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MATHEMATICS SOCIETY

with credits to YU Shih-Hsien

AY 2008/2009 Sem 1

Question 1

d t

dt (e y) = d2t . Integrate both sides, we get yet = (1/2)e2t + c, where c is an arbitrary constant.

y = (1/2)et + ce−t

Now we apply the initial condition y(0) = 0. Then y(0) = (1/2) + c = 0 ⇒ c = −1/2. Thus

2t

y = e 2e−1

t .

dt (y

0 + y) = 1.

Integrating both sides we get yet = t + c, where c is an arbitrary constant.

y = (t + c)/et

t

Apply the initial condition to this equation, y(0) = c = 0 ⇒ c = 0, so y = et

√ √

(c) By the definition of equilibrium solutions, y 0 (t) = 0 ⇒ y(8 − y 2 ) = 0, so y = 0, 2 2, −2 2.

Draw the graph of f (y) = y(8 − y 2 ), then equilibrium solutions are zeros. If f (y) > 0 on the left

side of a solution and f (y) < 0 on

√ its right

√ side, then the solution is stable. Else it is instable. By

this, we see that 0 is instable, 2 2,−2 2 are stable.

d

(d) = t(1 + y 2 ), dy/(1 + y 2 ) = t dt. Integrating both sides we get arctan y = t2 + c, where c is

dt y(t)

an arbitrary constant, so y = tan(t2 /2 + c).

Apply the initial condition y(0) = tan c = 0 ⇒ c = kπ, where k belong to integers.

y = tan t2 + kπ,k is integer.

(e) Solve y 00 − 2y 0 − 3y = xex , y 00 − 2y 0 − 3y = xe−x first, then add the two particular solutions up to

get a particular solution of original equation. Solve y 00 − 2y 0 − 3y = 0 then add this solution to the

particular solution to obtain the general one.

We solve y 00 − 2y 0 − 3y = 0 now.

Let y = erx . We have characteristic equation r2 − 2r − 3 = 0 and it has two distinct real solutions

r = −1, r = 3. Thus y(x) = c1 e−x + c2 e3x .

Now we solve y 00 − 2y 0 − 3y = xex . Substitute y = Aex , we obtain the solution − x4 ex . Similarly, a

2

particular solution of the other equation is (− x8 − 16x

)e−x , so the general solution is y = c1 e3x +

2

c2 e−x − x4 ex + (− x8 − 16

x

)e−x , c1 ,c2 are reals.

Question 2

f, d, c, e, a, b.

MA3220 Ordinary Differential Equations AY 2008/2009 Sem 1

Question 3

x a b

Let x = et ,A= . We get

y c d

(1 − a)x − by = 1

−cx + (1 − d)y = 1

Case 1:

a = 1, (bc 6= 0).

b−d+1

− bc

x=

− 1b

Case 2:

a 6= 1

!

a+d−b−ad+ab−1

x= (1−a)(−ad+a+d−1+bc)

a−c−1

−ad+a+d−1+bc

Question 4

√ √ √ √ √ √

25+√ 17 −1+2 17 25−√ 17 −1−2 17 e11u e12u

(− 23+√ 17 −

256 17 304 17

)t + ( 23−√ 17 +

256 17 304 17

)t + 128 + 152 ,

Solution:

Let t = eu . Then u = ln t.

Substitute this into the equation we get:

d2 y dy

+ − 4y = e11u + e12u

dt2 dt

d2 y dy

Firstly, solve dt2

+ dt − 4y = e11u .

Let y = ve11u . Then we get v 00 e11u + 23v 0 e11u + 128ve11u = e11u , that is v 00 + 23v 0 + 128v = 1, so

1 1 11u

v = 128 , y = 128 e

d2 y dy 1 12u

Then solve dt2

+ dt − 4y = e12u . Similarly we get y = 152 e .

√ √

2 −1+ 17 −1− 17

Moreover, the general solution of ddt2y + dy

dt − 4y = 0 is c1 e

2

u

+ c2 e 2

u

. So the solution

should be √ √

−1+ 17 −1− 17 1 11u 1 12u

c1 e 2 u + c2 e 2 u + e + e

128 152

Substitute that u = ln t.

√ √

−1+ 17 −1− 17 1 11 1 12

c1 t 2 + c2 t 2 + t + t

128 152

Question 5

MA3220 Ordinary Differential Equations AY 2008/2009 Sem 1

0 1 1 1

The eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvectors of A = are: 1, −1, , .

1 0 1 −1

1 1

Suppose that T = . Let x = Ty.

1 −1

0 −1 −1 −5t 1

y = T ATy − T e

1

1 0 1 −5t

= y− e

0 −1 0

!

e−5t

e−5t t

t + c e−t

6 + c 1 e 6 + c1 e 2

y= , x = Ty = e−5t .

c2 e−t t

6 + c1 e − c2 e

−t

0

By x(0) = , c1 = y20 − 16 . And we need c1 = 0. So y0 = 13 .

y0

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