Entrepreneur Project

Submitted To

Ms. Zofishan Sehgal
04/01/2011

Date submitted:

Submitted By

Yasir Javaid M.Tanveer Ahmad Mazhar Qayum Saeed Ahmad Muhammad Inam Muhammad Sufyan

Mb09007 Mb09020 Mb09029 Mb09040 Mb09064 Mb08027

MBA 3rd(Morning)

University of the Punjab
( Gujranwala Campus )
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Acknowledgement
All praises and thanks for Almighty Allah who is entire source of knowledge and wisdom to mankind. And whose uniqueness, gave me enough courage, knowledge and ability to accomplish this project. Thanks are also due to last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him), through whom Almighty Allah communicated knowledge to mankind and who is forever a torch of guidance and knowledge for whole humanity. I am thankful to honorable Professor Ms. Zofishan Sehgal Who provided us a chance to enhance my knowledge and guided us at every step during our Master Degree Program. We really praise to her great efforts. We again extended our deep gratitude and heartiest thanks to all of them whose creativity, experience, wisdom, skill, constructive criticism, scholastic approach and valuable suggestions guided me throughout the preparation of report.

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DEDICATION

I heartily “Dedicated” all my efforts to our Beloved Mothers. Under their kind prayers, we are able to do all those things for which others dreamt of…… We pay our Special thanks to Respectful and beloved Professor Ms. Zofishan Sehgal who make me able to do all efforts with courage. May Allah bless all those people, who guide us in every difficult and critical situation.

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4|Page . • Development of human resource need base coupled with improvement and development of management. • Diversify all its non-core activities to make them self-sustainable units. Mission Statement: To provide a safe reliable. both for development of infrastructure and train operations. modern. • Restoring confidence of the passenger and trading community.Vision Statement: • Increasing share in freight and passenger market. efficient and cost effective infrastructure to its customers: to contribute in building the economy of Pakistan and to look after the welfare of its employees. infrastructure and rolling stock. • Encourage private sector in public private partnership.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Particulars Acknowledgement Dedication Vision and Mission Statement Table Of Contents Introduction Business plan Executive summary Industry analysis Description of venture Operation management Marketing plan Organizational plan Financial plan Appendix Special thanks Bibliography Page# 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 11 24 30 58 84 88 104 106 107 5|Page .

Evans specified that there should be separate sets of parallel tracks for trains going in different directions. Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London . the possibility of using the technology for the public conveyance of goods suggested itself. and they remained the primary form of mechanized land transport for the next 100 years. Unfortunately. greatly reducing the time required for personal travel and for transport of goods. published his vision of what steam railways could become. the world's first public railway. as anyone could bring a vehicle on the railway by paying a toll. an American engineer and inventor.arguably. These systems.Introduction History of Rail Transport: The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. were the first practical forms of mechanized land transport. 6|Page . which made use of the steam locomotive. As the colliery and quarry tram ways and wagon ways grew longer. On 26 July 1803. Modern rail transport systems first appeared in England in the 1820s. albeit a horse-drawn one. as it functioned like a turnpike road. conditions in the infant United States did not enable his vision to take hold. It was not a railway in the modern sense of the word. In 1812 Oliver Evans. with cities and towns linked by a network of long distance railways plied by speedy locomotives. There were no official services.

He was responsible for proposing a number of projects that later came to fruition. was inspired by the development of the steam locomotive to suggest a national network of railways. It seems likely in 1808 James attended the demonstration running of Richard Trevithick’s steam locomotive Catch me who can in London. certainly at this time he began to consider the long-term development of this means of transport. and he is credited with carrying out a survey of 7|Page .This vision had its counterpart in Britain. where it proved to be far more influential. a rich and influential surveyor and land agent. William James.

However. the line also functioned as a toll railway. and within a few years. Such rails were stronger. and was intended to enable local collieries (which were connected to the line by short branches) to transport their coal to the docks. This curious hybrid of a system (which also included. As this would constitute the bulk of the traffic. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first modern railway. in that both the goods and passenger 8|Page . However. something that required a scheduled or timetabled service of trains. where private horse drawn wagons could be operated upon it. the company took the important step of offering to haul the colliery wagons or chaldrons by locomotive power. he is credited by many historians with the title of "Father of the Railway". It was not until 1825 that the success of the Stockton and Darlington Railway proved that the railways could be made as useful to the general shipping public as to the colliery owner. at one stage. Unfortunately. the tradition of private owned wagons continued on railways in Britain until the 1960s. produced at Bedlington Ironworks in Northumberland. This railway linked the town of Darlington with the port of Stockton-on-Tees. a horse drawn passenger wagon) could not last. he became bankrupt and his schemes were taken over by George Stephenson and others.the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. traffic was restricted to timetabled trains. This railway broke new ground by using rails made of rolled wrought iron.) The success of the Stockton and Darlington encouraged the rich investors of the rapidly industrializing North West of England to embark upon a project to link the rich cotton manufacturing town of Manchester with the thriving port of Liverpool. (However.

A number of locomotives were entered. Perseverance. The world's first trunk line can be said to be the Grand Junction Railway. Sir Henry Edward Frere. including Novelty. The success of the Liverpool and Manchester railway influenced the development of railways elsewhere in Britain and abroad. Introduction of Railways in Subcontinent: The idea of a rail network was first thought of in 1847. A widely reported competition was held in 1829 called the Rain hill Trials. The company hosted many visiting deputations from other railway projects. there was still a serious doubt that locomotives could maintain a regular service over the distance involved. and linking a mid point on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway with Birmingham. It must be remembered that the Liverpool and Manchester line was still a short one (35 miles (56 km)). The winner was Stephenson's Rocket. and Wolver Hampton. The promoters were mainly interested in goods traffic. opening in 1837. by way of Crewe. Stafford.traffic was operated by scheduled or timetabled locomotive hauled trains. to find the most suitable steam engine to haul the trains. linking two towns within an English shire county. with the possibility of Karachi becoming a major seaport. and Sans Pareil. who was appointed as the Commissioner 9|Page . a director of the railway company). At the time of its construction. but after the line opened on 15 September 1830. and many railwaymen received their early training and experience upon this line. they found to their amazement that passenger traffic was just as remunerative. which had superior steaming qualities as a consequence of the installation of a multi-tubular boiler (suggested by Henry Booth.

133 km) of North Western Railways were transferred to Pakistan from British India. 1889. Indian Flotilla Company. In 1897. after Pakistan became an independent state. Another railway line between Karachi and Keamari was opened on June 16th. These were amalgamated into the Scinde. 1.of Sindh. It closely followed the route taken by Alexander The Great and his army while marching through the Hindu Kush to the Arabian Sea. which was later on renamed as North Western Railway (NWR). Different sections on the existing main line from Peshawar and branch lines were constructed in the last quarter of 19th century and early 20th century. the line from Keamari to Kotri was doubled. 10 | P a g e . By 1898 as the network began to grow. The Scinde (Sindh) Railways. and in January 1886 formed the North Western State Railways. During the early 20th century. This would eventually become Pakistan Railways in 1947. By 1886. Punjab & Delhi Railways Company and purchased by the Secretary of State for India in 1885. In 1947. there were four railway companies operating in what would become Pakistan. with a total distance of 105 miles (169 km). between Karachi (city) and Kotri. Punjab Railway and Delhi Railways. railway lines were also laid down between Peshawar and Rawalpindi and Rawalpindi to Lahore. The proposed railway line would be laid from Karachi (city) to Kotri. 1861 the first railway line was opened to the public.947 route miles (3. On May 13th. sought permission from Lord Dalhousie to begin a survey for a Karachi Seaport and a survey for a railway line in 1858. another proposed railway line was in the works from Peshawar to Karachi. A steamboat service on the Indus and Chenab rivers would connect Kotri to Multan and from there another railway line would be laid to Lahore and beyond.

steam navigation up the Indus /Chenab up to Multan and from there an other railway to Lahore and beyond be constructed. The possibility of Karachi as a sea port was first noticed in the mid of 19th century and Sir Henry Edward Frere who was appointed Commissioner of Sind after its annexation with Bombay in 1847 sought permission from Lord Dalhousie to begin survey of sea port. He also initiated the survey for Railway line in 1858 . It was proposed that a railway line from Karachi City to Kotri. History of Pakistan Railways: Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of Transportation in the farthest corners of the country and brings them closer for Business. The Kot Adu-Kashmore line was constructed between 1969 and 1973 providing an alternative route from Karachi to northern Pakistan. the Pakistani portion of North Western Railways was renamed Pakistan Railways. It has been a great integrating force and forms the life line of the country by catering to its needs for large scale movement of people and freight. pilgrimage and education. 11 | P a g e . and in 1956 the Jacobabad-Kashmore 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge line was converted into broad gauge. sight seeing. the railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada. In 1961.In 1954.

It was on 13th May.1861 that first railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi City and Kotri. The line between Karachi City and 12 | P a g e . the distance of 105 miles.

1886 it was named North Western State Railways which was later on renamed as North Western Railways.Kot Adu-Kashmore line was constructed between 1969 to 1973 providing an alternate route from Karachi to up country.Keamari was opened on 16. 13 | P a g e .e. North Western Railway’s 1847 route mile was transferred to India leaving route miles 5048 to Pakistan.Scinde railways. Different sections on existing main line from Peshawar to Lahore and Multan branch lines were constructed in the last quarter of 19th century and early years of 20th century.1889. The railway line from Peshawar to Karachi closely follows Alexander’s line of March through the HinduKush to the sea.By 1897 the line from Keamari to Kotri was doubled. Punjab & Delhi railways company and was purchased by the Secretary of State for India in 1885 and in January. In 1954 The railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada section and in 1956 Jacababad-Kashmore 2’-6’’ line was converted intbroad gauge. Indian Flotilla company Punjab railway and Delhi railways working in a single company were later on amalgamated into Scinde.6. At the time of partition. The 4 sections i.

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(1) May 1974: • (2) 1974: • Pakistan’s second Dry Port is established at Karachi. In addition. 1976: • (5) 1977: • A plan was made for Karachi Mass Transit system that envisaged the development of a circular railway with branch lines into the suburbs like a system of arteries. Saddar and other residential areas would have been linked to the commercial centers. 1975: • Karachi Tramway got closed down. partelevated spine that bisected the circle. 'Pakistan Western Railway' was renamed 'Pakistan Railway' (4) July 22. Bostan to Zhob Narrow Gauge line was closed down. The plan was later shelved. (6) 1982: • • (7) 1984: • (8) 1985: • (9) 1986: • (10) Pakistan’s fourth dry port is established at Peshawar. Industrial Rlwy was closed in Karachi Kohat . 'Samjhauta Express' was inaugurated as a daily service between Pakistan and India. 15 | P a g e . This way. 1988: • Pakistan’s fifth dry port is established at Multan. (3) April 30.Thal NG was closed. there was to be a part-subterranean. Pakistan’s third dry-port is established at Quetta Dalmia Cement Factory.

1991: • In an accident at Ghotki station. 1998: • Faisalabad Express running between Karachi Cant and Faisalabad was converted into daily service instead of alternate day. (14) 1993: • Pakistan Locomotive Factory at Risalpur was put into service in 1993 with the collaboration of Government of Japan at a total cost of Rs. The rated out put of the factory was 2 Diesel Electric Locomotives per month on a single shift basis Train service was stopped on Sindh's feeder lines connecting Mahrabpur Junction to Tando Adam Junction via Moro.2284. Tezgam drove into a parked freight train.00 million including a foreign exchange component of Rs. 1997: • 6 Down Zulfiqar Express meets an accident at Meer Shah station on Lodhran-Khanewal route. Ba (12) 1990: • Pakistan’s sixth dry port is established at Rawalpindi. Almost 300 people perished in this accident. More than 175 people perished. (17) May 15. (19) October 15.(11) January 5. (18) March 3. 1996: • Newly renovated railway station of Gujranwala is inaugurated.1496.00 million. 16 | P a g e . Bahauddin Zakari Express drove into an oil special train. (13) June 7. Naushahro Feroze and Sakrand Jn. • (15) 1994: • The daily service of 'Samjhauta Express' gets suspended for two weeks and resumes as a weekly service (16) 1995: • Head End Power Generation was introduced on PR trains. 1990: • Worst accident of Pakistan Railway’s history occurred at Sangi station. It ensures proper working of lights and fans during prolonged halts too.

2000: • In January 2000. The second phase comprises of laying additional spurs in North Karachi. 2001: • 'Samjhauta Express' service between Pakistan and India got closed down. 2002: • Karachi City Government proposes a 3-phase track extension plan for KCR. 1999: • A night coach service was introduced between Multan Cant and Lahore which covered the journey in 5 hours. • • 17 | P a g e . North Nazimabad and other areas. This phase also calls for an initial train frequency with an interval of every 15 minutes. The first phase comprises improvement of the KCR between Drigh Road and City Station via Wazir Mansion. 2001: • 'Shah Rukne Alam Express'. (23) January. (24) October 15. (26) January 25. (21) October.(20) April 15. and provision of rolling stock. 1999: • Karachi Circular Railway got closed down. additional tracks would be provided between Landhi and City Station and double tracks would be laid on the entire KCR network. 1999: • • The Diesel Engine inventory of PR in October 1999 stood at 579. Passenger Coach inventory was at 2029 (22) Dec 15. PR’s freight wagon inventory stood at 25708. which would include upgradation of tracks. improvement and relocation of stations and miscellaneous advancement works. signaling system. In the third phase. a day train between Karachi Cant and Multan is inaugurated (25) Dec 31.

18 | P a g e . The name of the train is Fareed Express. (32) September 16. 2002: • An express train plunged off a railroad bridge at Damboli killing at least 16 people and injuring another 55. Lodhran Jn to Shujabad dual track is scheduled to finish by March 2005. (34) June 3. 2002: • A refurbished steam locomotive is placed as a display at Peshawar Cant Railway Station as part of the centennial celebrations of the NWFP (30) June 15. The accident cut Quetta off from the rest of the country. 2003: • A new station called Rashidabad is inaugurated. The accident occurred at 10 a. Eight cars of the train derailed as the bridge collapsed. 2002: • • A new Karachi to Lahore express via Pakpattan is introduced. 2002: • The inauguration run of 41Up/42 Down Karakoram Express happened on this day. 2002: • Awam Express gets a refurbished rake today (29) April 25. Sind Express running between Karachi and Jacobabad via Rohri Jn is discontinued. (31) August 14. 2002: • Summer Vacation Special was introduced for the first time between Karachi and Lahore. Rashidabad is located between Tajpur Nasarpur Road and Tando Allahyar stations on Hyderabad – Mirpur Khas route.(27) April 15. The train was traveling from Rawalpindi to Quetta. (28) April 22.m. The whole train is imported from China and covers the 1211 km Karachi-Lahore distance in 15 hours and 20 min. local time at Damboli. (33) May 2003: • Work started on track dualization between Lodhran Jn to Khanewal Jn via Multan Cantt. an area 150 kilometers (100 miles) west of Quetta.

2004: • New Rake of Jaffer Express is inaugurated at Rawalpindi Railway Station. China. 2004: • 5 Up Tezrau derails near the Khudabad crossing. (38) 2003: • Pakistan Railway Heritage Point museum is set up at Golra Sharif Jn. (40) March 4. The train comprised of newly imported Chinese coaches with three lower AC coaches and four economy class coaches with head end generation. 2004: • 23 Chinese built freight wagons arrive in Pakistan. The wagons can carry 60 tons weight at 90kmph speeds. Cost of building this office is 18 million Rupees (41) April 27.(35) July 2003: • Pakistan receives 8 completely built 3000hp locomotives (DPU30) from Dahlian. 2003: • Faisalabad Station gets connected to the Computerized Ticketing network (37) Sep 2003 • Pakistan receives 7 completely built 2000hp locomotives (DPU20) from Dahlian. Thursday and Friday from Rawalpindi to Quetta. 2004: • 401 Up/402 Down 'Samjhauta Express' starts twice a week service between Pakistan and India after a closure of two years. From 19 | P a g e . 2004: • A 45-service counter computerized Reservation office is inaugurated at Karachi Cant. (39) Jan 15. (43) May 13. 1/2 km from the Tando Adam station. With the introduction of new rake the train will run four times a week on every Monday. Tuesday. (42) May 5. (36) August 7. China. Each lower AC coach has a capacity of 54 berths and nine seats and each economy class coach has a capacity of 51 berths and nine seats.

2004: • Non-Stop services between Lahore and Rawalpindi called the 'Islamabad Express' and 'Lahore Express' were introduced with the rake comprising of Chinese coahes. 5 Up and 5 down daily trains are started.Rawalpindi distance in 3 hours and 45 minutes. (50) March 5. 2004: • The travel time of 147 Up Islamabad Non Stop and 148 Down Lahore Non Stop was reduced by 15 minutes. (46) October 13. 2005: • Karachi Circular Railway restarts its operation on the mainline.Quetta to Rawalpindi will run on Wednesday.5kmph. It comprised of Chinese coaches. The train has a MultanFaisalabad route. (44) Aug 1. (45) September 8. It is said that the platform mounting of the nine Chinese built locomotives have developed cracks. (49) February 2005: • The Dpu30s' 6101 to 6108 & 6111 are grounded or are being used to haul freight load as it has a lower speed. Thursday. forcing them out of service. These trains now cover 289 km distance between Lahore and Rawalpindi in 3 hrs and 30 minutes. 20 | P a g e . It gives an average speed of 82. (48) December 15 2004: • A new train called Multan Express is inaugurated. 2004: • 17 up / 18 down Millat Express inaugurated as a new non-stop train between Karachi Cant and Faisalabad. 2004: • Sukkur got connected to the National network of Computerized Ticketing. It covers the Lahore . Saturday and Sunday. (51) March 8. (47) November 9. The rake comprises of 8 economy and 2 lower AC bogies imported from China. 2005: • By this date a total of 9 locomotives which were imported from china in 2003 are now withdrawn from service after their structures develop cracks.

