installation cost
- Warm colour tone
- Application: interiors exteriors night lamps, decorative lighting in chandelier,
signboards, torches etc.
 Standard incandescent: they contain a tungsten filament ad are filled
with an inert gas(nitrogen, argon or krypton)
 Halogen incandescent: these also contain a tungsten filament, but are
filled with halogen compounds and an inert gas (krypton or xenon).
Halogen compounds helps to increase the service life of the lamps and
avoids blackening.
It also enables higher filament temperature and therefore greater
luminosity in smaller size bulb.
These last longer than filament bulb but are more costly.
Produce white light than ordinary tungsten.
Small and energy efficient.
Application: car parks, construction area, storage yards, factory bays,
monuments etc.
b) Fluorescent
- This family covers fluorescent tubes.
- The technology is usually known as “low pressure mercury”
- In these, an electric discharge causes electron to collide with ions of mercury
vapour, resulting in ultra violet radiation due to energization of the mercury
- The fluorescent material which covers the inside of the tubes, then transforms this
radiation into visible light.
- These tubes need an ignition device called a starter and a device to limit the
current in the arc after ignition. This device called ballast is usually a choke
placed in series with this arc.
- These have advantage of low wattage consumption and higher efficacy.
- Its uses are diverse and universal.
- These lamps give 40-70Lm/W
- These lamps give 21% light and 79%heat.

 Compact fluorescent lamp:

- CFL are based on the same principle as a fluorescent tube.
- Starter and ballast functions are provided by an electronic circuit (integrated in
the lamp)
- Use less power
- Longer rated life
- High purchase price

c) High intensity discharge

 Mercury
 Sodium
 Metal halide
- The term HID describes lighting systems that produce light through electrical
discharge which typically occurs inside a pressurized arc tube between 2
- These system feature long life, high light output for the size of the lamp and
increased efficiency compared to fluorescent and incandescent technologies
- They are named by the type of gas and metal contained within the arc tube.
- Ballast is required to start and operate in a controlled manner
- They take several minutes to warm up
- The high ceiling and hieghts in industrial interiors and outdoor lighting
applications necessitate the use of HID.
- Full light output is reached after the arc tube temperature rises and the metal
vapours reach final operating pressure.
- Power interruption or voltage drop will cause the lamp to extinguish. Before the
lamp will relight, it must cool to the point where the lamp’s arc will restrike.
- Typically used when high level of light over large areas are required, public
areas, theatre, stadiums, outdoor activity, roadways, parking lots, floodlights,
monuments, ports.
d) Solid state
- These are solid state semi conductor devices that convert electrical energy
directly into light.
- Small and durable
- Light is generated inside the chip, a solid crystal material, when current flows
across the junctions of different materials.
- The composition of materials determine the wavelength and therefore colour of

Q-5 write short notes on:

a) Sound and velocity of sound

b) Sound pressure levels
c) Noise reduction coefficient
d) Reverberation and RT60
e) Threshold and audibility and threshold of pain


a) Sound and velocity of sound:

 Sound is a sensation caused by vibrating medium acting on the ear, but
term is usually applied to vibration itself.
 As an object vibrates, it causes its surrounding air to vibrate, this back and
forth motion travels from molecule to molecule, forming a wave called
sound wave.
 Sound is a travelling wave, which is an oscillation of pressure transmitted
through a solid, liquid or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of
hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation
stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.
 For humans, hearing is normally limited to frequencies between about 20
Hz and 20,000 Hz (20 kHz), although these limits are not definite. The upper
limit generally decreases with age.
 Sounds with frequencies above the range of human hearing are called
ultrasound. Sounds with frequencies below the range of human hearing
are called infrasound.
 The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound are able to
travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids, solids and plasmas . The
matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel
through vacuum.
 Sound is transmitted through gases, plasma, and liquids as longitudinal
waves, also called compression waves. Through solids, however, it can be
transmitted as both longitudinal and transverse waves.

 Sound waves are characterized by the generic properties of waves,
which are frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude, intensity, speed and
 When the wave takes place in a liquid or gaseous medium (except
surface waves), the wave is called an acoustic wave. When a wave is
audible, it is called a sound wave.

