Organization # 2

PAKISTAN TELEVISSION

Project on Ptv

RESEARCHERS¶ SUBMISSION

A report submitted to Ms.Tehmina Khan in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the course principles of management.

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education. the Pakistan Television Academy was founded and opened in 1987 to teach students who wished to work in the medium. current problems and development as well as knowledge of the world at large. Originally broadcast in black and white. With this new upgrade in techniques and equipment. PTV's telecast policy concerning various matters of national and international interests has always been motivated and guided by the cardinal principles of educating viewers about the values that are vitally important in building a united. The PTV family includes six channels. entertainment and culture. PTV began color transmission in 1976. These objectives have successfully been achieved through a variety of programs on religion. The broader perspective to start electronic media in the country was to inform and educate the people through wholesome entertainment and to inculcate in them a greater awareness of their own history. 32 . 1964. integrated and disciplined society.Project on Ptv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Pakistan Television Corporation is Pakistan's national television broadcaster. In fulfillment of its broad and main objectives. heritage. in Lahore. The first live transmission of PTV began on November 26.

33 . manager department human resource management.Project on Ptv ACKNOWLEGDMENT We would like to express our gratitude to Mr. Rehan Ansari. Director IT . and Mr. for the help that they extended to us during the course of this research project. Fakhar Hameed.

................................................................... 47 MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES & TOOLS ............................................. 42 CHAPTER 4:.............................................................................. 47 CHAPTER 6:............................................................................................................................................................................................ 39 CHAPTER 3:........................................................................................................... 35 CHAPTER 2:.................................................. 42 OBJECTIVE SETTING ........................ 45 CHAPTER 5:.............................................................................................................. 48 CONCLUSION ................................................Project on Ptv CONTENTS CHAPTER 1:..................................................................................................... 52 34 .................................................................................................................................................................... 35 INTRODUCTION ............................................................... 48 CONTROL MECHANISMS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE & DESIGN .......... GOALS & ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 42 ORGANIZATIONAL PLANING.... 39 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE & ENVIORNMENT ........................................................................

current problems and development as well as knowledge of the world at large. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. ii) Carrying out instructions of the Government of Pakistan with regard to general pattern or policies of programmes. Its affairs are managed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Government of Pakistan. heritage. who is the ex-officio Chairman of the Corporation. The Board is headed by the Secretary. The main objectives for establishing a public service commercial television in Pakistan were: i) Providing television broadcasting services by telecasting programmes of all kinds. education and entertainment. Shahzad Nawaz Khan managed to change the entire look of PTV through his skills and brought about a change that was much needed for the channel. PTV is a Public Limited Company registered under companies ordinance 1984. the broad perspective kept in mind was to inform and educate the people through wholesome entertainment and to inculcate in them a greater awareness of their own history. Pakistan entered into Television Broadcasting age with a small pilot TV Station established at Lahore. from where transmission was first beamed in Black & White with effect from 26 November 1964. While introducing the sophisticated branch of the electronic media in the country. etc. news. The new logo of PTV was designed to represent the contemporary artists movement in the country. announcements. 35 . news pictorials and documentaries local and foreign films of all kinds and nature for the purpose of disseminating information. iii) To carry on the business of commercial advertisement by selling programmes and advertising time of television stations either directly or through advertising agencies or by setting up advertising agencies or by other means.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The original logo of PTV was designed by Chughtai and later redesigned by another creative supremo Shahzad Nawaz Khan.