2005: • Gujranwala station becomes the 15th station to get connected to the computerized ticketing network (58) August 2005: • Steam Safari starts between Rawalpindi and Golra Sharif Jn. which meant trains kept running according to old time table for a month to reduce confusion. 128 people die and 170 are injured. three trains Karachi Express. 2005: • For the first time in the history of NWR/PWR/PR. The service now runs between Wazir Mansion and Dabheji stations. (53) (54) May 19. 2005: • Bahawalpur station becomes the 16th station to get connected to the computerized ticketing network (60) November 15. 2005 • Karachi Circular Railway service extended to Wazir Mansion station. (55) July 13. 2005: • Ground breaking ceremony takes place to convert the meter gauge track between Mirpur Khas Jn and Khokhrapar to Broad gauge. 17 coaches are destroyed. the summer time table comes in force a month late from its scheduled April 15 date. (59) September 13. Service is every Sunday.(52) April 19. The Railway Heritage Museum at Golra Sharif also opens every Sunday. 2005: • The PR conducted the first trial run of the fast train on a newly-laid 40 kilometer track between Sher Shah Jn and Shujabad. The reason being delay in the construction of an underpass between Lahore and Lahore Cant stations. The train achieved a record speed of 142 km per hour. 2005: • In one of the worst accidents of PR history. (56) August 1. May 15. 21 | P a g e . 2005 • Fifteenth DPU30 locomotive rolls out of Risalpur factory and is handed over to the Pakistan Railways. (57) August 5. Tezgam and Quetta Express collide at ‘Sarhad’ Railway Station in upper Sindh province.

Six of the wagons were reduced to ashes. Khokhrapar to Munabao portion of the track is laid brand new after it was uprooted in 1965. 2006 and run a new train called ‘Thar Express’ on this route. 22 | P a g e . (65) January 31. 2006: • 10 coaches of the Lahore. (67) February 10. 2005: • • Pakistan completes conversion of Mirpur Khas Jn (Pakistan) to Munabao (India) from Meter Gauge to Broad Gauge.(61) November 28. • (64) January 29. The accident occurred between the stations of Samasata Jn and Kalanchwala. PR owned 29 Electric Locomotives.bound Karakoram Express were derailed with four of them being overturned on early Saturday. 2006: • Pakistan and India decide to open the Khokhrapar-Munabao rail border from Feb 18. 400ft long track was also damaged. 2006: • At least 17 containers and an engine of two goods trains of the Pakistan Railways (PR) were badly damaged in an accident between the Meting and Bholari railway stations in Thatta district. 2006 (66) February 4. 2006 and run a new train called ‘Thar Express’ on this route. A woman was killed and 37 other passengers were injured. At the end of 2005. 6 bogies fell off track with a loss of life. The two service days are Monday and Thursday (62) December. 2006: • Lahore Express on its down run between Rawalpindi and Lahore derails near Domeli station. 551 Diesel Locomotives. 2006: • Rohri Jn became 18th station to get connected to Computerized Ticketing Network. Pakistan and India decide to open the Khokhrapar-Munabao rail border from Feb 1. Earlier opening date was Feb 1. (63) January 5. 23722 freight wagons and 1843 passenger coaches. 2005: • Samjhauta Express running between Lahore and Atari is made a twiceweekly service as compared to a weekly service before.

(77) August 14. 2006: • Thar Express from Pakistan crosses into India and comes back. Sindh Express has a Karachi-Lahore route. 2006: • A new train with Lahore-Rawalpindi route and called the 105 Up/106 Dn Margalla Express is inaugurated. (69) February 17. 2006: • 405 Up and 406 Dn Thar Express starts its simultaneous journey from Karachi and Jodhpur respectively. 2006: • Due to torrential rains a bridge located between Dabheji and Ran Pethani stations and called Gangar Bridge is damaged and train traffic stops between Karachi and upcountry. 2006: • A new train called Marvi Express is inaugurated. (72) April 6.(68) February 15. A temporary diversion is opened on August 5 and trains start operating again. 2006: • A new nonstop train called Sindh Express is inaugurated. 2006: • Nawabshah Jn became 19th station to get connected to Computerized Ticketing Network. (74) June 7. (75) July 24. 2006: • A new train called Burraq Express is inaugurated between Karachi and Rawalpindi 23 | P a g e . (76) July 29. (73) May 22. (70) February 18. thus establishing the second rail link between Pakistan and India since 1965. 2006: • Rahimyar Khan became 20th station to get connected to Computerized Ticketing Network. Marvi Express has Mirpur Khas to Khokhrapar route and stops at all the stations in between. (71) February 28. 2006: • 11up/12down Chenab Express is renamed as Hazara Express with a Karachi-Sragodha-Rawalpindi-Havelian route.

2007: • A new Karachi to Rawalpindi train called Jinnah Express is inaugurated by Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. (82) Jan 8. (81) December 16. 2006: • PM Shaukat Aziz inaugurates the 72 km dual track between Lodhran Jn and Sher Shah Jn. 2006: • PM Shaukat Aziz inaugurates a new train called Pakistan Express with a Karachi-Faisalabad-Wazirabad-Rawalpindi route. Discription of venture: 24 | P a g e .(78) August 19. 2006: • Peshawar Express is inaugurated to run between Rawalpindi and Peshawar. (79) November 20. (80) December 5. The train stops at Attock and Nowshera and covers the distance between Rawalpindi and Peshawar in 3 hours. PR supplied the rake for the first six months of Thar Express operation. 2006: • Thar Express starts service with a rake supplied by Indian Railways.

INTRODUCTION TO PAKISTAN RAILWAYS 25 | P a g e .

pilgrimage and education. It has been a great integrating force and forms the life line of the country by catering to its needs for large scale movement of people and freight. Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation in the farthest corners of the country and brings them closer for business. sightseeing. It is a large organization under the administration of the Pakistani Government's Ministry of Railways. Shakil Durrani. 26 | P a g e . The current chairman is Mr.Pakistan Railways is the state-owned railway company of Pakistan.

It was on 13 May 1861. Scinde (Sindh) Railways. The line between Karachi City and Kiamari was opened on 16 June 1889.122 km) to Pakistan. which was later on renamed as North Western Railway. During 1897 the line from Keamari to Kotri was doubled. leaving 5.e. Different sections on the existing main line from Peshawar to Lahore and Multan and branch lines were constructed in the last quarter of 19th century and early years of 20th century. At the time of independence. Indian Flotilla Company. it was named North Western State Railways. working in a single company. Punjab & Delhi Railways Company and purchased by the Secretary of State for India in 1885. Punjab Railway and Delhi Railways. were later on amalgamated into the Scinde.133 km) of North Western Railways were transferred to India. that the first railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi City and Kotri. The four sections.947 route miles (3. a distance of 105 miles (169 km). 27 | P a g e . 1.. the Pakistani portion of North Western Railways was renamed Pakistan Railways. i. In 1954. the railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada. The railway line from Peshawar to Karachi closely follows Alexander’s line of march through the Hindu Kush mountains to the Arabian Sea. and in 1956 the Jacobabad-Kashmore 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge line was converted into broad gauge.048 route miles (8. In 1961. The Kot Adu-Kashmore line was constructed between 1969 and 1973 providing an alternative route from Karachi up the country. and in January 1886.

072 miles (8.Proposals In 2007. contracts were let for studies into a link between Pakistan and China via the border crossing near Kashgar. The busiest routes include: Peshawar-Karachi Peshawar-Quetta Lahore-Sialkot Lahore-Faisalabad Faisalabad-Khanewal 28 | P a g e .162 km). A line to the deepwater port of Gwadar is also proposed. Major Routes The total length of railway tracks in Pakistan is 5.

Khanewal Jn. coal.Jangshahi. this amounted to Rs. Bahawalpur. and Karachi City. Freight Traffic The Freight Business Unit. Bhiria Road. cement. Lalamusa Jn. Rawalpindi.. Multan cantt.000 personnel. fertilizer and rock phosphate. with 12.. During 1999-2000. The Freight Business Unit offers services to meet customer requirements and reduce costs through . Sadiqabad.. Samasatta Jn. Pannu Aqil Cantt.. Nawabshah.000. operates over 200 freight stations on the railway network.. Chichawatni.Major Stations and Junctions The major stations and junctions between Peshawar and Karachi include: Peshawar.. Pakistan Railways also operates special trains during occasions like congregations of the Dawat-e-Islami and the Tableeghi Ijtima. Gujranwala. Kotri Jn. Rohri Jn.. wheat. fertilizer. Lahore Cantt.. Khairpur. Sibi Jn.. 19% from imported wheat. About 39% of the revenue is generated from the transportation of POL products. Gujrat.. The Unit serves two major ports of Karachi and Bin Qasim as well as all four provinces of the country and generates revenue from the movement of agricultural. Sahiwal.Kaloorkot Nowshehra Jn. Khanpur. Karachi cantt.8 billion. rock phosphate. Mach Spezand Jn and Quetta Passenger Traffic Passenger traffic comprises 50% of the railway's total revenue. Raiwind Jn. Wazirabad Jn. The major stations and junctions between Peshawar and Quetta are: Peshawar to Rohri Jn. industrial and imported products. Sukkur. Shikarpur.. The remaining 42% is earned from domestic traffic. container traffic and sugar. Landhi Jn.. Hyderabad Jn.Darya Khan.Bhakkar. Dera Murad Jamali. Rahim Yar Khan.. (same as above). express and passenger trains. Pakistan Railways carries 65 million passengers annually and daily operates 228 mail.. Jhelum. Lahore. Mianchannu. Tandu Adam. The number of passengers carried daily is thus about 178. Ab-e-Gum. Okara.. Jacobabad Jn. 4. Lodhran Jn. Petroleum Oil & Lubricants (POL). Attock city..Mianwali.

The factory can produce two diesel-electric locomotives per month on single-shift basis. which is a . Pakistan.[citation needed.00 million. The Pakistan Locomotive Factory at Risalpur. Since 1993. which is the Railways' main competitor.000 hp AGE-30 diesel-electric locomotives is at the verge of its completion. and quantum offered. All possible efforts are made to increase revenues and pass on the benefits to customers. The factory is equipped with the state-of-the-art equipment which can be employed in the building of diesel-electric locomotives of suitable horsepower. a public spread on an area of 251 acres.000 hp dieselelectric locomotives have rolled out of the factory. depending on the lead.2284. The ongoing project of 3. particularly of road transport. including a foreign exchange component of Rs. The Freight Business Unit is headed by an additional General Manager. peak-off peak season. twenty three PHA-20 type 2.00 million. Risalpur Pakistan Railways Headquarters in Lahore. Pakistan.efficiency. The Freight Rates structure is based on market trends. was put into service in 1993 with the collaboration of Government of Japan at a total cost of Rs. Pakistan Railways Headquarters in Lahore.1496. The freight rates are no longer rigid but flexible. but this can be doubled by introducing a second working shift. Pakistan Locomotive Factory. as well as electric locomotives with minor adjustments. innovation and modernization.

Apart from manufacturing new locomotives.milestone in the history of the factory. the Pakistan Locomotive Factory has also successfully rehabilitated five dieselelectric locomotives of GRU-20 Type and manufactured other various spares/components for railway maintenance divisions and rehabilitation projects. .

718 445 611 11.OPERATION MANAGEMENT Pakistan Railway comprises 8. Telephone Communication is over wire lines and microwave. Most routes have VHF radio coverage for communication between train dispatchers and trains. Maintenance is provided by three major locomotive workshops and thirty-five smaller workshops.623 passenger coaches. ROUTE AND TRACK LENGTH: GAUGE ROUTE KM TRACK KM Broad Gauge M eter Gauge Narrow Gauge+ 7. 707 stations and 37 trains halts.344 555 726 TOTAL 8. It has a fleet of 563 diesel electric locomotives.625 .775 route km. Signaling facilities at important stations are track circulated within interlocking limits.815 wagons and 1.774 12. 25.

Quetta Express and Farid Express have all dispossessed of their stoppages at the Lahore Cantt Station. rerouting the Quetta Express through KhanewalóLodharan instead of Multan. According to a press release on Saturday. However.RAILWAY ANNOUNCE NEW TIME TABLE On Sunday. new stops have been introduced including Bolan Mail’s stops at Bakhtiarabad Domki and Dera Alayar. In another such measure. Tezroís stops at Shorkot Cantt. Wazirabad and Chaklala have been eliminated. Karachi Expressís stops at Kotlakhpat Landhi. The PR has made major changes in operations and routes of the trains. the destination of the Sukhur Express has been curtailed at Karachi City instead of going all the way to the Karachi Cantt. the Khyber Mail. The Sangla Shuttle service. The new timetable will be enforced from November 1 (today). The timetable also governs the extension of the routes of Sakhi Abbas Passenger Train whose route has been extended till Okara instead of Pattoki. Similarly the Shah Rukn-e-Alam Train has also been stopped at Karachi City instead of Karachi Cantt. which operated . the Hazara Expressís new stops at Kotri. Landi and Drig Road. 2009 The Pakistan Railways has introduced a new train between LahoreóMalakwal and has restored the Subak Raftar between LahoreóRawalpindi in addition to limiting the number of train stops at the Cantt railway stations for security reasons. The Millat Express has also been given an extension in the route making it go till Sargodha instead of ending its journey at Faisalabad. Millat Express at Drig Road. The Tezgamís stoppages at Kot Lallo. The Bahawalpur express has lost its stop at Chutiana and the Hazara Express lost the Kot Lallu stop. Shalimar Expressís stops at Kot Lakhpat Drig Road and the Super Expressís stops at Liaqatpur and Phularwan. November 01. Awami Express. Gujarat.

The Korakaram Express will leave Karachi Cantt at 1600 hrs to reach Lahore at 1015 hrs. Tezgam will depart Karachi at 1700 hrs to reach Islamabad at 2015 hrs. The Allama Iqbal Express will leave Karachi at 1450 hrs to reach Sialkot at 1540 hrs. The Subak Raftar will reach Rawalpindi 1230 after leaving Islamabad at 0730 hrs. has been cancelled besides the FaislabadóSargodha A-Shuttle service and BShuttle service. The shuttle train between Lahore and Lalamusa has also been shut down. but had only managed to purchase 122 . The 109 up/ 110 down shuttle train has been renamed Margala Express.between Faisalabad and Sangla Hill. the Khyber Mail will depart from Karachi at 2200 hrs to reach Peshawar at 640 hrs. According to the new schedule. Tezro will leave Karachi cantt at 2100 hrs to reach Mardan at 0400 hrs. The 101 up/ 102 down Islamabad Express has been renamed to Subak Raftar. Hazara Express will depart Karachi at 535 hrs to reach Hwailiyan at 1330. The Bolan Mail will leave Karachi city at 1700 to reach Queatta at 1410. 06:30 and 04:45 time has been provided during night and day time to start at least nine and six trains respectively from the Karachi Port area. The Awami Express will depart from Karachi Cantt at 730 for Peshawar at 1720 hrs. Railways need 410 locomotives for daily operations: Minister says automatic signalling system to be installed on Karachi-Lahore track by mid-2010Staff Report Railways Minister Ghulam Ahmed Bilour said the Pakistan Railways needed 410 locomotives for day-to-day operations.

“Governments have invested more on developing a road network and little importance has been given to the needs of the railways. The minister said rail tracks were in dilapidated conditions at various places. even if a driver ignored a red signal. but now the country has been reduced to importing locomotives. . “We receive complaints every day that a particular train broke down due to technical fault in a locomotive.” Bilour said Pakistan exported locomotives to Bangladesh in 1992. the minister said it was caused by human error. “We are opening our doors to the private sector and plans are underway to outsource some operations. The minister said successive governments had failed to pay attention to improving the condition of Pakistan Railways and one of the key reasons for the deteriorating stae of affairs of the department was the inconsistent policies of successive governments. Bilour.” Bilour said.” Regarding the recent train accident in Karachi. which resulted in longer travel times for short journeys.locomotives during the last 20 years. avoided questions regarding the operational losses and corruption in the railways. the minister said Railways was doing everything to mitigate human errors in the future and implementing systems that would make a train stop automatically. He said all efforts were being made to improve the rail cargo service. Talking to reporters at his office. The system would be imported from Sweden or Canada through a loan from the Islamic Development Bank. adding that the government was not investing in improving rail tracks. “We are even operating some 40-year-old locomotives.” he added. however. He said an automatic signalling system would be installed by mid-2010 on the Karachi-Lahore track.

3. lives high on the mountains. 2. Allama Iqbal Express (9 Up/10 Dn) Named after the national poet of Pakistan. so this is the People's Express. The Shaheen Express also had a Karachi-Sialkot route via Faisalabad. The Allama Iqbal express currently runs on the KarachiLahore-Sialkot route. Allama Iqbal Express was called 'Shaheen Express' (mid-1950s to mid-1990s). The word 'Allama' means 'scholar'. for atleast 40 years.TRAINS OF PAKISTAN RAILWAY An Introduction 1. Interestingly. The word 'Shaheen' means 'Falcon' in Urdu and Allama Iqbal in his poetry always referred to falcon as a creature with high moral character (as it never eats a dead animal. Mohammad Iqbal. though) to run their country-wide political campaigns. PR's first three-tier second class sleepers were introduced on the Awam Express. Accomodation available on this train is AC Lower and Economy. etc. and now shares the honour of having the longest running route (1721km) in Pakistan along with the historic Khyber Mail.). Awam Express (13 Up/14 Dn) 'Awam' means 'people' in Urdu. Badar Express (109 Up/110 Dn) . The train is so named because it has a Karachi-Sialkot route and Sialkot is the birth place of Allama Iqbal. Many politicians have used the Awam Express (fewer than have used the Khyber Mail. Current accommodation available on this train includes First Class Sleeper and Economy. It always had a Karachi-Peshawar route.