 Speed of sound:
 It is the rate at which the disturbance (sound wave) travels.
 The speed of sound in air is about 344 m/s at normal temperature and
 It takes sound about 5 seconds to travel 1 mile.
 Eg.- you can gauge the distance of a thunderstorm by counting the time
between the sight of the lighting strike and the sound of its thunder.
 Sound will propagate at a certain speed that depends on the medium,
and other factors.
 The more dense the molecular structure, the easier it is for the molecules
to transfer sound energy; compared to air, sound travels faster in denser
media such as liquids and solids.

b) Sound pressure levels:

 Sound pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average, or
equilibrium) pressure caused by a sound wave.
 The SI unit for sound pressure is the pascal (symbol: Pa)

Where, P is sound pressure being measured

P0 is the reference sound pressure (usually = 20 µPa)

c) Noise reduction coefficient:
 The Noise Reduction Coefficient (commonly abbreviated NRC) is a scalar
representation of the amount of sound energy absorbed upon striking a
particular surface. An NRC of 0 indicates perfect reflection; an NRC of 1 indicates
perfect absorption.
 It is a single number rating representating an overview of how much
sound is absorbed by a material.
 Eg.- ½” gypsum board (dry wall) on 2x4 studs has an NRC of 0.05

 Soft materials like acoustic foam, fiber glass, fabric, carpeting, etc. will
have higher NRCs.
 Harder material like brick, tile, and drywall will have lower NRCs.
 NRC is useful for a general comparison of materials. However, for materials
with very similar NRCs, it is more important to compare absorption

d) Reverberation and RT60:

 When the sound waves get reflected, a part of sound energy is converted
into heat energy by friction and is absorbed by the walls.
 Subsequently the reflected waves get inter-reflected from one surface to
another till they gradually fade and become inaudible.
 This phenomenon of undue prolongation of sound by successive
reflections from surrounding surfaces, after the source has ceased is
termed as reverberation.
 It is referred to as persistence of a sound within a space, caused by
multiple reflections of the sound after its source has stopped.

The reverberation time(RT60) is the time taken for the sound energy to decay by 60dB,
after the sound source has stopped. The reverberation time depends principally on the
volume and absorption of the room.

Reverberation time RT60 = k · V / A = 0.049 · V / A (V and A

in feet)

Reverberation time RT60 = k · V / A = 0.161 · V / A (V and A

in meter)
e) Threshold and audibility threshold of pain:
Thresholds are magnitudes or intensities, which must be exceeded on the
hearing curve, which is a function of the sound pressure level (dB) and frequency
(Hz). Thresholds on the hearing curve divide the it into different regions.

The hearing threshold OR threshold of audibility:

 The hearing threshold is defined as the lowest threshold of acoustic pressure

sensation , possible to perceive by an organism. It is a subjective value which
may differ individually. The hearing threshold forms the lowest limit of the hearing
range ( the highest limit is formed by the threshold of pain).
 The standard threshold of hearing at 1000 Hz is nominally taken to be 0 dB, but
the actual curves show the measured threshold at 1000 Hz to be about 4 dB .

Threshold of pain:

Threshold of pain is the MINIMUM sound INTENSITY at which an individual starts to feel pain.
One main component of pain is its subjectivity, meaning that a stimulus to two individuals
can result in two different reactions. So what could be painful to one person, can be less so
to another.

Q-6 Explain airborne noise and structure borne noise. Explain the measures of
protection of building with respect to external noise.

A-6 Depending upon the position of sources, sound can be broadly divided into 2

Airborne noise:

 An airborne noise is one which is transmitted through air and travels directly to
the ear of the person.
 This type of noise travels from one part of the building to another or from outside
of the building to the inside through open doors, windows or other openings or
through small gaps around doors and windows.