2004. The broad functions of this Division are to provide logistic and general administrative services and to provide and maintain the necessary manpower for other Divisions. The Managing Director is assisted by eleven working Directors in the administrative.2005. Each of these Rebroadcast Stations is headed by an Engineer Incharge. PTV introduced via satellite transmission in December 1972. Administration & Personnel Division consists of the following Departments: - 36 .3 ADMINISTRATION & PERSONNEL DIVISION The Administration & Personnel Division is responsible for implementation of the Corporation¶s policies pertaining to its sphere. duly appointed by the Government of Pakistan and approved by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.06. The Administrative Heads of the Centres duly appointed by the Managing Director are designated as General Manager and empower to exercise all administrative powers over their respective units. 1. PTV launched the new channel ³PTV National´ on 12. PTV launched AJK TV Centre Muzzaffarabad on 05. The Controller Administration & Personnel and Controller Marketing are the Administrative Head of the PTV-Headquarters Unit Islamabad and Central Sales Office Karachi respectively. is the Administrative and Executive Head of the Corporation. PTV established the Second TV Channel for Education. It was during the year 1975 that PTV started using National Microwave Link of the T&T Department linking transmissions of its TV Centers with each other. PTV-National and PTV-Bolan with 24 hours transmission is 87% of the total population of the country. He is the competent authority to implement rules for the Corporation and its employees.08.2003 for telecasting of program in regional languages. PTV transmission was switched over from Black and White to Color in December 1976. 1. financial & operation functions/activities of the Corporation in their Divisions. As a further step towards modernization. PTV-World.Project on Ptv The Managing Director of the Corporation. PTV World launched its transmission from ETV-Centre Islamabad in 1998. It was during the year 2000 that PTV started the transmission of Channel-3 on STN. PTV has a network of Rebroadcast Stations having 78 transmitters for terrestrial coverage. The population covered by four PTV Channels. Pilot services of ³PTV Bolan´ started from TV Centre Quetta on 14.2 DEVELOPMENT Rapidly growing into a modern TV network. PTV-1.02. which was formally inaugurated on 26 November 1992.

The Board of Directors of Pakistan Television Corporation had also approved induction of fresh and experienced professional in its l63¶¶ meeting held on 26. overseeing personnel functioning all over the Corporation.2004. manpower planning including recruitment. overseeing administrative services throughout the Corporation and to deal with the legal matters instituted for and against PTV in various Courts of Law. This Department is also entrusted to deal with the Union matters. transfer etc. Personnel Department Responsible for formulation and implementation of personnel polices. Security Department Responsible for security arrangements of men and material. sending PTV coverage teams abroad for VVIP coverages. Admin. In order to achieve the goals and targets identified by the Ministry of I&B. Information Technology. preparation of agenda for meeting. promotion. & Personnel Division of the Corporation is headed by the I)irector Administration & Personnel who is assisted by a Controller Administration & Personnel. the Admin.Project on Ptv Administration Department Responsible for formulation and implementation of Administrative policies. to arrange meetings of the BOD.10. dealing with the delegations. Engineering and Human Resource have been inducted upto 2nd quarter of 2005-2006. Marketing. Through continuing process. on the instructions of the Prime Minister. News. various positions for induction of professionals were displayed on the website of PTV and also advertised in the Urdu/English daily newspapers. Engineering and Human Resource. co-ordination with Centres. Current Affairs. The process for induction of some more qualified professionals is under going and hopefully it will be completed in 4t) quarter of 2005-2006. In pursuant to policy approved by the Board of Directors and the Secretary Information & Broadcasting. The Controller has two Deputy Controllers and one Manager Training & Delegations with other subordinate staff for implementation of the administrative and personnel functions. Company Secretariat Responsible to deal with corporate affairs. Current Affairs. Information Technology. Training and Delegation Department Responsible for training of staff within the country and abroad. 208 professionals/trainees in the fields of Production. At Centre¶s level Administrative & Personnel Managers are responsible to look after the administrative and personnel needs of the Centres under the supervision of the General Manager. In the first instance 12 qualified professionals were inducted in the targeted 1st quarter of 2004-2005. News. 37 . & Personnel Division initiated a process for induction of qualified professionals in the field of Production. to record & circulated the minutes of BOD and to ensure implementation of the policies approved by the BOD. Marketing.