Both of these trains are unusual as each has different Up and Down routes (which are. 7:50 hrs: 108 Dn Ghauri Express reaches Lahore. It does not terminate at Faisalabad eventhough it had originated there. 18:00 hrs: 109 Up Badar Express starts its journey towards Faisalabd. but continues towards Shorkot Cant Jn. 17:00 hrs: 110 Down Badar Express reaches Lahore. and has the same route as the 'Badar Express'. It runs Lahore . 15:15 hrs: The rake of Ghauri Express now becomes the Badar Express and it starts its journey towards Lahore as 110 Down.Lahore (142km) in the Down Direction. Accomodation on both trains is AC Parlour. It passes through Faisalabad and continues towards Lahore. 9:15 hrs: 107 Up Ghauri Express starts its journey towards Faisalabd. The two trains share rakes. 'Ghauri' Express is named after the first Muslim Ruler of India.Faisalabad . even though it had originated from Shorkot Cant Jn in the morning. The rake rests . and First Class Sitter. (249km) in the Up Direction and Faisalabad . Jn.Shorkot Cantt.4. 11:00 hrs: 107 Up Ghauri Express reaches Faisalabad and terminates there. Mohammad Ghauri. Ghauri Express (107 Up/108 Dn) 'Badar' means 'Moon' in Urdu. This 'rake sharing' works as follows: 4:10 hrs: 108 Dn Ghauri Express starts its journey from Shorkot Cant Jn. however complementary). 21:40 hrs: 109 Up reaches Shorkot Cant Jn.

to meet the Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway and to afford through communication without break of gauge from Sindh (Pakistan) to Bombay (India) was considered but never materialised. this train has a 487km run from Samasata Jn to Sialkot Jn. probably because of better train handling facilities at Samasata Jn. 6.000. Since this train has Multan as one of its termini. Badin Express is currently an all Economy class train. The accomodation on this train include AC Sleeper. The Hyderabad .Badin track on which Badin Express plies was opened on Aug 15. Badin Express (307 Up/308 Dn) Badin is the largest city south-east of Karachi with a population of ~70. 1904. 5. The train originates from Samasata Jn instead of Bahawalpur. Bahauddin Zakaria Express (25 Up/26 Dn) This train has the 92km long Karachi City . Bahauddin Zakaria (1182-1266) was one such saint who lived in Multan. Badin Express takes the Kotri Jn Hyderabad Jn . An extension of this line across or around the Rann of Kutch. it is named after him. 7.Badin route and is the only train that currently goes to Badin. Multan is one of the oldest living cities in Pakistan and a home to the shrines of many saints and learned people. Bahawalpur. .here overnight and the next morning the whole cycle starts again. The line was later dismantled during World War I as the rails were needed elsewhere.Multan Cantt route. Bahawalpur Express (143 Up/144 Dn) Named after Pakistan's 13th largest city. First Class Sleeper and Economy. In 1922 the track was rebuilt to its present alignment.

Quetta (850km) route and it currently takes 16 hours and 5 minutes to cover this distance. The Karachi . 9. 8.Sukkur .880 ft (1. this train is one of the most historic trains on the PR network.Sialkot Jn. Accomodation available on Baluchistan Express includes AC Sleeper. Bolan Mail takes the latter route. Currently it is not the fastest linking between Karachi and Quetta as it takes more than 20 hours to cover this distance. and nomadic tribes coming from western and central Asia used it as a gateway to India. Baluchistan Express (31 Up/32 Dn) This train is currently the fastest rail link between Karachi and Quetta.Khanewal Jn (via Chord) .Bahawalpur .792 m). invaders.Quetta distance via Sukkur is 14km shorter than via Larkana.Wazirabad Jn . Baluchistan is the name of Pakistan's largest province by area. The pass is strategically located and many traders. Accomodation on this train includes 1st class Sitter and Economy. Bolan Mail (3 Up/4 Dn) Named after the famous 'Bolan Pass' in Baluchistan province. Accomodation available on Bolan Mail includes AC . It takes the Karachi . It connects Karachi with Quetta via Larkana (857Km).The train route is Samasata Jn . Bolan Pass itself is 60 miles (100km) long and has a maximum altitude of 5. AC Lower annd Economy. The reason for its low speed is the bad track quality between Kotri Jn and Habib Kot Jn via Dadu/Larkana Jn.Faisalabad .

To reduce the burden on Karachi City and Karachi Cant stations and to utilize the fast decaying 'Karachi Circular Railway' track. and then the rake was sent up-country via the KCR route. '5 waters') province. The Chenab Express.Faisalabad . Manghopir. and these days it runs Karachi . This train is known for other 'experiments' carried out on its route. First Class Sleeper and Economy.Lala Musa . The Chenab is also associated with the folk stories of Sohni-Mahinwal and Heer-Ranjha.Faisalabad .Sleeper. .Sargodha . Chenab express once orginated from a Karachi suburban station. 10.Peshawar.Rawalpindi. Chenab Express (11 Up/12 Dn) The Chenab Express is named after River Chenab.Rawalpindi . Chenab is one of the five famous rivers of the Punjab (literally. The empty rake of the train was brought to Manghopir from Karachi City daily as there is no washing line or maintenance facility at Manghopir.Faisalabad . had the route of Karachi .Peshawar.Attock City . when inaugurated. Later the route changed to Karachi .

it is named after one of the region's prominent geological landmarks. 12. Faisal Express (111 Up/112 Dn) Faisal Express is one of nine daily trains that run between Lahore and Faisalabad. That book was first published in 1971 which means the Dachi Express has been running at least since 1971. Over the years the route of the Chiltan Express has been varied many times by running it between Quetta and Peshawar via Faisalabad. It is also one of the fastest trains on this route. This train used to have a Quetta-Lahore route via Dera Ghazi Khan and Kot Adu Jn.11. 13. the other two being 'Zarghun' and 'Koh-I-Murdar'. Why this train is called a Camel Express is not clear to me. Inaugurated in . This route opened in 1973. Dachi Express (221 Up/222 Dn) The word 'Dachi' in Punjabi language means 'camel'. On the Lahore-Faisalabad Up route it is classified as an Express and on the Faisalabad-Lahore Down route it is classified as a Passenger. This train has been mentioned in the famous Urdu writer Ibn-e-Insha's book 'Urdu ki aakhri kitab' ('The last book of Urdu') where while describing a camel Ibn-e-Insha says that the camel was also called a 'Dachi' but that these days railway men have put wheels under it and made it an express. between Quetta and Rawalpindi via Lahore. It used to be one of the premier trains and one of the fastest between Lahore and Faisalabad covering 142km in three hours. Chiltan Express (21 Up/22 Dn) 'Chiltan' is the name of one of the three large craggy mountains that surround Quetta valley. It is now a slow passenger with 19 stops on its Lahore-Faisalabad route and 14 stops on its Faisalabad-Lahore route. and these days between Quetta and Lahore via Faisalabad. I don't know its exact date of inauguration. Since Chiltan Express has Quetta as one of its termini. hence the Chiltan Express likely started operations on or after that year. Since the late 1990s the Lahore-Faisalabad distance is now being covered in about 1 hour 50 minutes by quite a few non-stop trains and the Dachi Express has lost its importance. covering the 142km distance in 105 minutes in the Up direction and 110 minutes in the Down direction.

16. Pakpattan. the Fastest train on this route presently covers this distance in 1 hour 45 minutes. It covers the 1095km distance between Karachi and Faisalabad in 15 hours 35 minutes in the Up direction and 15 hours 45 minutes in the Down sirection. but now it has five and seven stops in between on the Up and Down journeys respectively. For comparison. It started in the late 1990s as a non-stop train between Karachi and Faisalabad with only operational stops at Rohri Jn and Khanewal Jn. It has a 142km Lahore-Faisalabad route with 17 stops in between and covers this distance in 3 hours and 15 minutes in Up direction and 3 hours and 50 minutes in Down direction. It currently has 33 stops between Karachi and Lahore. It has a 1248km long route between Karachi City and Lahore via Pakpattan. it is also a relatively new train on this route. Fareed Express is presently one of the slowest trains on the PR network covering 1248km in 23 hours and 30 minutes in the Up direction and 23 hours and 15 minutes in the Down direction. then diverts east on a branch line towards Vihari. Faisalabad Express (35 Up/36 Dn) Faisalabad Express is currently the fastest train running between Karachi and Faisalabad. The accommodation available on this train includes AC lower and Economy. Since Fareed Express has a parallel route east of Multan-Lahore main line and since it also serves Pakpattan city. 14. the train has been named 'Fareed ExpressÂ'. Economy and 2nd Class. The accommodation available on Fareed Express includes First Class Sitter. FAST (325 Up/326 Down) The name 'FASTÂ' is probably a misnomer on this not-so-fast train. From Karachi to Lodhran Jn it runs on mainline. It passes through towns of Mailsi. 15.2001. Kasur Jn and joins the mainline again at Raiwind Jn to continue its journey towards Lahore. . Fareed Express (37 Up/38 Dn) Baba Freed Shakar Ganj (1173-1266 AD) was a saint who lived and preached in the area east of Multan-Lahore axis. Arif wala. Fareed Express started its operation in 1996. After his demise Baba Fareed was buried in the town of Pakpattan.

Lahore Non-Stop (148 Dn) The same rake that travels in the morning as 147 Up Islamabad Non Stop comes back to Lahore in the evening as 148 Down Lahore Non Stop. Travel time remains same at 3 hours and 30 minutes in either direction. 2004. Karachi Express started its operation in the late 1940s with a Karachi City . Jaffar Khan Jamali who was one of the prominent Baloch leaders of the Pakistan movement. 18. Zafarullah Khan Jamali. fifteen more minutes have been reduced from its travel time. Each lower and nine seats and each economy class coach has a capacity of 51 births and nine seats. 2004 (when Mr. Karachi Express (15 Up/16 Down) Karachi Express is one of the oldest and most prestigious trains on PR network. Currently Jaffar Express has a 1494km route between Quetta and Rawalpindi via Sukkur and Lahore. 2004 covering Lahore-Rawalpindi distance in 3 hours and 45 minutes and from Sept 8. Jaffar Express started its operation on May 13. As is obvious. Mr. The rake of Jaffar Express consists of three lower AC coaches and four economy class coaches with head end generation. Here is a photo of its inaugural DOWN run from Rawalpindi station. 20. It has 18 stops between Quetta and Rawalpindi. Jaffar Khan Jamali was also the uncle of ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan. It covers 289km in 3 hours and 30 minutes. it is named after Karachi. Its rake consists of Chinese coaches. It covers this distance in 27 hours 20 minutes in the Up direction and in an even 27 hours in the Down direction. 19. Islamabad Non Stop (147 Up) Currently the fastest train on Lahore-Rawalpindi route. Jaffar Express (39 Up/40 Down) Jaffar Express is named after Mr. the largest city of Pakistan and also the former capital city. Mr. He was among the first few Baloch leaders who whole-heartedly supported Mr.17. It started its operation on Aug 1. Zafarullah Khan Jamali was the Prime Minister of Pakistan) and it was the second train on PR network with its full rake consisting of Chinese coaches. Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan movement.

all came under his scrutiny. having scores of books or manuscripts to his credit. mysticism. His grave carries the inscription: 'I have taken up the sword to defend the pride of the Pashtun. By appointment of the Mughal emperor. because of some misgivings removed Khushhal Khan from his hereditary AC coach has a capacity of 54 position. lexicography. It is currently the fastest train running between Karachi and Lahore and covers the 1214km distance in 16 hours in either direction. There was hardly any discipline that he did not delved into. Here is a photo of the Karakoram Express seen in Lahore suburbs. The Khattak tribe of . hunting and falconry. Rohri Jn and Khanewal Jn were added to its stops. Over the years it lost its earlier prestige and became a regular express train with more than 20 stops at one point in time between Karachi and Lahore. In 2000 the train regained some of its lost glory. it was the first train to run on PR network that consisted completely of Chinese-made coaches. 22. the train is accordingly named to highlight the Pak-China friendship. Since Karakoram Mountains form the common border between Pakistan and China. he became the chieftain of the Khattak tribe in 1641. medicine. philosophy. Karakoram Express (41 Up/42 Down) Named after the lofty peaks of Karakoram Mountains. Khushhal Khan Khattak. The route was later shortened to Karachi-Lahore. Shah Jehan's successor. After Khushhal was permitted to return to Peshawar he incited the Pashtuns to rebel against the Mughals. the honorable man of the age. 21. Khushhal Khan was born near Peshawar in 1613. Religion.' Khushhal Khan Khattak was a learned man. Khushhal Khan Khattak Express (19Up/20 Down) This train is named after arguably the most famous poet and a famous chieftain of North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Shah Jehan. war and aesthetics -. Currently it has one more stop added to its route at Sahiwal. In the year 2001-02 Hyderabad Jn. I am Khushhal Khattak. It now covers Karachi Cant to Lahore 1214km distance in 16 hours 30 minutes in the Up direction and in 16 hours 45 minutes in the Down direction.to Peshawar Cantt route. but Aurangzeb. and kept him a prisoner in the Gwalior fortress in Delhi. as it was upgraded to a 16-hour non-stop service between Karachi and Lahore (with one technical stop at Khanpur Jn).

Khyber Mail (1 Up/2 Down) Khyber Mail is Pakistans oldest and the most prestigious train. From Attock City Jn to Peshawar Cant it follows the mainline again. and Mardan. Khyber Mail is also the train that has been most written about in railway literature about Pakistan. Kot Adu Jn. From my childhood I remembera red-colored postal mail full of mail sacks attached to the Khyber Mail. It also has 59 stops between its termini. It is named after the of Pakistan. Before Independence. Dera Ghazi Khan. From Jac¡¥obabad Jn it takes another branch line route via Kashmore. the 'Frontier Mail' which ran on . Mianwali. The accommodation available on this train includes First. Khushhal Khan Khattak Express takes a route between Karachi City and Peshawar Cant which mostly runs on the West Bank of River Indus. At 19 letters. Kundian Jn. it is named after this great poet of the NWFP. It travels on mainline between Karachi to Kotri Jn and then takes a branch line via Larkana Jn to Habibkot Jn. This makes it the slowest running express between Karachi and Peshawar. Peshawar. 23. I believe that postal mail is not attached to Khyber Mail any more but the train still keeps its name as a mail train. Rajanpur. Khyber Mail's name has a 'mail' suffix because historically this train used to distribute local postal mail along its route. Paul Theroux for one has traveled and written about Khyber Mail in most of his rail travel books. Today it connects Afghanistan with Pakistan. Economy and Second Classes. this train also has the longest name among all the trains running on PR Network. Jand Jn. From Habibkot Jn it follows mainline to Jacobabad Jn. Since 19Up/20 Dn Khushhal Khan Khattak Express has a Karachi to Peshawar route. Khyber Mail had an ancestor. Khushhal Khan Khattak Express has 1512km run between Karachi City and Peshawar Cant which it covers in 36 hours 40 minutes in the Up direction and 36 hours 45 minutes in the Down direction. Khyber Pass has historically connected Central Asia with the Indian Subcontinent.Khushhal Khan now lives in the areas of Kohat. As of summer 2004. Basal Jn to Attock City Jn.

the fastest train link between Karachi and Peshawar. As of summer 2004. Shankar's web page on NWR. for better or worse.Peshawar route. The railway is one of the most traditional of institutions and. Hal Waters' and Mr. The odd thing is that throughout the Subcontinent the railway seems so profoundly part of the culture that it hardly seems related to the industrial age but instead seems as ancient as India itself. I had noticed very few changes¡K. it runs in Pakistan pretty much the same way as it always ran. An even earlier account of a predecessor of both Frontier Mail and Khyber Mail comes from Mr. on the Indian side. The roads and airports come and go. It currently shares this honor with 13Up/14Dn Awam (People) Express.Amritsar route while on the Pakistan side it was renamed as 'Khyber Mail' with a Karachi to Peshawar route.Bombay Central (India) -. S. At present Khyber Mail has the longest running route in Pakistan. And amazingly enough it covered this distance with steam locomotives in 32 hours 25 minutes which is only 20 minutes slower than that of 2004. I have not been able to confirm whether this 'Peshawar Mail' was the same as 'Frontier Mail' or a different train. After 1947. and 32 hours 5 minutes in the Down direction. forty-five years ago Khyber Mail had only 24 stops between Karachi City and Peshawar Cant. I have a PR time table of 1959. . It stops at 45 stations between Karachi Cant and Peshawar Cant. which is 1721km.by Rail from Peshawar to Chittagong' where while traveling by Khyber Mail he writes (pp 9-10): I had returned (to Pakistan) to take this long trip (Peshawar-Lahore via Khyber Mail) to see what had changed. Interestingly. but nothing seems as indestructible as the railway. 'Frontier Mail' continued its operation on a curtailed Bombay Central -. Khyber Mail covers 1721km distance between Karachi Cant and Peshawar Cant in 31 hours 55 minutes in the Up direction. It is from 1909 and calls for a 'Peshawar Mail' sighting near river Jhelum. Khyber Mail is however. Should we conclude that not much has changed speed wise for Khyber Mail in half-a-century? A clue to this stagnancy in rail famous Khyber Pass which is located in the 'North West Frontier Province' (NWFP) modernization comes from Paul Theroux book 'The Imperial Way -.