Impact noise/ structure borne noise:

 Structure borne noise is propagated due to impact noise of machineries or due

to object sliding on floor etc.
 These can be reduced by damping materials. These damping materials have a
resilient property by virtue of which noise is reduced. Rubber is one of the resilient
material generally used.
 Impact noises are troublesome and are often very sharp.
Sound transmission:
A - airborne noise source
B - impact noise source
1 - direct transmission (through air and structures) for airborne noise
2 - reflection (causing reverberation)
3 - flanking transmission (through structures) for airborne noise
4 - direct transmission (through structures) for impact noise
5 - flanking transmission (through structures) for impact noise

Against external noise the following means of protection are available to the
1. Distance
2. Avoiding zones of directional sound.
3. Screening.
4. Planning: using non noise-sensitive parts of the building as barriers.
5. Positioning of openings away from the noise source.
6. Noise insulating building envelope.

Against noise generated within the building, the designer can take the following
1. Reduction at source.
2. Enclosing and isolating the source, or use of absorbent screens.
3. Planning: separating noisy spaces from quiet ones, places indifferent areas in
4. Placing noisy equipment in the most massive part of the building (i.e. in a
5. Reduce impact noise by covering surfaces with resilient materials.
6. Reduce noise in the space where it is generated by absorbent surfaces.
7. Reduce air borne sound transmission by airtight and noise insulating construction.
8. Reduce structure borne sound transmission by discontinuity.
Q-7 Describe with help of sketches design and acoustical consideration in design of an

The important factors which influence the acoustical design of an auditorium are
the volume, the shape and the sound absorption.

The volume of the auditorium should be in proportion to the intensity of the

sound that is expected to be generated in the hall. In deciding the volume of
the hall, its height plays a significant role than its length or breadth. The ratio of
the height of ceiling to the width of the hall or room should be 2:3. This is on
account of the fact that a small increase in height increases the volume
considerably. The volume required for musical concert halls is larger than that
required for halls to be used for speech alone. In case, however, the auditorium
is to be used for both musical concerts as well as speech, the volume of the
auditorium should be chosen as to have a value intermediate between the two.
The following data may be used as a rough guide for deciding the volume of an

For public lecture halls = 2.8 to 3.7 cu.m. per person

For cinema theatres = 3.7 to 4.2 cu.m. per person

For concert halls = 4.2 t 5.6 cu.m. per person

It has been recommended that the volume of an auditorium in cubic meters

should not be greater than 5.7 times the number of seats provided in the hall.

The shape of the auditorium is the governing factor in avoiding the defects like
echoes or other types of reflections of sound waves. Since the behaviour of
sound in a hall is different from that in the open. It is rather easier to create
desirable acoustical conditions in an auditorium rather than in an open air
theatre. Rectangular, horse shoe, circular or oval are the typical possible shapes
of the floor plan of an auditorium.

The side walls and ceilings are advantageously used to provide favourable
reflections. The walls of the hall are so shaped and placed as to minimize the
possibilities of echoes. Plain walls are normally found suitable. Convex shaped
walls are, however, considered best to reduce echoes to a great extent.

Ceiling plays a significant role in reflecting the sound to the rear areas of the
auditorium. A noteworthy point in the selection and installation of the ceiling is
that it should be ensured that the sound waves get reflected either directly or via
the walls to the audience in such a manner that the waves do not concentrate
at certain spots. In general, the ceiling height of the hall should be about ½ to
2/3rd of the width.

Sound absorbing materials are also used to minimize objectionable reflection of

sound. However, to ensure effectiveness of the sound absorbing material, the
zones of installations have to be decided very carefully. The upper surface of
side walls should be used for mounting sound absorbing materials. The materials
of high frequency should never be mounted behind pillars, balcony railing or
other such projections, whereas materials of low frequency range may be
mounted in such situations with little projections. A variety of acoustical materials
are manufactured these days. While making a selection, due consideration
should be given to their appearance, light reflection, flame resistance,
workability, durability and cost.

In addition, the furnishings and the audience contribute to a great extent to the
absorption present in the room. In fact the audience may be largest contributors
to the absorption in any auditorium. With a view to ensure optimum absorption
from the audience, the seats in the hall are raked so that the heads in one row
do not intercept the passage of direct sound to the persons in the row
immediately behind.

Q-8 Explain a method with materials for sound insulation for each of the following:

a) Walls
b) Floors
c) Ceiling