million. Financing structure of PTV. The first data base has been maintained for a period of 6 months. Finance Division of PTV is headed by the Director Finance who is assisted by Controllers. 1529/. Entire share capital is held by the Government of Pakistan. financial control and the Revenue Department deals with collection of Revenue through licences etc. Financial Control Department which is entrusted with function of financial policies. 2005 that a data base shall be maintained on PTV website after giving advertisement in the newspapers so that required Human Resource could be picked up from that data base as and when required. 38 . 1. Accounts Officers and other staff in the lower chain. the Management of PTV has restructured its Programmes.705 million.Project on Ptv Going further into the induction of qualified professionals the BOD resolved in its 166th meeting held on 5th September.000. including bonus shares of Rs.643 .00 million and a paid-up capital of Rs. Deputy Controllers. explicitly provided the financing of capital cost and payment of operating deficit of commercially non-viable projects by the Government and also for payment of time utilized for the projection of Government. Besides the induction of qualified professionals. issued by PTV to Government out of its profits. Finance Division comprises Accounts Department which performs implementation of administrative orders. laid down in the PC-I Form and duly approved by ECNEC in May 1974.4 FINANCE DIVISION PTV is a public limited company with an authorized capital of Rs.3. Programmes Division has been bifurcated into Planning/Administration and Event Management while the News & Current Affairs Division has been merged to achieve the optimum level of excellence. News and Current Affairs Department. This target has also been completed in 2nd quarter of 2005-2006. Asstt: Controllers.

Not only does it have the above academic functions. who are more likely to keep together. Some give more attention n some not. Without it. it can be customized for use by everyone . multi-channel news networks." Many people downplay small details. but also its main role is to entertain people on earth. PTV gives a social environment which is likely to create a feeling of solidarity amongst its members. on air schedules. in fact. As the economy grows. archives. Newsgathering. personal work spaces. It also takes into account the changes in the general economy and other socio-cultural factors. development and modernization.from small news channels with just one broadcast a day. It also primarily targets the youth as its technology and overall outlook is energetic and shows a responsibility for being the generation next of Pakistani channels. feeds.1 SOCIAL ENVIORNMENT PTV has coverage over different countries. It grasps and connects all the elements of news operations. A powerful and comprehensive news production system. demands for improvement in media sources. Somebody said that: ³The magic behind every outstanding performance is always found in the smallest of details. Some jobs need people who can handle both the small and large parts of a task. Media has the purpose of getting people more up-to-date. Such 39 . It is imperative for the PTV to precisely study the opportunities and threats prevalent in its external environment. rundowns. People may only consider studying aspects related to technology. wires. this world would be back to the uncivilized stage. Communication and media studies get us to understand more about the allrounded life of human. Members of the same social environment will often think in similar styles and patterns even when their conclusions differ. supports those program which are comfortable in every environment. It provides the prime services that an economy needs for rapid growth. 2. The environment of PTV comprises of the moves and the strategies adopted by its competitors. But. The media channels play a vital role in development of a country. The module of communication and media studies is crucial to everybody on this earth. our whole environment is simply an accumulation of tiny details. to 24-hour. dismissing them as minutia-the "small stuff. Media and communication provide the common factors for human being to be united and cohesive.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE & ENVIORNMENT PTV has state-of-the-art newsroom computer system designed to meet the challenges of today's dynamic news environment. technology is growing amazingly fast these days. trust and help one another. For instance.2 ATTENTION TO DETAILS All Organizations have their own culture. scripts." that we're encouraged to ignore. contacts. And it is viewed by people of the sub continent living in all of these areas. PTV is a family channel. staffing and much more created and formatted to meet individual requirements 2. video browser. PTV uses terrestrial coverage for broadcasting.