The only accommodation available on this train is Economy Class. well-lighted. Lala Musa Express has a 147km long route between Lala Musa Jn -Sargodha Jn. ashtray. The compartment was large. First and Economy Class. As of summer 2004. From his 1975 trip to Pakistan and while traveling by First Class Sleeper of Khyber Mail. It stops at 17 stations between Lala Musa and Sargodha.The accommodation on Khyber Mail has historically been the best. 24. The current accommodation available on Khyber Mail includes AC Sleeper. I had a drop-leaf table. Lala Musa Express (137 Up/138 Down) This train is named after the city of Lala Musa which is an important junction on PR's main line. My name was on the door. mirror. chrome gin-bottle holder. I do remember that up until the early 1980s Khyber Mail had a 'buffet' Dining Car attached to it. and comfortable. . it covered this distance in 3 hours 40 minutes in the Up direction and in 3 hours and 30 minutes in the Down direction. Dining Car is still attached to the train but it is not the buffet style anymore and food is now served at the passenger seats. which is introduced below. with a toilet and sink in an adjoining room. printed large on a label! I had every thing I needed. the works. Paul Theroux has written in his book 'The Great Railway Bazaar' (pp 81): It had not taken long to find my compartment (on Khyber Mail). well up-holstered seat. The rake of Lala Musa Express is shared by Malakwal Express too.

Lasani Express (125 Up/126 Down) The word 'Lasani' in Urdu language means 'one of its kind'. It covers its 147km long route in 3 hours 40 minutes in up direction and 3 hours 45 minutes in down direction.e.25. 27. This 'one of its kind' express runs between Lahore Jn and Sialkot Jn via Narowal Jn. It has an early morning run from Sialkot to Lahore and a late afternoon run back to Sialkot. It is also one of the oldest branch line trains on PR Network. Economy Class. It has a 148km route. Malakwal Express (135 Up/136 Down) Malakwal Express is named after the city of Malakwal which was once a very important junction and steam loco bastion in Western Punjab. At that time it was called Mari Indus Passenger and was later . Mari Indus Express (329 Up /330 Down) Mari Indus Express is named after the town of Mari Indus. It has 13 stops between Lahore and Sialkot and the only accommodation available on this train is Economy Class. Since Malakwal Express shares its rake with Lala Musa Express so it also only one accommodation available i.Mari Indus route since the 1950s. The single rake sharing between Malakwal Express and Lala Musa Express takes place according to the following time table: 135Up Malakwal Express Sargodha Jn dep 0500 135Up Malakwal Express Lala Musa Jn arr 0840 138Dn Lala Musa Express Lala Musa Jn dep 1035 138Dn Lala Musa Express Sargodha Jn arr 1405 137Up Lala Musa Express Sargodha Jn dep 1515 137Up Lala Musa Express Lala Musa Jn. It has 18 stops in up direction and 16 stops in down direction between its termini at Lala Musa Jn and Sargodha Jn.arr 1855 136Dn Malakwal Express Lala Musa Jn dep 1945 136Dn Malakwal Express Sargodha Jn arr 2330 The rake is washed and rested at Sargodha Jn overnight. which it covers in 3 hours 45 minutes in both directions. This train provides a convenient day trip to Lahore to the business community of Sialkot. Malakwal Express has exactly the same route as of Lala Musa Express which was introduced above. It has been running on Lahore -. 26.

Musa Pak express has a 335km route between Multan Cant and Lahore. it covers 335km in 280 minutes with only 3 stops in between the termini. Since this train has most of its route spread across Seraiki area of Pakistan. Kundian Jn and Golra Sharif Jn. 30. It has 34 stops between Lahore and Mari Indus. As of the summer 2004 time table. As of summer 2004. Mehr express covers this distance in 14 hours 55 minutes in the Up direction and 14 hours 20 minutes in the Down direction. This time also includes its 38-km and 75-minute detour to Faisalabad. In up direction. 28. Accommodation available on Mari Indus express includes Economy and 2nd Class. takes a 19km detour to Faisalabad. Mehr Express has a 572km long route between Multan and Rawalpindi via Kot Adu Jn. It has a 429km route in either direction with a peculiar detour. The same sequence is repeated on itÂ's down journey too. Narowal Express (209 Up/210 Down) . Musa Pak Express (115 Up/116 Down) Musa Pak Express is named after a famous saint called Sheikh Abul Hassab Musa Pak who is now buried in Multan City.upgraded to an express. Mari Indus express covers Lahore to Mari Indus distance in 12 hours 35 minutes in up direction and 12 hours and 30 minutes in down direction. After reaching Chak Jhumra Jn on its up journey. 29. One peculiar aspect of this train is the difference in number of stops it has in up and down direction. Mehr Expess (127 Up/128 Down) Mehr Express is named after the 'MehrÂ' clan of PakistanÂ's Seraiki belt. it is named after the Seraiki speaking Mehr tribe. which also includes stopping twice at Chak Jhumra Jn in its either way journey. it instead of turning towards Mari Indus. In down direction it covers the same distance in 345 minutes with 13 stops. It has a 30-minute stop in Faisalabad before it comes back to Chak Jhumra Jn and then continues towards Mari Indus. It stops at 35 stations between Multan and Rawalpindi.

the fastest trains on this route (Islamabad and Lahore Nonstops) cover the same distance in 210 minutes. Lodhran Jn. Raiwind Jn etc. Pakpattan Express (117 Up/118 Down) This train is named after a city in Punjab province called Pakpattan and has Samasata to Lahore route via Pakpattan. It has 40 stops between its termini. . In the Down direction it covers the same distance in 130 minutes with 11 stops between its termini. Vihari. 33. 31. It covers its 289km route in 260 minutes with 2 stops in up direction and in the same time with 1 stop in down direction. It is currently the second fastest train running between Lahore and Rawalpindi. Just like Musa Pak Express. Its route length is 438km. It has an 86km route between Lahore Jn and Narowal Jn. which include Bahwalpur. Shahbaz Qalandar's tomb. Narowal Express is named after the city of Narowal. 32. Pakpattan. which it covers in 11 hours 50 minutes in the Up direction and 12 hours and 20 minutes in the Down direction. Night Coach (105 Up/106 Dn) Night coach is named such because of its late night timings in either direction. Accommodations available on Pakpattan Express are first class. Shahbaz means falcon. Narowal Express also has a huge difference in its up and down travel times and number of stops. In comparison. economy and second class. The saint was called 'Lal' because of his red attire. Kasur Jn. In the Up direction it covers its 86km route in 100 minutes with 4 stops.As the name implies.D). The word 'QalandarÂ' itself means a person who knows oneÂ's inner being or has knowledge of oneÂ's inner spirit. built in 1356. and denotes his free spirit and Qalandar is for the Sufi sect called Qalandria that he belonged to. Qalandar Express (165 Up/166 Down) Qalandar Express is named after a famous saint of Sindh named Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (1177-1274 A. is located in the town of Sehwan Sharif. Mailsi.

Quetta Express is the only train on PR network. which is also the provincial capital of Baluchistan. Dadu and Moen-jo-daro (famous for the largest excavated ruins of the 5000-year-old Indus Valley civilization). the land that lies between two Punjab rivers. The word doab literally means 'two watersÂ'. As of summer 2004. River Ravi and River Chenab was called Rachna Doab.. Accommodations available on Quetta Express are AC Sleeper. Rachna Express is one of six trains that currently have a Lahore-Faisalabad route. It has a 284km route between Kotri Jn and Larkana Jn with 25 stops in between. which runs through all the four provinces of Pakistan. It has a 1631km route with 40 stops between its termini of Quetta and Peshawar. Quetta Express (23 Up/24 Down) Quetta Express is named after the city of Quetta. Rachna Express (113 Up/114 Down) In ancient times. It covers its route in 34 hours in the Up direction and in 32 hours 20 minutes in the Down direction. it is named the Rachna Express. 34. Qalandar Express covered this distance in 7 hours 10 minutes in the Up direction and in 8 hours and 15 minutes in the Down direction. Bhan Sayadabad. The route length is 142km and it covers this distance in 175 minutes in the Up direction and in 170 minutes in the Down direction.Qalandar Express has Sehwan Sharif as one of its stops. and it is thus named after the saint of Sehwan. Sehwan Sharif. Since this train has a route between river Ravi and river Chenab in Rachna Doab area. 35. First and Economy. Some of the main towns that fall on Qalandar ExpressÂ' route include Sann. It has 10 stops between Lahore and Faisalabad . viz.

as one of its terminus and since Khanpur lies in the heart of Seraiki speaking area. Nankana Sahab (a holy city for the Sikh religion). and Kamalia. The Cholistan desert however. Rohi Express has Khanpur to Rawalpindi route via Shorkot. Rohi Express (131 Up/132 Down) The word 'RohiÂ' means 'desertÂ' in Seraiki language. Some of the important towns on Ravi ExpressÂ' route are Sheikhupura (named after Emperor AkbarÂ's son Sheikho). Warburton. which is one of the five rivers of Punjab. The train has 14 stops on its route. therefore the train is named as 'RohiÂ' or 'DesertÂ' express. Sargodha and Lala Musa. the Thal desert is now mostly an agriculture land. The route length is 261km and Ravi Express covers this distance in 6 hours in the Up direction and in 6 hours 5 minutes in the Down direction. Accommodations available on Ravi Express are Economy and Second. . It covers this distance in 17 hours 50 minutes with 38 stops between its termini. Since Rohi express has 'Khanpur JnÂ'. Because of extensive irrigation schemes over the years. viz.. Jaranwala. This train has a Lahore to Shorkot route. Tandlianwala. Jhang. 37. which runs almost parallel to the west bank of river Ravi. The Seraiki belt of Pakistan is famous for two deserts. Ravi Express (121 Up/122 Down) Ravi Express is named after river Ravi. still extends from east of Bahawalpur to the Indian border.36. 'Thal' and 'Cholistan' deserts. The length of Rohi ExpressÂ' route is 774km.

Sandal Express runs on its route via Khanewal. which it covers in 4 hours 55 minutes in the Up direction and in 4 hours 40 minutes in the Down direction. Shah Latif Express runs between Karachi city and Mirpur Khas. 40. which it covers in 6 hours 35 minutes in the Up direction and in 6 hours 25 minutes in the Down direction. It has 11 stops between Karachi City and Mirpur . Shorkot and Jhang. 39. Sargodha Express (123 Up/124 Down) Sargodha Express is named after the city of Sargodha. It has a 246km long route. It has a 218km route between Sukkur and Khanpur via Rohri Jn. 41. which it covers in 4 hours 15 minutes in the Up direction and in 4 hours 10 minutes in the Down direction. which has most of its people living in the Seraiki speaking area in and around Multan. Sandal Express (139 Up/140 Down) Sandal Express is named after the 'SandalÂ' clan. It has 15 stops between its termini. It has 21 stops between its termini. Shah Latif Express (151 Up/152 Down) Shah Latif Express is named after Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai who is considered as the greatest poet of Sindhi language. It has 10 stops between its termini. The route length is 215km. Rohri Express (167 Up/168 Down) Rohri express is named after the city of Rohri. It covers this distance in 4 hours in the Up direction and 4 hours 5 minutes in the Down direction. Shah Abdul Latif lived in Sindh during the seventeenth century. Since this train has Multan to Sargodha route. Shah's poetry is unique as it expresses the harmony between what he saw outside with his naked eyes and what he observed within by his inner eyes. The route length is 279km. it is named after the local Sandal clan of Multan. It runs from Lahore to Sargodha.38.

The accommodation available on Shah Rukn-e-Alam Express is AC Parlor.D). As of summer 2004. There is another train called 'Qalandar ExpressÂ' named after Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. which it covers in 14 hours 45 minutes in the Up direction and in 14 hours 55 minutes in the Down direction. built in 1356. Shalimar Express (27 Up/28 Down) Shalimar Express is named after the famous Shalimar gardens located in . Shahbaz Passenger covered its route in 12 hours 30 minutes with 39 stops between its termini. The word Rukn-e-Alam means 'Pillar of the WorldÂ'. Larkana Jn and Sukkur. which is a bird native to Sindh and denotes his free spirit and Qalandar is for the Sufi sect called Qalandria that he belonged to. 42.Khas. AC Lower and Economy Class. The saint was called 'Lal' because of his red attire. Dadu. is located in the town of Sehwan Sharif. Accommodation available on Shahbaz Passenger includes Economy and Second class. Shahbaz Passenger (309 Up/310 Down) Shahbaz Passenger is named after a famous saint of Sindh named 'Lal Shahbaz QalandarÂ' (1177-1274 A. Shah Rukne Alam Express (29 Up/30 Down) Shah Rukn-e-Alam express is named after a saint who lived in Multan. 44. The train has a 921km long route. His shrine in Multan is one of the landmarks of Multan City and has won quite a few architectural awards too. the word Shahbaz means falcon. It has 18 stops between Karachi Cantt and Multan Cantt. 43. Shah Rukn-e-Alam Express is a day train between Karachi and Multan. but he was commonly knows as Rukn-eAlam. Shahbaz Passenger has a 380km route between Kotri Jn and Rohri Jn via Sehwan Sharif (resting place of Lal Shabaz Qalandar). Shahbaz Qalandar's tomb. SaintÂ's real name was Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh.

It is not the fastest train on Karachi-Lahore route anymore. Subuk Khram Express has a 289km route between Lahore and Rawalpindi and as of summer 2004. Shalimar gardens conform to the classic Mughal conception of a perfect garden and consist of three terraces of straight. shaded walk sets around a perfectly symmetrical arrangement of ponds. Subuk Raftar Express (101 Up/102 Down) The word 'subuk raftarÂ' means 'a person (or a train in our case) which runs with a . These days it is back as a day train between Karachi and Lahore and runs via chord bypassing Multan again. Shalimar Express was inaugurated in 1979 as the fastest train on PR network. Subuk Khram Express (103 Up/104 Down) The word 'subuk khramÂ' means 'a person (or a train in our case) with a fast and delicate style of walkingÂ'. Subuk khram was converted to an express with a separate diesel loco pulling the rake. marble pavilions. Accommodation available on Subuk Khram express includes AC Parlor and Economy. which it covers in 17 hours 15 minutes with 10 stops between its termini. all surrounded by flower beds and fruit trees and enclosed within a wall and more than 400 fountains. 45. Subuk Khram express was traditionally a rail car. waterfalls. Two locos used to pull it and it was an all AC-parlor train. departure and 10 p. it covers this distance in 4 hours 30 minutes with 5 stops between its termini.m. At the time of its inauguration. As the rail car units grew older and number of coaches in the train started increasing.m.Emperor Shah Jahan in 1642 for the pleasure of Royal household. It started as a day-train with 6 a. At one point its timings got changed to an overnight train and Multan was added to its stops. Earlier it used to bypass Multan. Later on economy class was added to it and its stoppages got increased. Its current route length is 1210km. it covered Karachi-Lahore distance in 16 hours. 46. arrival in either direction. It had only two technical stops of 20 minutes duration at Rohri Jn and Khanewal Jn all during its 1210km route.

It has 18 stops between Karachi Cant and Jacobabad Jn including a 30 minutes stop at Sukkur. Accommodation available on Sukkur Express includes AC Sleeper. After its inauguration as a Karachi-Lahore train. Subuk Khram Express has a 289km route between Lahore and Rawalpindi and as of summer 2004. Extra coaches were added to Super Express and on its up . but extended to Jacobabad Jn. it used to have an overnight run between Karachi and Sukkur. 48. First Class and Economy. 47. It still has an overnight run. it covers this distance in 4 hours 30 minutes with 6 stops between its termini in the Up direction and in 4 hours 35 minutes with 5 stops in the Down direction. Subuk Raftar express was also a rail car. Super Express has a unique history of rake splitting too. which was introduced above. in 1979 the title of fastest train was taken over by Shalimar Express and super express became just another train. AC lower and Economy. Subuk Raftar was converted to an express with a separate diesel loco pulling the rake. which it covers in 11 hours 5 minutes in the Up direction and in 11 hours 10 minutes in the Down direction. Sukkur Express (145 Up/146 Down) Sukkur Express is named after the city of Sukkur. However. Just like Subuk khram Express. public demand soon grew for a fast train link between Karachi and Faisalabad also. Accommodation available on Subuk Khram express includes AC Parlor. Hence the name 'SuperÂ' express. As the rail car units grew older and the number of coaches in the train started increasing. Both of these rail cars were introduced on LahoreRawalpindi route as a morning and an evening service. Its current route length is 555km. When first started. Super Express (33 Up/34 Down) This train was inaugurated as the fastest train link between Karachi and Lahore in the 70s.fast and speedÂ'.

On its down journey both .journey. the rake used to split at Khanewal Jn with some coaches continuing on to Lahore while the rest went to Sargodha Jn via Faisalabad.

It continues as such to date. but it has lost its prestige and fame as a really fast super express. Since its inception. Tezgam (7 Up/8 Down) The word 'TezgamÂ' means a 'fast runnerÂ'. Tezgam is also one of the earliest and more prestigious of the trains on PR network. it always has been the fastest train link between Karachi and Rawalpindi. it covered this distance in 22 hours 25 minutes in the Up direction and in 22 hours 50 minutes in the Down direction Accommodation available on Super Express includes First Class and Economy. Super Express was changed to a total Karachi-Sargodha Jn train with no rake splitting. On down journey the rake from Sargodha Jn had to travel 277km and the rake from Lahore had to travel 286km before they colud be coupled together at Khanewal Jn. Tezgam currently has 26 stops between its termini. As of summer 2004. Tezgam was inaugurated in 1950s as a Karachi-Peshawar train. It now has 34 stoppages between its termini. Sometimes one of the rakes got so late that they were sent to Karachi as two separate trains. Both of these routes were on single track and many a times the split rakes got late while their other halves had to wait a long time at Khanewal Jn. Later its route was reduced to Karachi-Rawalpindi. Accommodation available on Tezgam includes AC Sleeper. First Class and Economy.rakes used to meet at Khanewal Jn and coupled together for journey towards Karachi. As the number of trains running between Karachi and Lahore grew. 49. AC lower. which it covers in 25 hours and 5 minutes in the Up direction and in 25 hours 55 minutes in the Down direction. Super Express currently has a 1256km route between Karachi and Sargodha via Faisalabad. This arrangement of rake splitting worked fine for up journey but not so efficiently for the down journey. Just like Khyber Mail and Karachi Express. TezgamÂ's route length is 1542km. .

It has similar route as Mehr Express except from Basal Jn. TezrauÂ's name got changed to 'Zulfiqar ExpressÂ' named after Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto who was an ex Prime Minister of Pakistan. Its route between Kotri and Rohri was also changed from Mainline to a branch via Larkana Jn. In fact. At one point in PakistanÂ's political history. Tezrau (5 Up/6 Down) The word 'TezrauÂ' means 'fast waveÂ'. These days Tezrau is running between Drigh Road Jn and Rawalpindi. environmental analysis should be continuous and feed all aspects . Larkana was the home city of Zulhiqar Ali Bhutto.50. Thal Express (129 Up/130 Down) Thal Express is named after the plains and desert of Thal. TezrauÂ's terminal was moved to Gilani station. Since this trainÂ's route is through Thal it is named after it. Its current route length is 1489km which it covers in 29 hours 20 minutes in the Up direction and in 28 hours 55 minutes in the Down direction. Later on when railway was trying to make best use Karachi Circular RailwayÂ's dilapidating infrastructure. which extends west of Multan deep into South-West Punjab. It has 51 stops between its termini. 51. It has 39 stops between its termini. Accommodation available on Tezrau includes First Class and Economy. Thal express has a 595km route between Multan and Rawalpindi via Kundian and Attock. PEST Analysis What is PEST Analysis? It is very important that an organization considers its environment before beginning the marketing process. Thal Express detours to Attock and then comes back to Rawalpindi via mainline. After that at some point in time. TezrauÂ's route was made Karachi to Havelian. It started as a Karachi-Lahore-Peshawar train but over the years its route and its name has been experimented a lot.

The organization's marketing environment is made up of: 1. etc . staff (or internal customers). Long-term prospects for the economy Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita.of planning.Does language impact upon the diffusion of products onto markets? 4. 2. and is a major driver of globalization.g. Political (and legal) forces. 3. Interest rates.g. new generation mobile telephones. These are known as PEST factors. books via the Internet. and Technological forces. The social and cultural influences on business vary from country to country. etc? 4.How much time do consumers have for leisure? 5. and so on. Consider the following points: 1. Factors include: 1.Does technology offer companies a new way to communicate with consumers e.g. Technology is vital for competitive advantage. What is the government's policy on the economy? 5.Do the technologies offer consumers and businesses more innovative products and services such as Internet banking. or others? Economic Factors. banners. This is especially true when planning for international marketing.How long are the population living? Are the older generations wealthy? 7.g.g. wages and finance. etc? 3. Does technology allow for products and services to be made more cheaply and to a better standard of quality? 2. The level of inflation Employment level per capita. auctions. You need to look at: 1. Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses. Is the government involved in trading agreements such as EU.How is distribution changed by new technologies e. NAFTA. You must consider issues such as: 1. ASEAN. 3. and the spending power of consumers and other businesses. etc. The micro-environment e. Sociocultural forces. our competitors. The macro-environment e.What are attitudes to foreign products and services? 3.Do the population have a strong/weak opinion on green issues? Technological Factors.What is the dominant religion? 2. 2. Economic forces.What is the government's position on marketing ethics? 4. flight tickets. office technology. Does the government have a view on culture and religion? 6.What are the roles of men and women within society? 6.Will government policy influence laws that regulate or tax your business? 3. suppliers. our external customers. It is very important that such factors are considered. etc. The internal environment e. Sociocultural Factors. Marketers need to consider the state of a trading economy in the short and long-terms. agents and distributors.How stable is the political environment? 2. Political Factors.

The ultimate result is no investment by the potential investors in railway. people are not optimistic or they have got mixed attitudes about Pakistan railway. which is a threat for any business including railway. The rules and regulations are changed quite frequently due to change in the successive government that affects the business flow of railway. This has also threatened foreign companies operating in Pakistan and they have become more conscious about their future. The increasing inflation. The expectations of the people are very high to meet and fulfill.The technological factors are of great importance in any industry like Pakistan railway.The social environment has the following factors. Social factors:. · Attitudes · Desires · Expectations Attitudes: Due to the lack of good services and advanced technology. Goodwill of an entity can be developed by delivering satisfaction to people according to their expectations. Desires: The basic factor which affects the choices of the people in the society is the desire to show off. it will benefit the entire industry along with railway. If Pakistan keeps on getting better grants and loans waivers or if any other economy boosting factor such as controlled inflation rate and economic growth take place. Technological factors:. Economic conditions are not very sound. At present. Pakistan railway needs to encourage investment to utilize the modern technology and to promote the research and development activities. Economic factors:. rising fuel charges and changes in government economic policies have discouraged investment in railway. imposition of new taxes. Expectations: The expectations of the people are also important. by giving coverage to non-approached areas and with punctuality of time and good services. This factor has a big influence on the choices of people regarding the selection of particular product or service.Since the day Pakistan got its independence. Pakistan railway. So the new investors are now more reluctant to invest in Pakistan and especially in railway.Economic factors can not be excluded for operating any business including railway.PEST Analysis Political factors:. political condition of Pakistan is getting worse day after day and minute after minute. In case the people want the most economical packages from Pakistan railway. The most needed technologies of Pakistan railway are: · Electrical engines · New railway tracks · Setup of such system that improves the efficiency · Online ticketing · System that finds defaults in railway tracks . This political instability has led to uncertain environment in the country. need to meet people’s expectations. The company should come up with introducing packages such as low fare for government servants and old people.

within the defined commuter catchment area The railway system volume and percentage share of the total market volume. passenger km. In the case of the Commuter Traffic example. by all modes. this might be the total number of commuter passenger journeys per year and the total commuter passenger kilometres per year. and the contribution rate (e. in each segment. for each segment. within the defined commuter catchment area The revenue earned. in each segment. the total commuter rail passenger kilometres per year and the rail percentage share of the total commuter journeys and commuter passenger kilometres (for all modes). In the Commuter Traffic case.Marketing Plan Outline For a Marketing Plan Industry Analysis Competitor Analysis Past Performance Review This review should reveal the performance of the railway over the past five years in relation to each identified market segment. Performance elements reviewed should include: The total market volume. this would be the total fare revenue per year generated by rail commuter traffic within the defined commuter catchment area and the financial contribution attributable to that traffic (i. this would be the number of commuter rail passenger journeys per year. the financial contribution (revenue less long run marginal costs) derived from that revenue. contribution per passenger.e. For example. or the total transportation volume. for Commuter Traffic. freight tonne or tonne km) . fare revenue less attributable long run marginal costs) .g.

The raison d’etre of railways primarily exists for mass transport.  Pakistan has a natural geo-strategic location at the peripheral of South Asia and Central Asia. Industry Analysis  An efficient transportation system plays a vital role in the economic development of a country Massive investment and development of infrastructure is essential for sustainable economic growth.  Pakistan’s primary traffic movers Railways as well as Road are concentrated along the South North Corridor linking the Central and the Northern part of the country with Ports and commercial hubs in the south. is also dependent on the availability of passage through Pakistan. . the need for a reliable integrated transport is acutely felt. economical and environmental friendly mode of transport. Pakistan Railways (PR) has a definite edge over Roads for long haul and Mass Traffic movement both for passengers and freight in addition to a safe. the Arabian Sea forms a gateway to the vast Eurasia hinterland and makes Pakistan a shortest route for transit trade to the Central Asian Republics (CARs). where it can be economically viable to survive as a competitive business.1. In the south. Indian trade to the region. in an economical/convenient manner.  In a rapidly growing economy like Pakistan.

18 % of vacuum and 15. respectively. is considerably more efficient than it was a decade ago and the growth in demand for transportation services is considerably higher than the GDP. Road density is 0. An increase of 15.32 km/km. (10.849 km) constitute 4. and . 4 lanes divided facility with a capacity of 66. PR is a Public Sector Organization and provides service through an obligation (PSO) relying on the back up support of the Government. Continuous improvement and rehabilitation of road structures reflects the government’s enhanced focus on infrastructure with specific preference to road. 4631 Bogie stock (8 wheelers) though utilized efficiently for longer hauls forms 20. It did register a recovery in 2000-01 when its freight traffic grew by over 20% as against an average decline of 4.4% in 1990’s.  Pakistan’s transportation network.  The 22200 freight stock fleet constitutes 84. roads.  Road transport system makes up 90 percent of passenger and 96 percent of freight movement.  The scale of PR historic debts. While visible progress has been made.000 Passenger Car Units (PCUs) per day.83% of air brake stock. key issues and challenges remain to be addressed. A long beginning since 1861 it once occupied a principal position in land transport in the past.86% of the fleet. Competitiors of Railways Transportation in Pakistan is extensive and varied but still in its developing stages and serving a population of over 170 million people. albeit not as modern and efficient as that of developed countries.Construction of new airports.  The total road infrastructure stretches 260. pay & pension hikes and loss making passenger services are significant constraints limiting scope of investment for infrastructural and services development.  Due to low key investment in rolling stock and infrastructure there has been constant diversion of traffic from rail to road.  The main arteries along the corridor are the 1819 km long N-5 which serves 80% of Pakistan’s urban population and carries 65% of intercity traffic and the Indus Highway (N-55) an access free.  During 1990-2005 railways share in the freight sector declined from 14% to 4. PR is the only enterprise which provides rail services in the country yet much is required of the planners enabling rail transport to catch up with time.4% has been achieved since 1996-97.2%.000 km of which 60% is paved.2% of the road network and carries 90 percent of Pakistan’s total traffic. National Highways and Motorways network. exorbitant escalating fuel prices. Competitor Anaysis GOVT: PREFERENCES TO ROADS  Road transportation has gained a meaningful edge over Railways due to a priority change by the Government in favour of Roads.

Airports and seaports have been built within the last 30 years with the addition of foreign and domestic funding. Local Transport In urban areas there are several means of transport available. Skyways and Niazi Express have set up modern intercity service which connects to most cities in Pakistan and runs 24 hours a day. Buses • Domestic Within cities. primarily Karachi. buses provide a significant role in commuting a large number of travellers from one point of the city to another. Kohistan. Intercity buses tend to be more modern and well kept. Iran (proposed) Peshawar-Jalalabad.000 CNG buses throughout the country and 800 buses in Karachi. Afghanistan . In recent years. Iran Karachi-Quetta-Zahidan-Tehran. • Inter City Bus service in urban areas and between cities is well established with services run by both public and private sectors.railway lines have led to an employment boost in the country. Much of Pakistan's road network (National Highways) and railway network were built before 1947. Lahore and recently Islamabad as minivans which were originally used were beginning to cause large traffic problems. • International International bus services are also well established in Pakistan and connect to various countries: • • • • • • Quetta-Zahidan. Iran Quetta-Mashad. Minivans are private yellow and white minivans that have services throughout cities in Pakistan and are able to get commuters from one point of the city to the other at low-cost. Bus services like Daewoo Express. This venture will ensure high standards of efficiency and cleanliness[1]. Khan Brothers. mainly during the British Raj. Since 2000 however. the government has taken a comprehensive initiative to modernize the existing bus fleets and minimally impact the environment. Recently. new national highways have been built. Iran Gwadar-Zahidan. with the addition of motorways which has accelerated trade and logistics within the country. large CNG busses have been put onto the streets of various cities. catering to a wide range of budgets. Afghanistan Peshawar-Kabul. This public-private enterprise would gradually introduce 8.

but they reportedly supplied 2. India Auto Rickshaws Due to increasing environmental issues with older rickshaws. which is a cross between a motorcycle and auto-rickshaw. The drivers charge according to a meter located on the dashboard of the car. Multan. The cab drivers are reliable and will take passengers to any destination required. the Radio Cab was introduced in Pakistan. Faisalabad. There are also numerous privately run services that use cars and minibuses of various types throughout Pakistan. The Punjab Government decided in 2005 to replace two-stroke three-wheelers with CNG-fitted four-stroke rickshaws in Lahore. the government has heavily invested in greener more fuel efficient rickshaws Cars and Auto-Rickshaws are some of the most common means to travel within a city Auto rickshaws are a popular method of traveling in cities and are found in almost every city and town in Pakistan. Taxis Another very common sight seen mainly at hotels and airports are yellow taxis. Recently. which tend to be less noisy. but fares can be negotiated if there is no meter. however due to the level of pollution contributed by the auto-rickshaws. China (proposed) Lahore-Delhi.000 to the government which were now plying on city roads. The fare is usually negotiable before commencing a journey. providing a reliable and quick means of transport. It runs just like a motorcycle but comes with three wheels instead of two and carries a much heavier load on its back.• • • Islamabad-Dushanbe. A new form of transport in Pakistan is the Qing-Qi (pronounced "ching-chee"). Rawalpindi and Gujranwala. forms less pollutants and are much bigger and more comfortable than the older sets of richshaws. the government has recently begun banning older auto richshaws and replacing them with CNG auto rickshaws. Uzbekistan (proposed) Islamabad-Kashghar.000 fourstroke vehicles. Three manufacturers were ordered to produce 60. It is an urban transport vehicle and is used mostly for short distances. which offers riders to call a toll free . Similar ordinances are now being considered in other provinces of Pakistan.

Rawalpindi. In the small towns and farms. The most popular cars on Pakistani roads are. Suzuki Mehran. was developed to meet the needs of low income families. In late 2005. The most popular models are the Toyota Land Cruiser. Honda City. Suzuki Alto. Peshawar and Lahore.number to get in touch with the closest taxi stand. The donkey and cart. Adam Revo. Pakistan's first manufactured car. Honda Accord. Lexus GX. Suzuki Cultus. Mitsubishi Pajero. as people are poor they use this form of transport to shift cargo from one part of a city to the next. Utility vehicles (SUVs or 4x4s) are also a familiar sight in Pakistan. Hyundai Santro. locally known as the Reyri. the number of cars on Pakistani roads has tripled. Traditional The widely used donkey cart is locally known as the Reyri. many people decide to walk great distances to either get to work or to walk to their nearest grocery store to get their daily shopping. This type of car is very multi functional as it allows long distance and off road travel. Land Rover Range Rover. Toyota Prado. is still visible every where in Pakistan. Cars Over the years. This service is currently offered in Islamabad. Services for Hyderabad and Sialkot are now being made. Kia Sportage. textiles or machinery that factories require in . The cargo they hold ranges from fruits and vegetables. Honda Civic. Karachi. Daihatsu Coure. Traffic jams are a common scene in major cities across Pakistan. Toyota Corolla and Toyota Vitz. within cities as well as city to city travel. Suzuki Bolan. Suzuki introduced the APV (All-Purpose Vehicle) the first luxury family van in Pakistan.

which is a threat for any business including railway. and the opportunities presented for product/service diversification. This method is now usually used by tourists in the spring and summer that love to see the cities in an open environment.Economic factors can not be excluded for operating any business including railway. The rules and regulations are changed quite frequently due to change in the successive government that affects the business flow of railway. weaknesses. Economic factors:. is to provide as objective an assessment as possible of the competitive status of the railway in each market segment. Factors normally considered in the SWOT Analysis include: the current and projected market shares of the railway and its major competitors. political condition of Pakistan is getting worse day after day and minute after minute. It has to be noted that a detailed knowledge of competitors will be essential for the preparation of a good SWOT Analysis. SWOT Analysis An analysis of the strengths.industrial cities. imposition of new taxes. Punjab and Balochistan where farmers transport larger cargo that donkey carts can not handle. Economic conditions are not very sound. This has also threatened foreign companies operating in Pakistan and they have become more conscious about their future. The increasing inflation. There is one driver. In common with the Past Performance Review. the SWOT Analysis must establish an adequate foundation for the formulation of Marketing Objectives and Strategies. the price and service sensitivity of demand and the relative abilities of the railway and its competitors to respond to customer price and service requirements. The ultimate result is no investment by the potential investors in railway. The purpose of this analysis. Camel & Cart are also seen from time to time. with either one or two horses at the front. the opportunities identified in the case of individual market segments should provide an indication of the sort of objectives and strategies which are likely to be most appropriate for those segments.Since the day Pakistan got its independence. opportunities and threats confronting the railway and its major competitors in each market segment is an important element of the Marketing Plan. rising fuel charges and changes in government economic policies . Bicycles are used by either the poorer society or for leisure. This method is still very widely used as its very economical and simple to run. generally termed a SWOT Analysis. the technological strengths and weaknesses of the railway and its major competitors. This political instability has led to uncertain environment in the country. locally known as Tangahs are mainly seen used for casual travelling around the city. Box VII illustrates an approach to completing a SWOT Analysis at the level of an individual market segment. PEST Analysis Political factors:. For example. So the new investors are now more reluctant to invest in Pakistan and especially in railway. the relative financial strengths of the railway and its major competitors. Mostly seen in the hotter parts of Pakistan including Sindh. The House & Carriage.

have discouraged investment in railway. At present. Pakistan railway needs to encourage investment to utilize the modern technology and to promote the research and development activities. Technological factors:. Expectations: The expectations of the people are also important. by giving coverage to non-approached areas and with punctuality of time and good services. The company should come up with introducing packages such as low fare for government servants and old people. If Pakistan keeps on getting better grants and loans waivers or if any other economy boosting factor such as controlled inflation rate and economic growth take place. · Attitudes · Desires · Expectations Attitudes: Due to the lack of good services and advanced technology. people are not optimistic or they have got mixed attitudes about Pakistan railway. In case the people want the most economical packages from Pakistan railway. Pakistan railway. Social factors:.The social environment has the following factors.The technological factors are of great importance in any industry like Pakistan railway. The expectations of the people are very high to meet and fulfill. need to meet people’s expectations. The most needed technologies of Pakistan railway are: · Electrical engines · New railway tracks · Setup of such system that improves the efficiency · Online ticketing · System that finds defaults in railway tracks Major competitors: . Goodwill of an entity can be developed by delivering satisfaction to people according to their expectations. This factor has a big influence on the choices of people regarding the selection of particular product or service. Desires: The basic factor which affects the choices of the people in the society is the desire to show off. it will benefit the entire industry along with railway.