They are told how to deal with people.they don¶t interrupt during the process of work. observant.3 PEOPLE ORIENTED In PTV. There is a lot of innovation and work done in the computer department . The managing director is assisted by eleven working Directors in administrative. services and possible donations. whoever is part of this corporation.Project on Ptv individuals won't overlook what needs to be done and can be depended on to do each task accurately and completely. however small. time. PTV ±News Information and Reference System. of a given task. open. active. The automation of staff salaries. The managing director of the corporation . PTV program archive information system. This channel has been instrumental in blunting the propaganda and disinformation. 2.5 PEOPLE ALLOCATION PTVs affairs are managed by Board Of Directors. conduct business/friendships with them. they have no concern how they perform it . They should make more from the given time. paying attention to all aspects. They are just interested in the work. PTV has its proper rules and regulations. of Pakistan and approved by Board of directors. There is no talent hunt for PTV unlike other channels. PTV BOLAN is styled as BOLAN for Baluchistan was launched by the Prime Minister. They are trained to use there time in an efficient manner. High educations and experiences are not important. TV license accounting system. the jobs and roles of every employee are well-defined. The administrative heads of the centre duly appointed by the managing directors and designated as General Manager ad empower to exercise all administrative powers over their respective units 40 . financial & operation functions/activities of the corporation in their divisions. duly appointed by Govt. current affairs Information System. Other factors or things are not much valued. energy. They all are cleared about there status accurately. 2 . The Board is headed be Secretary. The employees are also explained that how to meet new people. thoughtful. Engineering Inventory Control System and PTV Commercial Time and Cost Analysis Database is implemented.Paper less environment is ensured. has to follow in true approach.PTV is such a corporation where the work or the task of the project is the main priority.4 RISK TAKING AND INNOVATION PTV is seems very reluctant to search for new talent as compared to other channels.PTV welcomes broad-minded. teachable and selfless people who like to give their skills. is the administrative and executive head of the corporation. They just asked for desired work on the day it is required. 2. Ministry of Information and broadcasting.

million .069 58 2. 1529/. 2. including bonus shares of Rs 643. The income and expenses as on December 2005 and December 2004 are drawn here under. 41 . 1529/.640 85 2.052 1.705 millions issued by PTV to Government out of its profits .000 million and a paid ±up capital of Rs.The controller administration and personnel and Controller marketing are the administrative head of the PTV-Headquarters Unit Islamabad and Central Sales Office Karachi respectively.725 1.6 RESOURCE ALLOCATION PTV is a public limited company with an authorized capital of Rs3.705 millions issued by PTV to Government out of its profits .7 OUTCOME ORIENTATION PTV is partially outcome oriented.million .873 179 Dec2004(millions) 918 739 68 1.Project on Ptv . PTV holds profit of Rs. Income Advertisement License Fee Other Income Total Income Total Expenditure Net Profit /Loss Dec2005(millions) 925 1. including bonus shares of Rs 643.

electronic media communication could be best made through Regional Language Programmes. the Government desired that PTV set up a Channel exclusively catering only to regional languages of the country and in compliance. soon after the inception of Pakistan Television. Pushto.3 THE CHRONOLOGY FOR REGIONAL CHANNELS a) PTV NATIONAL In keeping with the spirit of Regional Language Programmes and rapid developments in the electronic media sector. Starting with segments in Punjabi and later Sindhi. politico-economic events and socio-cultural activities. which instantly touch the vernacular and indigenous instincts of every individual. PTV is planning to launch an independent sports channel which will be liked by the viewers and will generate more revenue. Hindko. there has been gradual but constant progress towards their betterment and improvement. Ever since. PTV Added programme segments in Siraiki. GOALS & OBJECTIVE SETTING 3. 3. Regional languages.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 3: ORGANIZATIONAL PLANING. DTH is yet another venue open to PTV which can be materialized to generate more revenue.1 PLANING PTV is planning to launch its channels abroad like PTV ±Global for the projection of Pakistan in other countries. PTV has always been reached out to viewers all over the country and with Programmes which address their concernsand aspirations and allocated sizable chunk of its transmission time to Regional Language programmes. Balochi and Brahvi as Peshawar and Quetta Centre came on air in 1974. PTV will also get substantial business of commercial advertisement and its due share from the cable operators of that particular country. development schemes. Through proper planning PTV can raise the general level of common sense of the masses and inculcate them a great awareness of their own history and heritage.2 GOALS & OBJECTIVES Recognizing that in a country like Pakistan where literacy is low. regional language programmes have always been the high point in PTV¶s programme mix. PTV is trying to project state policies. PTV National was launched by the 42 . 3.