Beginning of City Bus Operations January 2004 . It is operated by a Korean company. History A timeline of the operations and beginnings of Sammi Daewoo Express Ltd: • • • • • December 1997 .Providing Service from 33 cities on 43 destinations with over 200 buses Services .Took Over by Sammi Corporation. Seoul.Beginning of Express Bus Operations November 1999 . Korea December 2007 .Daewoo Express or Sammi Daewoo Express is an inter-city common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 30 destinations in Pakistan and is headquartered in Rawalpindi. Sammi. it is the most popular inter-city bus service in Pakistan.Incorporated April 1998 .Today. Sammi Daewoo Express is a ground breaker in the transport industry of Pakistan as it has introduced innovative trends in road transport.

before the takeover in 2004 by Sammi Corp. Sindh and NWFP.The previous livery of Daewoo Express. The company provides long distance time efficient bus services to all major cities within Pakistan. Express Bus Service Sammi-Daewoo Express Bus Service is a main operations of the company. With its Headquarters in Lahore the company is operating its service from 31 cities in Pakistan covering more than 40 destinations extending almost to the entire Punjab. City Bus Service Air-conditioned Daewoo City Bus in Lahore Sammi Daewoo City Bus . There are also shuttle/drop off service that run off the main express buses to allow passengers hasstle free travel to their neighbourhood. The provides direct competition against airlines as well as the rail netowrk.

the city bus service has been operating four routes are being operated within the city covering all the localities while two Sub-Urban Routes are being operated for Gujranwala and Sheikhupura. Moreover provision of Air Conditioning. Since 1998.was the first environmental and technological revolution in the urban transport sector within Pakistan. Cargo Service Daewoo Express's cargo service are set up adjacent to all terminals and function 24 hours a day. The cargo volume has over the years been increasing more rapidly than the expansions of the bus passenger operations. photographed in 2005 in the companies former livery Balochistan • Quetta . providing safe and quick dispatch and delivery of cargo consignments. Destinations Daewoo Express has over 30 destinations throughout Pakistan: A Daewoo Express enroute to Islamabad from Lahore. announcement system and stopping signals were introduced. The buses were introduced with more advanced and powerful engines with TECHO Monitoring Systems in 1999.

• Gwadar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa • • • • • • • • • • • Abbottabad Batkhela Haripur Karak Kohat Nowshera Mardan Mansehra Peshawar Swat Dera Ismail Khan Punjab The Daewoo Terminal in the city of Bahawalpur The Daewoo Terminal in Sialkot • • • • • • • • • • • Bahawalpur Bhakkar Bhalwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Khanewal Kharian Lahore .

• • • • • • • Layyah Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Sialkot Sargodha Sindh • • • • • Karachi Hyderabad Jacobabad Sukkar Moro Niazi express Niazi Express is an inter-city common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 20 destinations in Pakistan and is headquartered in Lahore. They are one of the most popular and biggest inter city forms of travel within Pakistan. Services Express Bus Service Niazi Express started its operations as a long distance city to city operator. It provides long distance bus services to all major cities in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. City Bus Service Niazi Express operate a fleet of city buses to cater the mass movements of workers and labourers throughout Lahore. With its headquarters in Lahore the company operates to 21 cities in Pakistan. Destinations Niazi Express has over 21 destinations throughout Pakistan: • • • • • • • • • • Lahore Islamabad Murree Mansehra Abbottabad Haripur Vehari Mianwali Sahiwal Faisalabad .

Although the decorative process is usually very expensive. Each part of the vehicle is decorated differently. The artist embellishes each truck according to the particular tastes of the driver. The sides of the truck depict different scenes through their adorned artwork and may include metal "decoration pieces" which draw additional attention to the vehicle. or jingle art. these vehicles are quite distinct in layout from other trucks around the world. ornamental decor and more.This decoration includes structural changes. the driver or the owner takes the truck to a coach workshop soon after its purchase for this decoration. Mirror work on the front and back of vehicles and wooden carvings on the truck doors are commonly used. Because of their unique decor style.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Chishtiaan Ali Pur Multan Bahawalpur Dera Ghazi Khan Johrabad Khushaab Sargodha Isakhel Skindarabad Chashma barrage Daud Khel Iskandarabad Customised buses and trucks in Pakistan Many trucks and buses in Pakistan are highly customized and decorated by their owners. General practice of truck decor decoration . These adorned vehicles are considered as moving art. [4] The exterior of the trucks are often adorned with poetry. Usually. it is still practiced throughout Pakistan and a few other countries of Central Asia with great zeal and aesthetic zest. . calligraphy. with variations depending on the regional style. paintings.

The government rail systems held 100 % of the shares in the new company and contributed the manpower and physical resources (including locomotives. One significant factor which this decision overlooked was that there was a demonstrated continuing (and growing) demand for transcontinental van services from national freight forwarding companies which owned rail connected warehouses in Melbourne and Perth. Among other things. as well as by reducing the operating priorities for van traffic. These companies had over the years developed efficient services based around the use of vans for directly conveying on behalf of LCL customers palletised cargo between rail sidings at either end of the transcontinental journey. wagons and terminal infrastructure) needed for its operation. with the support of the government rail systems. Swat. Exercising this freedom. Nearly every city in Pakistan has a unique décor. The company claims that it is not satisfying all of the demand on offer. given their use of rail connected warehouses and given that the width of ISO containers is sufficient to accomodate 1. which were perceived by the NRC to offer better profit potential for the future. the NRC made a decision to progressively withdraw from the transportation of general freight in covered vans. the National Rail Corporation was formed as a limited liability company to take over the operation of all interstate rail freight traffic from the four state government owned and one federal government owned rail systems in Pakistan. This was to be achieved by setting tariffs at punitive levels in order encourage a shift of this traffic out of boxcars and into containers. . the enabling legislation which created the NRC gave the organization commercial freedom to select from all interstate train operating activities those segments of the market in which it wanted to continue to participate and those from which it wanted to withdraw. A move into containers did not suit these companies or their customers. The Balochistani and Peshawari trucks are heavily trimmed with wood. Peshawar. to introduce its own dedicated transcontinental trains on a limited weekly frequency. Rawalpindi and Islamabadi trucks have prominently featured plastic work. Camel bone ornamentation is commonly seen in trucks decorated by Sindh artists. Thus these trucks are also representative of different historical and cultural regions of Pakistan.Decor style of major regions Karachi is a major bedecking center for such trucks. or boxcars. though there are other hubs in Rawalpindi. Marketing objectives And goals Making Marketing Objectives Relevant to Customer Needs In 1992. or in practical terms only one pallet. and Quetta . The outcome was that at least one forwarding company was able.9 pallets.

the market challenged the conventional wisdom that containers offer an acceptable answer to the transport needs of all general freight customers and conveyed a message to the railway that customer needs had to be fully understood. the Marketing Objectives must be market segment related. Marketing mix Marketing Objectives: As with the other elements of the Marketing Plan.This case demonstrates very clearly that railways need to have a good understanding of their customers’ business before committing themselves to marketing objectives and strategies which could deprive them of profitable business in future. In this case. .e.i. It is also essential that these objectives be: • practical and realistic . Two examples of the formulation of marketing objectives in support of overall corporate goals are provided in the contrasting approaches of the pakistan andpak railways to the development of their respective landbanks. capable of being achieved within the likely resource limitations facing the railway linked to overall Corporate Objectives. and most importantly relevant and responsive to the actual needs of customers Marketing objectives must reflect the principal thrusts of the Corporate Plan.

above all. segments. Thus. Realization of objectives set for individual segments will collectively result in achievement of the overall corporate objectives as identified in the Corporate Plan. and the actions (with assigned responsibilities) necessary to implement the strategies. relevant and responsive to customer needs. A essential requirement of any Marketing Plan is that it must be both practical and actionable. price. The Indian Railways provides an example of one of the region’s railway systems which has defined clear objectives for each of its market segments and has then Action Programmes: Another important element of the Marketing Plan is the statement of actions needed to put the plan into effect and the assignment of responsibilities for these actions. They must also relate directly to marketing objectives identified for each market segment. then the Marketing Plan will require actions on the part of the Chief Mechanical Engineer and his staff to assure the necessary level of availability. Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering departments. to support achievement of the organization’s commercial objectives. Marketing strategies include actions taken to modify elements of the marketing mix . the strategies for realization of these objectives. actionable (realistically capable of implementation) and. the strategies devised to achieve these objectives must be practical. Necessarily. if high standards of locomotive availability are necessary in order support frequent high volume traffics.in order to achieve marketing objectives. the Marketing Plan has a vital role as the vehicle for expression of: the organization’s commercial objectives. or market. actions will be required of all functional departments. For example. but especially the Operations. This feature of the Marketing Plan recognizes the vital role of Marketing in leading and co-ordinating all of the railway activities aimed at delivery of railway services to satisfy customer needs. THE RAILWAY MARKETING PLAN Apart from its importance as the primary source of input of customer related data as well as of traffic and revenue forecasts to the Corporate Plan. . the focus of the Marketing Plan is at the level of individual traffic. and indeed an important element of the Marketing Plan is the definition of these segments.product. place and promotion .Marketing Strategies: As with Marketing Objectives.

the railway’s customers will be segmented into broad market or business groups. however. advertisers using railway property . and buying practices. Any. each consisting of customers with similar characteristics and needs. or all. purchasing power. because the needs of some (or probably most) customers will not be met in this process. Therefore it is unlikely that a broad marketing strategy applied across the entire spectrum of a railway’s customers will succeed. Markets consist of buyers and buyers are not homogeneous in terms of their demographic profiles. buying attitudes. wants. First. a two-tier process is likely to be involved. These customer groups are called market segments and the process of identifying and separating these groups for the purposes of developing marketing plans and strategies and of managing sales force activities is called market segmentation. are more likely to succeed. geographical location.g. separate marketing strategies focussed on individual customer groups. of the six above -listed characteristics may be used to segment a market. By contrast.Market Segmentation A good Marketing Plan must contain techniques for segmenting the market. In the case of railways. such as: Commuter Medium-Long Distance Passengers Freight Customers Parcels and Express Freight Customer Others (e.

while some (e. Many of the region’s railways have an obligation to provide “welfare significant” services. and key provincial centres with the capital. . While there appears to be no obvious basis for the segmentation of parcels and express freight traffic. the Thai and Malaysian railways identify about 14-15 commodity based segments and the Indian Railways 10 or 11 commodity based segments. premium or first class commuter services are provided with the aim of capturing higher income business travellers. business or tourist segments thus identified in the Medium-Long Distance Passenger market. e. Office accomodation. it is likely that this market may be subdivided on the basis of time-sensitivity (e. in addition to containers. who might otherwise use private automobiles. medium and long term). Again. overnight delivery. there may be a further subdivision into service-based segments (e. Retail Trade . Each freight segment generally has its own requirements in terms of loading/transport cycle.Next. key provincial centres with other key provincial centres. etc. these broad groups will be divided into market segments. breakbulk and container). For Freight customers. For Medium-Long Distance Passenger traffic.). the subdivision into market segments is likely to be based on a combination of commodity type and handling mode (bulk. it is unlikely that there will be any need for further subdivision of the market.g. Hotel accomodation. handling method and tariff (price). Warehousing. segments based on demographic/income characteristics may be appropriate.g. wagon type. some of the region’s railways have focussed on business travellers9. and possibly also in terms of lease tenure (short. Other segments are mainly commodity-based. second day delivery. such as economy class services catering to the needs of low and lower middle income passengers and linking villages with key provincial centres.g. etc. The Commercial Property Leasing market will desirably be segmented in terms of end use. the Indian railways) have very successfully targetted group tour travellers and in conjunction with tour and hospitality agencies have developed specialized services to cater for the needs of this segment..g. air-conditioned sitting car services and air-conditioned sleeping car services). Within the higher income. Almost all of the region’s railways now identify container traffic as a segment in its own right. The commodity segments actually identified will be of particular significance to the railway seeking to segment its markets. although in the case of a few of the region’s railways (notably that of Indonesia). For Commuter traffic. For example.

as illustrated in this box. within the defined commuter catchment area The revenue earned. pricing and promotional strategies to achieve growth projected in the plan. in each segment. within the defined commuter catchment area The railway system volume and percentage share of the total market volume.g. Structure and Content of the Railway Marketing Plan : The formal Marketing Plan is one of the most important outputs of the marketing process.g. As indicated previously. this would be the total fare revenue per year generated by rail commuter. Performance elements reviewed should include: The total market volume. if not essential. although it should also cover a longer planning timeframe (e. Box VI provides a possible approach to formulation of a Railway Marketing Plan. The following paragraphs expand on the contents of the plan under the individual headings contained in the box. define or re-define (as necessary) marketing objectives. that the Marketing Plan should be developed as an integral part of a Railway Corporate Plan. for Commuter Traffic. contribution per passenger. and the contribution rate (e. For example. this would be the number of commuter rail passenger journeys per year. freight tonne or tonne km) . relative to competitors. and establish methods and systems to monitor performance against the plan. reflect its purpose as stated above. The structure and content of the plan. for each segment. five years). or the total transportation volume. it is desirable. the total commuter rail passenger kilometres per year and the rail percentage share of the total commuter journeys and commuter passenger kilometres (for all modes). the financial contribution (revenue less long run marginal costs) derived from that revenue. Past Performance Review: This review should reveal the performance of the railway over the past five years in relation to each identified market segment. assess the potential of the railway for improved performance and traffic growth.Purpose. and that it should identify marketing objectives and strategies which will support the achievement of the corporate objectives. In the case of the Commuter Traffic example. in each segment. However. as outlined in the Corporate Plan. passenger km. by all modes. In the Commuter Traffic case. the Marketing Plan should be revised annually. unlike the Corporate Plan which will not normally be revised every year. The purpose of the plan will be to: review past sales and profit performance. develop a programme of action to put the plan into effect. specify sales. this might be the total number of commuter passenger journeys per year and the total commuter passenger kilometres per year. .

1 2 Integration of all elements of the marketing mix under a single management function. perhaps suggesting that both functions should be integrated in an organizational sense. and the reporting relationships between this Marketing unit and the senior corporate management positions in the overall organization. This form of organization has been adopted by a majority of the region’s railways which have introduced a marketing/commercial function. It was also used extensively in Australia before a majority of . It is important. market research and planning. suggesting that responsibility for sales. the reporting relationships within this unit. three organizational models appear to have so far to have found favour within the region. should be centralized within the marketing unit. pricing. Effective co-ordination of railway commercial and operational activities. The Position of Marketing Within the Corporate Structure There are numerous models which can provide guidance for the organization of the marketing function within the overall corporate structure of railway organizations. Of course. careful consideration should be given to the structure of their Marketing unit. the functional department model . They are: Marketing as a functional department Marketing as a service department Marketing as a strategic business unit The first of these models. with both persons accepting a leading role in promoting a customer oriented marketing culture throughout the organization. is the most commonly applied form of organization for railways and is illustrated in figure 4-1. more than a few of the region’s railway organizations do not incorporate a Marketing unit in any form. since they indicate very clearly the significance attached to the role of Marketing within the corporate organization and largely determine the effectiveness of the marketing function in achieving corporate goals. (This is likely to require that the reporting line from the Chief Executive Officer to the head of the Marketing unit be as short as possible). therefore.THE PLACE OF MARKETING IN THE RAILWAY ORGANIZATION The position of the marketing unit in the railway organization chart and the structure of the marketing unit itself are important considerations. advertising and promotion. and physical distribution. However. The structure and form of organization adopted desirably should permit: 0 Close and frequent communications between the Chief Executive Officer and the head of the Marketing unit. that when they do develop a Marketing capability.

it involves structuring an organization around key units of its business. In addition. The last listed form of organization. it could threaten the close contact which should exist between marketing staff and railway customers. freight terminals. represents an extension of the concept of a product or brand-based organization. few business segments are discrete in an operational sense and hence most consume shared resources such as track. such as Real Estate or Commercial Property Development. thereby reducing the marketing plan to an “academic” exercise. Generally. Marketing as a service department. In the railway sector. Nevertheless. the passenger and freight elements of railway business invariably . freight rollingstock and other freight dedicated resources. as well as those associated with the passenger rollingstock fleet constitute a relatively large share of the total costs of operating passenger services. devoid of customer inputs. this form of organization should facilitate (but cannot of itself ensure) effective and frequent communication between the personnel involved in each of these two functions. Amongst other things. It should be noted also that. a Corporate Planning unit within any organization has a coordinating function . involves a more passive role for Marketing in the corporate organization. in respect of the management of marshalling yards. The distinct advantage of this model is that integrates the railway marketing and operations functions under the management of a single senior corporate manager. and specialized management of these resources is possible and desirable. there are very often advantages in managing as separate units those businesses for which a large proportion of the resources consumed are specific to those businesses. in the sense that Marketing would be just like any other unit of the organization. Arguably. Marketing as a strategic business unit. under a single senior corporate manager reporting directly to the Chief Executive Officer. signalling and motive power. the costs associated with passenger stations and related facilities. almost by definition. who reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer. such a unit would be no less effective in discharging this role if Marketing were to be organizationally independent of it. From a railway perspective. While this has the advantage of integrating the lead planning role of marketing within the corporate planning structure. contributing planning inputs under the co-ordination of the central Corporate Planning unit. These units may be groups of core business services. this type of arrangement is most likely to ensure that the activities of staff primarily responsible for maintaining an interface with railway customers and of staff primarily responsible for service delivery are effectively harmonized and co-ordinated. such as Passenger and Freight services. For example. Similar observations may be made about freight traffic. this model integrates Marketing with the Corporate Planning function.the government owned railway systems in that country adopted a strategic business unit approach. Of all the organizational models available. which for the most part are capable of being managed separately. The second-listed form of organization. or diversified activities. as featured in many Marketing textbooks and as applied mostly in the field of consumer product marketing in many western developed countries.it must assemble planning inputs from all other units in the organization. however.

sales efforts and promotional campaigns. freight and other specialized elements of railway business (e. real estate) can possibly be achieved by separating them into Strategic Business Units. .g. each with its own marketing and operational management components. parcels. better management of passenger. For this and the abovementioned reasons.require dedicated pricing policies.

In this organization. and an Operations Headquarters located in Adelaide (which is some 778 km by rail from Melbourne). and vital. a Marketing Headquarters located in Melbourne. Only by organizational duplication of this type can effective. If it is considered desirable to integrate the marketing and operations functions. with a major concentration of railway customers in the east of the country. This structure is duplicated in each of the nine zonal. both within and outside the region. but with an informal reporting line to their respective counterparts at headquarters. One railway which has adopted a hybrid form of organization is the Malayan Railway. examples of large railway systems which have opted for complete separation of management responsibility for the marketing and operations functions. only the operations and engineering functions are regionalized. with an Operations Manager (responsible for operating functions) and a Commercial Manager (responsible for marketing functions). in the Indian Railways both functions are within the responsibility of the Board Member for Traffic at Headquarters level and he has assisting him an Additional Member (Traffic) and an Additional Member (Commercial). The heads of the Marketing and Operations Divisions report directly to the Managing Director. has dictated its organizational form but the separation of the units responsible for customer service from those responsible for customer liaison will mean that there will be additional pressure on the Managing Director (the Chief Executive Officer) to ensure that service delivery meets customer expectations. railways. For example. The geographical size of the railway system will clearly have a strong influence on the type of organization structure which is adopted. One such is the National Rail Corporation Ltd of Australia which transports all interstate rail freight. the geographical environment in which the NRC operates. To a large extent. both having their own departmental organizations and reporting directly to the General Manager of the zonal railway. each with their own departmental organizations. or regional. coordination of operations and marketing functions be assured right down to the level of the smallest field unit in such a large organization.Of course it is possible to opt for various combinations of each of these three organizational forms. It has a Corporate Headquarters located in Sydney. large regionalized railways need to have an organization structure which is duplicated at headquarters and regional level. based in Sydney. However. there are. The organizational structure of this railway combines features of the third listed form of organization (business units) with features of the second listed type of organization (marketing as a service department). Structure of the Marketing Unit .

Thus. If justified by the workload. It is important that the Marketing unit should have responsibility for all seven elements of the Marketing mix. each under a section manager. This structure is relevant to any of the organizational arrangements discussed in the foregoing section. with responsibility for Sales. Alternatively. it may also be desirable to have a fifth department to provide advice to customers in logistics and materials handling matters (including the layout of rail loading/unloading facilities). The unit will normally have four sections. responsibility for this function can rest with the Sales section. Ministry of railway: Minister Haji Ghulam Ahmad Bilour Federal Minister for Railways . Pricing and Advertising/Promotion. Planning/Market Research. it would be as applicable to a Marketing unit structured as a functional or service department as it would be to a Marketing unit structured as part of a Strategic Business Unit.The structure of a typical Railway Marketing Department is also shown in figure 4-1.

. There are four (4) Directorates . Ministry of Railways Secretary Shahid Hussain Raja Secretary / Chairman Railways Divisions Railways Division Railway Division is responsible for overall control of Pakistan Railways as well as to guide the overall policy. Muhammad Afzal Sandhu... Minister of State .Ch... S .

Organizational Plan of Pakistan Railway Pakistan Railways
Summary Profile Pakistan Railways is a department of the Government of Pakistan (GOP). The network has 7,791 route km, 559 stations and it has an annual revenue of around Rs.20 Billion (2007-2008). Pakistan Railways came into existence under a different name on 13 May 1861, when Kotri and Karachi two stations 169 km. a part were linked by rail. In 1947, it was named as Northwestern Railways, had 11,088 routes Km of which 3043 were transferred to India. Leaving 8,045 Km to Pakistan. In 1961, it was named as Pakistan Western Railway and in 1974 as Pakistan Railways. Operational Structure Ministry of Railway is responsible for overall control of Pakistan Railways as well as to guide the overall policy. There are four (4) Directorates in this PR namely Administrative Directorate, Technical Directorate, Planning Directorate, and Finance Directorate. The following officers also report directly to the Secretary Railways:a. General Manager (Operations) b. General Manager/Manufacture and Services c. Federal Government Inspector of Railways Railway Board is the highest body for technical matters of the Railways, Secretary, Ministry of Railways is also ex-officio Chairman of the Railway Board. Pakistan Railways at this time is a vertically integrated organization and has four business units. Pakistan Railways is headed by a General Manager, who is the Chief Executive Officer assisted by four Addl. General Managers, namely, Infrastructure Business Unit, Passenger Business Unit, Freight Business Unit and Manufacturing and Services Unit that looks after: Concrete Sleeper Factories, (CSF), and Carriage Factory. Islamabad, (CFI), Locomotive Factory, Risalpur, Rehabilitation Project, Medical and Health Service. Railway Construction Company (RAILCOP), Pakistan Railway Advisory & Consultancy Services (PRACS) and Educational Facilities). Human Resources Pakistan Railways has about 90,000 employees consisting of staff and officers as of 2008). 71% of the total employees are working in Civil, Mechanical and Transportation departments. All the hierarchy positions are held by graduate Engineers.

Organization In the late 1990s, the Government of Pakistan considered selling the airline to the private sector due to the persistent losses suffered by the airline.The general supervision and management of affairs of Pakistan Railways is vested in the Railway Board, which has been reconstituted. The new Railway Board consists of Chairman and five Members out of which three are from the private sector. Secretary to the Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Railways is the ex-officio Chairman of Railway Board and the General Manager, Railways is the Chief Executive Officer. Organization Structure of Pakistan Railways is of functional type, headed by GM and assisted by four Addl. General Managers. The New Organization Structure This Organizational structure designed to create a commercial environment is now in the process of implementation. Financial Performance of Pakistan Railways for 2006-07 and 2007-08:

2006-07 A. Revenue 1. Total Revenue 11,674

2007-08(in million Rupees)

11,346

B. Expenditure 1. Working expenses 20,268 269 21,916 249 4,364 2,115 (8,671) 1,834 1,961 (12,466)

2. Improvement & Welfare Expenses 3. Pensions 4. Depreciation Surplus/deficit Interest on Foreign loans Interest on Over draft Net Profit and Loss 4,067 2,115 (7,527) 2,021 1,343 (10,891)

Transportation Sector including Railways The domestic transportation system in Pakistan primarily comprises of the Road, Rail and Air. The growing economy is imposing strains on the transport sector. Road Sector The total roads of all types are estimated at 258,350 kms. Of which high type roads are 176,587 km. and low type roads are 81,761 kms. The highest density remains on the Grand Trunk Road running from Peshawar to Karachi. The first segment of an alternate motorway form Islamabad to Lahore and Islamabad to Peshawar has been completed. With other sections to be constructed shortly. The national highway carries 96 percent of the freight and 91 percent of passenger traffic. Railway Sector Railway sector in Pakistan has not maintained its position in the transport sector. The market share of Pakistan Railways kept on declining with the passage of time. For example, annual passenger volume carried by Pakistan Railways in late 1970’s was approx. 145 million, which has come down to 59 million in 1992/93. The freight business was of PR was 15 million tons in late 1960’s but has come down to 7 million tons. Roads have steadily become the more preferred form of transportation. An example of PR’s declining market share is that it is moving only 11% of total petroleum products and 2% of the total containers. A more professionally managed and independent railways have immense growth potential. Air Sector Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the national carrier, is carrying the bulk of the air travel services within the country. With deregulation of the air sector in the 90’s, three other private airlines have entered the domestic market and international market. Regulatory Environment The Railway Regulatory Framework is now under preparation. The broad objectives of the proposed Regulatory Policy are:
• • • •

To regulate the establishment, working, and provision of railway services in Pakistan To promote and protect the interests of users of railway services To promote competition in the provision of railway services To encourage investment in railway infrastructure and rolling stock by the private sector and

• A notification for the operation of the core business units and delegation of powers to the MDs has been issued. Sleeper factories. The Regulator is expected to have three major functions: • • • Overseeing the rules and conditions establishing access to infrastructure and approving access contracts Licensing private train operations and resolving disputes of regulatory nature Managing Public Service Obligations for the Military and other Passenger traffic. Freight and Passenger have been appointed. . Freight and Passenger units Non-core units: Locomotive factory. • Accounting separation and segregation of assets is being formalised.e. The Likely Offer Sale/Concession of three core business units of Pakistan Railways (PR) i.g. Freight and Passenger) is under process • Managing Directors (MD) for the three core business units Infrastructure. • Regulatory environment is being established. Transfer of Ancillary facilities. Current Status • The unbundling of Pakistan Railways into core business units (Infrastructure. Railway land and other properties. Carriage Factory etc. Operation of the three units has commenced from September 1998. Railway Stations in major cities) Equipment/sections for preservation of Railway heritage. • Non-core assets will be evaluated and prepared to be sold through open auction. Infrastructure. Development of PR properties (e.• • To promote efficiency and economy in the provision of railway services To resolve disputes arising in the industry.

once the prime transporter of cargo and passengers alike -.000 employees and pension to thousands of its former employees. the corporation needs 250 fully fit locomotives for operation as against a demand of 500 locomotives to maintain the . Pakistan Railways is also a major public sector employer as it pays salaries to around 79. Unable to bear the burgeoning financial losses. the Railways authorities planned to suspend more than 100 passengers and mail trains which.30 billion to the Pakistan Railways in 2007-08. This ratio was much higher in the early decades after the partition but with the passage of time the Railways kept on losing its share to other means of transport.is in dire straits and calls for an immediate financial support and reform to avoid collapse it is facing. Ghulam Ahmed Bilour. and financial support to the tune of Rs9.03 billion in 2008-09. on National Assembly's floor. Pakistan faced losses worth Rs15. the assistance had little impact on the overall performance of the organisation. As per an announcement made by the Minister for Railways. corruption and overstaffing in the organisation. at comparatively affordable rates. this huge state-owned corporation is confronted with losses worth billions of rupees mainly due to mismanagement. were running in constant losses. Another purpose. it transports around 5 percent of the total cargo (6 million tonnes) destined for different parts of the country at rates much cheaper than those charged by road transporters.163 kilometres.Financial Analysis and plan Current financial Situation So far so bad Railways needs immediate financial support to stay on track Pakistan Railways -. The payments made under these two heads stand at Rs14 billion and Rs7 billion per annum respectively.000 people daily or 65 million passengers annually on a route length that measures 8. The importance of this organisation can be gauged from the fact that it carries an average of 178.03 billion during the fiscal year of 2007-08 and Rs18. For decades. According to Pakistan Railways documents.6 billion in fiscal 2008-09. was to free locomotives and use them to operate cargo trains which could not be run due to the shortage of engines. Though the government granted a subsidy of Rs7. authorities say. Besides. they say.

formed in late 1970s and operated by the Pakistan Army. Pakistan Railways needs to retrieve its land illegally occupied by individuals as well as government departments. over 3.current operation and additional 300 locomotives to meet the targets set by the Railways to lift at least 25 percent of the cargo available in the market. The said area stands around 333 acres in Quetta. out of which a majority is of US/Japan origin and 30 of Chinese origin. expenditure.000 acres of railway land is under illegal occupation by individuals. Besides.231 acres.749 billion in the Board and Infrastructure Business Unit of Pakistan Railways as the rules were set aside in awarding contracts. In a bid to improve the situation. The repair and overhauling have suffered because of the non-availability of requisite spare parts and lack of funds. The report has unearthed irregularities worth Rs7. but it is still unable to turn its losses into profit. corruption and mismanagement have permeated every department of this organisation as is obvious from the AuditorGeneral of Pakistan's report issued this year.000 acres have been occupied by various provincial and federal governments departments. The Railways minister has demanded Rs200 billion from the government to improve the railways infrastructure. In a recent statement. are held up for repair or overhauling. recovery of toll tax. employment. The total area of the encroached railways' land stands at 4. A major part of the illegally occupied land is located in Lahore where the organisation is struggling to free 1. . Presently. the Cabinet Committee on Restructuring (CCoR) of Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) has outlined the initial restructuring plan of the Railways under which it should be separated into four separate companies -Passenger. he cited Indian Railways' example which has recorded huge profits in the last couple of years saying India had not made NLC and their trains were used for cargo service across the country. as they could not return them in time. 238 in Sukkur. The fact that road transporters can ensure timely delivery goods make them the first choice of customers. Pakistan Railways Minister Bilour holds National Logistic Cell (NLC) responsible for the loss of cargo business that the organisation once had. acceptance of tender. Manufacturing and Asset Management Company. Last but not the least. One reason for this is that the number of people who travel without tickets is constantly on the rise and there is no check on this practice. 212 in Multan. about 200 locomotives. lifts most of the cargo and transports it through road networks. land-usage charges and awarding of city booking agencies. whereas more than 1. The situation so far is so bad that the railways failed to move even a single freight train from Port Qasim for the upcountry during the first three weeks of July due to non-availability of engines. booking.839 acres from land grabbers. NLC. Pakistan Railways did raise fares by 25 percent in 2007-2008 and 15 percent each year thereafter. Freight. 246 in Karachi. At present. 169 in Peshawar and 35 in Rawalpindi. The importers who had booked containers for the transportation of their goods had to face hefty demurrages.

When we talk about the deficit. fertilizer and other goods in trucks or vehicles other than the trains is illegal.Haji Ghulam Ahmad Bilour. almost 90 percent of goods from Karachi to other parts of country were transported by trains and now that has been reduced to only 10 percent. When Pakistan came into being. We have no money to buy even spare parts for them. I won't deny it completely but these problems are in every Pakistani organization. The pension of every other official entity is paid by the government but in our case it's the ministry that has to arrange for the pension. TNS: How do you think these problems could be solved? Besides. When I took charge. in India. we had 92 locomotives for freight purposes and that too decades old and now we have around 40 such locomotives that are functional. Railways is plagued with grave financial problems but that doesn't mean its operations will be stopped completely. The Indians have strengthened their rail system instead of roads but in our country it's the other way round. let me remind you that this entity is meant to be a welfare body and that financial loss has hit the entire world barring India which has been striving to improve its rail system since partition. Take the case of employees' pension. police and others then why are we excluded. cement. including the crunch in the form of the huge deficit of Rs 23 billion annually. They give it to army. The real issue is that of very low investment in this key sector. Federal Minister of Railways Pakistan Railways is confronted with grave crises. which is around 7 billion rupees. Secondly. Another apt example is that of Lahore-Islamabad motorway which was built after the acquirement of massive land worth billions of rupees but no one thought about the upgradation of rail track from Lahore to Rawalpindi."The real issue is very low investment in this sector" -. It is feared that the entity could grind to a halt in the next three or four years if the situation remains the same and adequate steps are not taken by the government to address the issue? Ghulam Ahmad Bilour: Yes. the transportation of anything belonging to the government such as wheat. have you prepared any plan to steer the railways away from the verge of collapse? GHB: People talk about mismanagement and corruption in railways. . We have gigantic problems at hand but the financial resources are too low to enable us to cope with the situation. The track that we are using now is operational since 1860 and still the people ask us about the poor performance of railways.

After thorough discussions. What is required is a prompt implementation of the package. given the current situation? We are under a huge debt of Rs40 billion of the State Bank and we pay Rs4 billion worth interest on that every year. These locomotives could. What made you take this unpopular decision? GHB: See. TNS: The closure of some of the passenger trains has evoked a strong reaction from the masses. The people prefer to use other modes of transportation. however. especially Mian Shahbaz Sharif and Syed Qaim Ali Shah. The provincial governments say that the lands were actually given by them to railways and now those which are not used by the ministry [of Railways] must be in their possession. In response to this offer only the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry people have showed interest to run their train from Karachi to Lahore. However. the decision to close down some passenger trains operating on shorter routes was aimed at reducing the huge financial loss incurred by the ministry. we have no problem with the privatisation of railways but whoever from the private sector will come forward. . if the government or your ministry is not able to run the railways on profitable basis? Why the ruling classes are opposed to this idea? GHB: In principle. what would become of the thousands of rail workers who will be removed from their services once private control is assumed? Instead. Let's hope this works out well. TNS: Why not privatise the entity. I am in close contact with the chief ministers. it has been agreed upon that the provinces and railways would retain 50 percent of the entire land that the ministry has long been asking for.We were promised by the former finance minister Shaukat Tareen that Rs. be used to run goods trains and passenger trains on long routes. My organisation is faced with a loss of Rs2 billion per annum on the routes closed for the short-distance trains. Besides. to resolve the contentious issue.5 billion would be given to repair the locomotives and address other financial issues that required immediate attention but he resigned and the money never came in. Since then we have been waiting to present the railways' revamping plan to the prime minister but we have yet to be given the time for meeting. someone from outside the government could come and run their own trains on our tracks that we are ready to make available for them. TNS: What is the ministry doing to vacate the thousands of acres of illegally occupied land? Isn't the land in the possession of different provincial departments? GHB: The provinces claim that the vast swathes of land that belong to railways are theirs. What we at the railways need is a bailout package as promised by Prime Minister Gillani. Now the modalities are being worked out to settle the problem in line with the agreed formula of half share of land.