This has added another positive dimension to the regional language Channels. PTV Mehran (Sindh). Regional Language programmes are telecast with Urdu subtitling. 2005. Quantum of news bulletins have also been increased from five minutes to ten minutes and thrice a day. Regional Languages channels are depending on the software produced by the Centres. PTV-Abaseen (NWFP).Project on Ptv Prime Minister on 12th June. Regional Language Programming started initially with half hour and increased to one hour. 2003 allocating equal time to the four Provinces.e. PTV Punjnad (Punjab). c) PTV BOLAN The first of the four channels styled as ³BOLAN´ for Balochistan was launched by the Prime Minister on the independence Day the 14th August. 43 . the Government and PTV Authorities directed that four individual Channels be set up in the Provincial Languages. 3.4 PREPAREDNESS PTV has made extensive preparations both technical and programming for the launching of three new Regional Channels i. which has also been instrumental in blunting the propaganda and disinformation. Although most of the programmes initially were often old repeats. the channel evoked a very positive response. It would also help establishing a variegated identity of the nation on the global canvas with electronic signals transcending all borders. b) FOUR INDEPENDENT CHANNELS Encouraged by this development and recognizing that messages of cohesion and tolerance were necessitated by the circumstances and best communicated in one¶s own language. so that these channels provide an excellent platform to highlight the diversity and richness of cultures and heritage abounding the Pakistani landscape. Now being extended with the inception of new channels to eight hours with twice repeat. Efforts are underway for dubbing.

Project on Ptv 44 .

The organization considers processes and procedures out-side these established protocols as variances that must be brought under control. This results in rigidly defined jobs. Efficiency and predictability are emphasized through specialization. In effect. task methodology and procedures to be used. and for managers. Created from one or more such specific tasks. The best organizational structure for any organization depends on many factors including the work it does. authority. It is these decisions that determine the organizational structure. reduction in variance increases predictability. specialized job positions rigidly define skills needed. PTV¶s organization structure is more Mechanistic in nature. Over time these definitions are assigned to positions in the organization rather than to specific individuals. and roles are like a machine in which each part of the organization does what it is designed to do. lower-level managers and other employees simply follow procedures. who they report to. standardization.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 4: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE & DESIGN Organizational structure refers to the way that an organization arranges people and jobs so that its work can be performed and its goals can be met. and increases in predictability allow for improvements in efficiency. vertical hierarchies of command. and formalization. its size in terms of employees. and the range of its businesses. The vicepresident of PTV employee such production processes and techniques that minimize waste and maximize outputs for a given quantity of inputs. well-defined. but in a larger organization decisions have to be made about the delegation of various tasks. but little else. In an organization of any size or complexity. and control. The goal of PTV is µQuality and Efficiency. Such formalization is driven by efficiency. and specific responsibilities and authority. and while this may have the side effect of stifling 45 . which simply means that nearly all processes and procedures have been administratively authorized. employees' responsibilities typically are defined by what they do. technologies. processes. and processes. Environmental and technological stability allow work to be clearly defined and differentiated. revenue. This suggests that organizational structures. centralized. PTV have clear. procedures are established that assign responsibilities for various functions. Thus. who reports to them. The work of the PTV is divided into specific. formal structure may be unnecessary. and the geographic dispersion of its facilities.¶ PTV¶s structure is highly formalized. PTV¶s justify for having mechanistic structure because they believe their abilities to achieve the purpose the purpose of their existence can be achieved more efficiently and effectively. When a work group is very small and faceto-face communication is frequent. PTV utilizes to increase efficiency when tasks and technologies are relatively stable. precise tasks.

and they need to break this monotony. and promotion are based on the possession of skills required for specific tasks. with more emphasis on down-ward directives than on upward communication. Specialization carries throughout this organization. Personnel selection. like interchangeable parts of a machine. employees sometimes feels that specialized tasks are repetitive and can sometimes be boring and monotonous. and procedures are determined by top-level management and communicated downward as instructions and decisions to be implemented. strategies. however. such matters as goals. Communication is primarily vertical. 46 . into specialized functional departments such as production. Thus. However. or finance. Coordination is maintained through the chain of command. assignment. Upward communication usually involves transmittal of reports and other information for management to consider. In stable environments. ultimately. Each organizational unit has clear and specific responsibilities and objectives. policies. Other people. Positions are grouped together into specialized work units and. stifling creativity may be worth the improvements in efficiency.Project on Ptv creativity. it also increases efficiency of established processes. usually at the request of management. marketing. can replace people in a position.