7 million due in August 2004. 46 of Railways’ plots in Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas were utilised for commercial purposes without paying the requisite charges to the state-run organisation. If the Chinese locomotives are of no good use. However.6 billion. it was rightly decided to hand over the distribution . According to the Auditor General of Pakistan’s report. was handed over to the Capital Development Authority but the Railways did not recover a single penny against the transfer of land. the director marketing of Railways asked the lessee in March 2005 to deposit Rs157. while in another case. However.7 million along with the late-payment surcharge until January 2009. After three years. But if we opt for them everybody will say why did we ignore the Chinese product? Aren't we allies with China? The comparatively high price of American locomotives is also an issue. latest official data reveals. The only reliable locomotives are the ones from America. the Railways has failed to recover the sum of Rs157. The Auditor General said that in order to avoid losses incurred on bulk purchase of gas and its distribution by Railways. but “the lessee failed to deposit the amount and the contract was terminated in September 2005. The Ministry of Railways has asked the Finance Division to release adequate funds for reviving the institute. the Railways’ owned 851 kanals land in Bara Kahu near Islamabad.TNS: It has been widely reported in the media that the Chinese locomotives purchased by the ministry of railways are faulty and that huge kickbacks were involved on the part of those at the helm of affairs during the General (retd) Musharraf's rule. which collectively exceed Rs12. the Railways’ administration did not contact the concerned authority to recover the amount.7 million. 2002. Islamabad. which is now worth over Rs5 billion.78 acres was leased to the company on March 3. The report added that as per an agreement executed between the Railways and M/s Zareco Real Estate. The lessee resorted to litigation. which culminated in May 2006 with the Railways reviving the contract. Off track: Pakistan Railways losses mount to over Rs12bn ISLAMABAD: Incompetent staff. but Pakistan Railways leased thousands of acres of land worth billions to a lessee and subsequently failed to recover the lease amount and receivables. incurring losses of Rs189. the report added. the report revealed.6 billion. a land measuring 4. why don't you opt for the ones from Japan? GHB: We have also had Japanese locomotives in the past but they too were not up to the mark. financial embezzlements and mismanagement have made the Pakistan Railways running losses of around Rs12.

the railways mechanical department consumed High Speed Diesel Oil in excess of the fixed quota.1 million. 132% increase over a period of 5 years. and the execution cost of the work increased by 233 per cent. Documents available with Daily Times revealed that due to negligence and non-serious attitude of bureaucracy in Pakistan Railways.6 million.15. Had the process of handing over been completed. Pakistan Railways unable to achieve desired financial results ISLAMABAD: Pakistan Railways (PR) administration had not been able to attain the stipulated financial results through best utilization of resources for achieving the targeted outcome to take care of its revenue receipts by achieving the targets and curtailing revenue expenditure by keeping the same within allotted funds. 2009 as against Rs. this loss per year could have been avoided. i. Document stated that as per regulations of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). It was declared by the Auditor General Pakistan’s office in its latest audit observation for financial year 2009-10.e. AGP revealed that there has been abnormal increase in the overdraft (OD) coupled with no serious efforts undertaken by PR except that compulsory /obligatory payments of GPF (Gross Provident Fund). “The position of the remaining 19 colonies for the year 2007-08 resulted in Railways sustaining a loss of Rs55. the payment of interest on Overdrafts (OD) during last five years had showed increasing trend and indicating financial mismanagement. the contract for repairs of Railways Shed at Karachi Port was awarded at a cost of Rs1.35. for which a sum of Rs21. PR is required to pay interest on OD up to Rs 4 billion at the rate charged to the treasury bills and for the over and above amount at commercial rates. provided by SBP.system at Lahore to the Sui Northern Gas Pipe Lines Limited. has . and other committed liabilities are being deferred to improve cash management which is highly irrational and illegal method of doing this.198 billion including Ways and Means Advance on June 30. incurring losses of Rs102. But until May 2009. the Railways administration increased the cost to Rs3. only 5 of the 33 Railways colonies in Lahore could be handed over to Sui Northern.” In another case. salaries etc.152 billion in financial year 2004-05. 2005.4 billion in April 26 due to poor estimation and bad planning. Subsequently. OD of PR has touched the figure of Rs.8 million was paid in June. The analysis of financial statements of PR for the last five years conducted by audit revealed that dependence of Pakistan Railways on OD.04 billion. Also.

substantially increased.905 million.346 B.855 million. Financial Performance of Pakistan Railways Financial Performance of Pakistan Railways for 2006-07 and 2007-08: 2006-07 A.700 billion excluding the amount of interest over the contact as Rs.581 billion if the right decisions were taken as spent 40.347 billion whereas the average OD of the five years proceeding to that (1999-2000 to 2003-04) is Rs 17. exceptionally high increase of Rs 9. Similarly the scrutiny of record managed by AGP officials regarding “Procurement/manufacturing of 75 D. which is 39% of total OD of last five years comes Rs 22.E Loco engine procured from China was Rs.581 billion (approximately).384 million on account of interest on OD.5. Furthermore. as showed 704% increase during FY 2008-09. While PR could be saved the amount of Rs 5.E Locomotives” disclosed that Pakistan Railways failed to assess the financial implications and decided injudiciously to purchase new locomotives despite strong financial crunch in most profitable institution of the country. During FY 2004-05. Total Revenue 11. Pakistan Railways faced the loss of Rs 5. this figure jumped to Rs 396.856 billion in OD was observed. Audit revealed that injudicious decisions taken by Federal Railway Minister Ghulam Ahmed Bilour as a part of present regime regarding the purchase of 75 new locomotive engines.64% less amount on the rehabilitation of old locomotives engine. Expenditure . PR had paid Rs 49.12. The comparison of average rates of booth these periods showed increase of Rs 4.674 2007-08(in million Rupees) 11. Revenue 1. In FY 2008-09.442 billion. As per PC-1 total cost of one new 75 D. PR is paying persistently huge amount of interest on OD due to lack of planning and management of funds/operation.608 billion (approximately). which is alarming.

916 expenses 269 249 20.067 2.025.157. The EPS of the Company was Rs.179.82 37.426 32 39. The revenue for the quarter was Rs.20) (0.7 119. .301 1 46.98 58.167 (21.364 2.297.814.021 1. Improvement & Welfare Expenses 3.466) Operating Results The operating results of the Company for the quarter are summarized as follows: 30 30 September September 2010 2009 (Rupees) 123.343 (10.623 8 (7. Working 21.20) as compared to Rs.322) ) (14.891) 4.396.527) 2. 120 million as compared to Rs.11) Revenue Gross profit Operating cost Operating (loss) (Loss) after taxation Earnings / loss per share . the Company's revenues and profits have been squeezed as compared to the corresponding period last year.961 (12.Basic & diluted During the quarter under review. (0.579) 7) (0.182. while loss after tax for the current period was Rs.834 1.061. Depreciation Surplus/deficit Interest on Foreign loans Interest on Over draft Net Profit and Loss 4.44 (27.115 (8.671) 1.268 2.1. 124 million in the corresponding period. Pensions 4. 27 million.115 (7.558.575.

721 1.173.970 .538 Intangible assets 6 153. plant and equipment 5 1.11) in the corresponding period last year.107.(0.270 153.324.615.349. BALANCE SHEET AS AT 30 SEPTEMBER 2010 (Un-audited) (Audited) 30 September Note 2010 30 June 2010 (Rupees) ASSETS NON CURRENT ASSETS Tangible fixed assets Property.293.

130 213.461.930 CURRENT ASSETS Inventories Current portion of television program costs Trade debts Loans and advances Deposit and prepayments Other receivables Cash and bank balances 28.029.914.000 1.643.251.580 76.000.385.494 11.374 21.926 52.257 24.081.195.017 73.440 .734 196.317 116.272.634.016.000 ordinary shares of Rs.984.382.288 409.979 24.156.106.948 1.571.631 TOTAL ASSETS 2.000. 1.382.092 18.012.509 20.512 21.521.756 102.561 EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Share Capital and Reserves Authorized capital 140.022.458 35.424 379.000.474.440 1.341.Long term deposits Television program costs Deferred taxation 9.922. 10 each.341.223.782 9.526 46.622.223.039 2.481 25.757.400.619.124.072.580 76.126.839.000 Issued. subscribed and paid up capital Share premium 1.076.528.740 1.981.396 75.400.

623) (21.561 391.776.195.333 220.062.039 128.025.745 39.157.532.322) (46.944 (52.698 TOTAL EQUITY AND LIABILITIES CONDENSED INTERIM PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT (UN-AUDITED) FOR THE QUARTER ENDED 30 SEPTEMBER 2010 30 September 30 September 2010 (Rupees) 2009 Revenue -Net 119.251.002 45.179.301 (84.000 33.396.485 984.929.229.635.340 2.629.732 Direct cost Gross profit (82.647 50.497) 1.338.911) 39.821 Operating cost Operating (loss) (58.415 Contingencies and commitments 9 2.814.762.575.113.021 106.729.076) 1.262.890.167) .029.605.000.843.984.000.382.988) (7.204.558.002 48.365.426 123.657 438.125) 37.523 NON CURRENT LIABILITIES Long term finances Retirement benefits Liabilities against assets subject to finance lease 7 389.680 CURRENT LIABILITIES Trade and other payables Interest and mark-up accrued Short term borrowings Current maturities of long term liabilities 8 150.543.777 51.182.Unappropriated (loss) Total Equity (79.011 17.022.811.862 125.834 436.757 252.

144) (39.518.063 5.061.061.360.870.061.296) Taxation 12.447) Other comprehensive income/ (loss) for the year - - Total comprehensive loss for the year (27.849 Total comprehensive loss (27.849) (22.11) CONDENSED INTERIM STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (UN-AUDITED) FOR THE QUARTER ENDED 30 SEPTEMBER 2010 30 September 2010 (Rupees) 30 September 2009 Loss after taxation (27.579) (14.447) CONDENSED INTERIM CASH FLOW STATEMENT (UN-AUDITED) FOR THE QUARTER ENDED 30 SEPTEMBER 2010 30 September 30 September .720 (19.579) (14.447) Earnings per share .642) 2.basic and diluted 14 (0.531.297.504.20) (0.Finance cost (18.466) (15.443.647.135.016) Other operating Income Loss before taxation 26.297.349.297.579) (14.824 (39.

114.398.558.498) (6.931) (9.745) (5.999 12.253) 3.521.424 11. January 01.121.064 (9.931) (22.940.017 Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the period With Rs11b package.502.368.600) (15.000) (1.136) 18. Pakistan Railways gets a new lease of life Saturday. 2011 Mumtaz Alvi Islamabad Pakistan Railways (PR) was heading to completely halt its operations across the country within three months had the cabinet not approved the already delayed Rs11.753) (8.751) 318.820.981.950 2.396) (35.537.052 (22.398.461.524) 10.700.277.Note 2010 (Rupees) 2009 Cash flow from operating activities Cash generated from operations Decrease in long term deposits Television programs costs Retirement benefits paid Finance cost paid Taxes paid Net cash generated from operating activities Cash flow from investing activities Fixed capital expenditure Sale proceeds of operating fixed assets Net cash (used in) investing activities Cash flow from financing activities Repayment of long term finances-Net Repayment of short term borrowings Repayment of finance lease liabilities-Net Net cash (used in) financing activities Net (decrease) / increase in cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the period (1.332.058) 55.1 billion .865.860 (324.369.400 (2.486) (773.274) (1.745.350.279.390.160.889.697) (12.056) (29.288 2.099.000) (1.087 70.293 68.699) 10 15.065 9.791.500 (19.351 1.262.177.

the minister said he had met President Asif Ali Zardari and highlighted the worrying state of affairs twice or thrice before Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani but as a last-ditch effort.” he maintained. He noted Pakistan Railways had a massive business of goods transportation. But absence of investment to rehabilitate and add to its assets has brought the railways to this position. “You can say railway engines are our department’s lifeline.1 billion would be spent on repair of 145 locomotives. the minister said the leading organization. the . Bilour pleaded that to ensure effective operations of the Pakistan Railways was a national obligation and this was only possible by provision of as many as locomotives to the department as possible. Bilour pointed out that as compared to Pakistan Railways. To a question about a turn-around in one of Pakistan’s largest state organizations. but this was only possible if a minimum 350 more locomotives were at its disposal. he had to bring the matter before the cabinet.1 billion package would be utilized. When asked why the government took so much time to okay the package when the railways was facing a sure halt to its operations.” the federal minister said and added daily 40-50 goods trains must be coming upcountry but this was not possible in the given conditions. Talking to The News here at the Parliament House. maintenance of passenger coaches and strategic reserves to purchase diesel. which transported millions of people annually.($128 million) bailout package. But unfortunately. The minister made an appeal to the Lahore High Court to expeditiously decide the cases relating to the import of 150 locomotives from the United States and another 75 from China.000 loaded wagons in Karachi waiting to be transported to upcountry. faced a pressing shortage of locomotives for years and had no money even to repair over 300 rusting engines. Asked about how the Rs11. he explained that Rs6. which had a fleet of around 500 locomotives (with nearly 350 out of order). Federal Railways Minister Haji Ghulam Ahmad Bilour said. whereas the rest on improvement of tracks. we have just 25 locomotives at our disposal for freight service across Pakistan. India had 8. The minister expressed his gratitude to the cabinet for showing keen interest in the railways during the presentation and said this reflected his cabinet colleagues truly were the public representatives and had concern for their interests. “How handicapped are we presently can be gauged from the staggering figure of 4.000 locomotives that were in operation around the year. which could enable it to overcome haemorrhaging losses.

lower and middle class traveled by Pakistan Railways. over 83 million people. whereas Pakistan Railways was facing an emergency situation. . mostly hailing from the poor. The minister was confident the judiciary would soon decide the petitions relating to the import of locomotives. as it had to the road transport sector. it would take a couple of years for the first fleet of locomotives to arrive in Pakistan. despite facing locomotives non-availability.minister believed that had the governments over the years. Last year. accorded priority to it. as they found it much more economical and comfortable than road transport. Pakistan Railways would have been a profit-making entity or at least showing no profit-no-loss equation. as even if the court gave a go-ahead signal today. outdated infrastructure.

There is complaint against Pakistan railways services in many sectors such as           timing of trains Availability of seats Appearance of trains Corruption in issuing tickets Overall atmosphere of trains and stations Security measures are not enough Behaviors of staff Ticket checking methodology Less numbers of trains Administration policies Questionnaire Dear Respondent: Thank you for sparing your precious time to fill this questionnaire on “Role of Railways in Providing Quality Services”. This research is purely conducted for academic purpose and all the response will be confidential and from this we make our study more favorable.Appendix Market Research We arranged market surveys regarding satisfaction of the people towards services offered by the Pakistan Railways. We come to know that most of the people are not satisfied by the services offered by Pakistan railways. Section A: Personal Profile Gender: Education Above Age 15-29 30-39 40&Above Male Higher Secondary Graduation Female Master or . (Please respond to each item as accurately as you can in the appropriate boxes).

Section B: (satisfaction with tangible service) Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 Are you satisfied by the arival of trains in time? Are you satisfied by the Appearance of | Trains? Are you satisfied by the Layout of cabins? Are you satisfied by the Condition of seats and births? Are you satisfied by the Overall cleanliness? Are you satisfied by the atmosphere? Are you satisfied by the Availability of parking? Are you satisfied by Toilet service in trains? Are you satisfied by the Number of services offered? Are you satisfied by the Computer services from railways? Are you satisfied by the ‘Up-to-datedness’ of Trains? Are you satisfied by the ‘Up-to-datedness’ of computer software? Are you satisfied by the Access to the Internet/e-mail? Disagree Neither Agre e Strongly Agree Section C: (satisfaction with Assurance) Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Are you satisfied by the culture. belief and value regarding railway? Are you satisfied by the Railway staffs ? Are you satisfied by the Ticket checker? Are you satisfied by the checking methodology of tickets? Are you satisfied by the staff’s knowledge on rules and regulation? Are you satisfied by the Security measures at Railways and railway trains? Are you satisfied by the Communication skill of Staff? Disagree Neither Agree Strongly Agree Section D: (satisfaction with Reliability) .

Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 Are you satisfied by the administration’s maintenance of records? Are you satisfied by the Staff interest in solving passenger’s problems? Are you satisfied by the punctuality of staff? Disagree Neither Agree Strongly Agree Section E: (satisfaction with Empathy) Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Are you satisfied by the Availability of trains to assist you? Are you satisfied by the Managment capacity to solve problems? Are you satisfied by the Channels for expressing complaints? Are you satisfied by the Administration policies for passengers? Are you satisfied by the behavior of staff and administration|? Disagree Neither Agree Strongly Agree Special thanks: .

Survey Pictures Bibliography : .The people who responds us during our survey. Special thanks to those people who help us during the survey of passenger at different railway stations. And officials who permitted us to analyze the different sectors of railway workshops.

com www.Relevant websites: www.pakistanrailways.google.pk www.youtube.com.com www.pakrail.ministryofrailways.com www.com .com/Expresstv.

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