Employees are safe in knowing that they will be rewarded for any exceptional work. The company recognizes the importance of making people drive towards their goals and the basic step towards this is made through recognizing the value of importance that the company gives to its employees. y Parent and child care. vision and life insurance. This can be judged by the enthusiasm and good spirit that people show in performing their jobs. It is accompanied by the employee being given recognition and greater empowerment. dental. Other ways in which employees are motivated are: Employee Consultation for: y Everyday residence issues (remodeling. Therefore each employee knows that he can aim for the top and actually get there. This is why PTV offices are considered to be the most well decorated and organized. y Resources for seniors and eldercare issues y Emergency dependent-care reimbursement.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 5: MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES & TOOLS As we know PTV is highly aware of how to motivate its employees in the best way. y Legal matters. This reward is not only monetary. company cars etc.). Annual bonus opportunities. family and work life balance benefits and profit sharing plan. 47 . There is a well-devised system that PTV follows for the purpose of motivation. PTV has a set of financial rewards. repairs. As we know PTV has a desire to promote the high achievers from within the company. There is no special treatment. Employees are given a very beautiful and healthy work environment. y Financial issues y Education and schooling. y Adoption assistance. medical. Special attention is given to make the physical environment most productive. This has proved to be a great source of motivation for the employees of PTV. house-sitting. paid vacation days. It includes both financial and non-financial rewards along with the major Motivators and Dissatisfies. etc. Positions are given on merit and are transparent and fair in nature. retirement plan.

strategies and products (hedging. The PTV's board of directors or other equivalent body establish and communicate risk management policies and procedures for derivatives activities that integrated with the PTV's overall management policies. Although some mechanisms are used widely throughout many organizations and companies. 48 . some mechanisms are tailored to fit a specific organization. 6. Such policies and procedures should address the measurement of market risk and credit risk including aggregate exposures against risk tolerance objectives (position limits or capital at risk).1 Framework of Risk Management The key point that PTV focus is the framework of risk management policies and procedures and management controls overseen by the board of directors or equivalent management body of the firm should specifically cover derivatives activity. training and compensation policies). Overall. PTV keep track of every process with different types of spreadsheets. informative and timely reporting to management. and the establishment of management controls and checks over accounts. traders. covered writing. and management must delve into the reasons surrounding the circumstance. the separation of trading and risk management functions. Without them. organizing and leading functions of management are effective and productive for the company. Each employee realizes the need for these mechanisms and strives to operate within the proper guidelines. and provide for accurate. the use of these controls is understood and accepted by all employees. personnel policies (including expertise. These time reports not only identify amounts of costs and time used to complete these projects. There are times when employees' hours or costs are over budget. risk management. clearly establish responsibility for its implementation. Managers confirm that timetables are being adhered to and that projects are being completed in a timely manner. and statements which either proves the organization is working well or show where things are distributed to the different managers for their review. operational staff and systems. acceptability criteria for counterparties. risk monitoring procedures and exception reporting criteria. reports. This framework should be communicated to all concerned and should be reviewed as business and market circumstances change.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 6: CONTROL MECHANISMS Control mechanisms are important to every organization. but also help management establish budgets for the coming year. Management must determine the most appropriate control mechanisms for their company. it would be difficult to determine whether or not the planning. position taking and related legal risks).

PTV devote adequate resources to all aspects of risk management controls.4 In-House Expertise and Resources In view of the speed of evolution and complexity of derivatives products. 49 . credit assumptions and market risk measurement methodologies. to review and approve valuation systems . measurement methodologies and separation of sales supervision from exposure supervision are subject to controls. quality of credits. Appetite for risk. concentration and risk reduction arrangements. Stress tests test the consequences of severe price moves and changes in market behavior.2 Independent Market Risk Management Management controls provide for independent market risk management at the PTV to develop and monitor the application of risk limit policies. PTV makes every effort to ensure that knowledge at all levels of the firm. Delineation of derivatives authority should be without prejudice to ultimate board supervisory responsibility Controls address stress scenarios. confidence levels. risk policies and integration of accounting systems. 6. Controls also address the risk of failure to deliver or of termination provisions. including changes in correlations and other risk assumptions. as appropriate. and of traders and risk managers is adequate in terms of market developments for the appropriate assessment and management of risks. set and monitor credit limits. level of concentration. 6. and to review leverage. including back office systems and accounting and supervision. 6. reliance on credit enhancements. accounting and compliance functions from trading.3 Independent Credit Risk Management Management controls provide for independent credit risk management at the PTV to consider credit exposure measurement standards. separation of back office.Project on Ptv The PTV¶s main focus is that framework provide for two-way communication between the board and persons responsible for implementing board policies.

6 Valuations and Exposures PTV on both an entity and a group basis should have the capability to make accurate risk valuations daily.7 Systems PTV's accounting. including contingency planning. 50 . netting arrangements.Project on Ptv 6. processing. Arrangements are made to value dynamic portfolios sufficiently frequently to address exposures taking into account legal netting arrangements. and report financial data should be reported upon. Potential exposures to credit and market risk should also be calculated using appropriate methodologies. assessing of risk on a global (firm-wide) basis. 6. Firms also should consider risk reduction techniques to address operations risk. summarize. This is not intended to define the scope of external financial audits. Systems must are kept constantly under review to be certain that they permit tracking and reporting financial performance and effectuating management policies. Outputs of simulations should be tested against actual results and adjusted accordingly. Exposures may be aggregated provided netting arrangements are acceptable and enforceable. Legal capacity of counterparties to transact and legality of netting arrangements should be evaluated. Significant deficiencies in the design or operation of the systems that could adversely affect the entity's ability to record. The complexity and dynamic nature of derivatives trading activity and portfolios require that accurate and timely information is always available. risk management and information systems ensure adequate and timely documenting. Controls address credit enhancements in terms of exposure and explore the use of master agreements to reduce documentation risk and to increase the potential to assign and/or otherwise unwind transactions. using an acceptable methodology to mark-to-market and to identify concentrations. accurate and timely reporting to management.5 Risk Reduction Techniques PTV use appropriate risk reduction techniques such as master agreements. collateralization of transactions and third party credit enhancements. confirming. including letters of credit and guarantees. 6. and external reporting by management. approving as appropriate. and reconciling of trades and valuation systems used by front and back offices. Internal or external independent systems reviews are used to verify that such systems are operating as designed. process.

Risk management personnel take account of revenues and the adequacy of funding arrangements in designing and implementing risk management strategies.7 Liquidity. funding requirements and sources and cash flows. including profit and loss. and permit the management of defaults. Funding Arrangements and Financial Performance PTV monitors on a continuing basis financial performance. 51 . augment collateral. Do Liquidity planning attempt to anticipate changes in cash flow or funding requirements and should accommodate the possible need to rebalance portfolios.Project on Ptv 6.

but also gear up to match exclusivity. inspiration and creativity will make the channel worth its while. present infinite opportunities of programming and its presentation. is to survive in a competitive world. In a world given over to diversity. and a systematic plan and strategy. this channel can make an imprint amongst the galaxy of available channels. and has the potential of creating and maintaining its own identity. as a truly Pakistani Channel. Apologies of any kind whether pertaining to lack of resources or other limitations. The challenge of any new enterprise.Project on Ptv CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION The very idea of a channel dedicated to the regional languages of a country. and nothing short of commitment. folklore and classical literature. will have no justification. We not only have to improve the quality of programming contents in each language. which calls for innovation. There are exclusive language channels already on-air with some more coming up. customs and tradition. 52 . We must create events by way of festivals based on our rural culture.

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