Control Engineering EMM 4423

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Lecture 2 : Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems
Control engineer analyses any physical system based on mathematical model (first step) This model is derived from physical law. It represents the relationship between the system variables. From this model, transfer function can be derived. In-depth analysis can be done on the system’s time response, stability and etc. Steps in dynamic system modeling (a) Define the system and its components (b) Formulate the mathematical model and fundamental assumptions (c) Obtain the differential equations representing the model. (d) Solve the equations for the desired output variables. (e) Examine the solutions and the assumptions. (f) If necessary, reanalyze or redesign the system

Some of the models commonly used are: i) Scaled model ( expensive and time consuming to develop and modify) ii)Prototype model (any modification needs expertise fabrication , adding components and many others) Iii) mathematical model (cheap & can be developed quickly) Once the designer is satisfied with the performance of the model , a scaled or prototype model can be developed (minimal modification)

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The mathematical model of a dynamic system is represented by the Transfer function. The T.F can be re-written as an ordinary differential equation (ODE) Thus, given any i/p signal represented by any time function, the O/P of the system can be obtained by solving ODE Various methods are available to solve ODE. For control engineers, Laplace transformation method is used for solving linear differential equations because standard Laplace Transform table can be used to find the transform F(s) of a given function f (t) and the solution can be obtained directly.

Figure below shows a system represented by a block diagram where y(t) is the output and u(t) is the i/p to the system. Both of these quantities are function of time and referred as variables.
Input U(t), t ≥ t0

Initial condition


Output Y(t) , t ≥ t0

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Time response analysis is to study the O/P response of the system y(t) when the system is excited with some i/p signals u (t). > The mathematical model developed is in the form of an ODE > Therefore , time response model can obtained by solving the ODE

Write eqn..

Y (t)

U (t)


The Design Process: 1. Transform Requirement into a Physical System 2. Draw a Functional Block Diagram 3. Create a Schematic 4. Develop a Mathematical Model
a. Transfer function in the frequency domain b. State Equations in the time domain
Many simplifying assumption in order to keep the ensuing model

manageable and still approximate physical reality
First step in developing a mathematical model is to apply the fundamental physical laws of science and engineering

5. Reduce the Block Diagram 6. Analyze and Design

Differential Equation:
1. Describe the relationship between the input and output of a system 2. The form of differential equation and its coefficients are a formulation or description of the system – but not a satisfying


We would prefer: 1. A mathematical representation such as

where the input, output, and system are distinct and separate parts.

2. Represent conveniently the interconnection of several subsystems,
Differential equation is difficult to model as a block diagram

where a mathematical function, called transfer function, is inside each block, and block functions can easily be combined.


Laplace transforms are useful widely in control system analysis. The transfer function of a control system is defined in s domain and provides valuable information about stability and performance of a closed loop/feedback control system. Laplace transform is a method of operational calculus that takes a function of time (tdomain) and converts it to a function of complex variable (s-domain/frequency domain) The Laplace transform of a function of time, f(t) is defined as the integral; Where; f(t) s F(s) L

L f (t )

F ( s)

f (t )e st dt

= function in time domain = complex variable ( s = + j ) = Laplace transformation of f(t) = an operational symbol indicating that the quantity that it prefixes is to be transformed by the Laplace integral st

e dt

Find the Laplace Transform for the given exponential function; f(t) = 0 for t < 0

Ae at u (t ) =
constant. Steps:

for t


where A and


1) From table
2) Insert 3) Rearrange 4) Convert (Table)

F ( s)


f (t )e st dt Ae at e st dt


into eq:



e A

( s a )t

dt A
t 0

s a


( s a )t

s a

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Property of laplace transform Laplace transform of derivatives Laplace transform of integral Laplace Transform of a unit step function L.T of ramp function L.T for impulse function L.T for sinusoidal function

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Translational Rotational Gear Hydraulic Liquid level Thermal electrical

The derivation of the mathematical model starts from the study of a translational mechanical system, rotational mechanical system, gear system, hydraulic system, liquid level system, thermal system and electrical system. These relationship are then represented by the block diagram representation From the block diagram, the transfer function of the mathematical model can be obtained using block diagram manipulation method. The T.F also can be obtained by transforming the block diagram or representing the dynamic equation into signal flow graph representation and applying Mason’s Gain Formula.

For linear systems, the T.F is defined as the ratio of the output to the input for a system with zero initial conditions as determined from the Laplace Transform of the system equation.
Input R (s) Transfer Function G (s) Output Y (s)

1. For lumped linear time-invariant systems, mathematical model building based on physical laws normally results in a set of (first order and 2nd order ) differential equations. > Applying laplace transform to the differential equations results in a transfer function model of the system.
The simplifying assumptions in this domain are: all objects are rigid bodies; all interactions between rigid bodies take place via kinematic pairs (joints), springs and damper

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2. Can be initiated from experimentally obtained input-output data.
Ex : A mass spring damper system

Velocity V Displacement x Force F m


Translational Mechanical System

Mechanical System
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3 main elements -> Spring, damper and mass Parameter system is defined as the constant which represents these elements. Variables are displacement(x),velocity(v), acceleration(a) and force(F) The dynamics describing these elements can be derived by applying the Newton’s Laws

(a) Linear spring - fixed at one side
Parameter->spring constant(k) Variable-> displacement(x)



if F is output and x is input F(t) = k x(t)
Slope= m

Transfer function = output/ input

if x is output and F is input

-open ended spring
X1(t) +
X1 -X2

F= k(x1-x2) (b) Linear motion of rigid body


m= mass, F= force

Newton Law ,

If D= d/dt, hence a=D2x F = mD2x

(c) Mass spring system

For spring -> F= k(xi-xo) For mass -> mD2xo(t)=F(t)

(d) Vibration damper

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Force, F is proportional with v F(t)= cDx(t) where F(force), c=damping coefficient

(e) Spring-damper system
Xi(t) c

Spring force, Fs=k(xi-xo) Damper force, Fd=cDxo Fs=Fd


Spring-mass-damper system
Xi k


Spring force , FS = k(xi-xo) Mass force, FS-FD= mD2xo Damper force, FD=cDxo


(g) Rotational System

K = Shaft stiffness (spring stiffness) B = Fluid viscous friction coefficient (coefficient of viscous friction) J= moment of inertia (mass m) = angular displacement (displacement ) = angular velocity (linear velocity) = angular acceleration ( linear acceleration) = torque (force)

Spring, s =k( i - o) Damper, f =BD o Moment of inertia, Ts-Tf = JD2


Comparison notes… Rotational Vs Translational

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Exercises… 1 2 3

Variables=> torque, angular acceleration, angular velocity and angular displacement for input and output gear Gear B driven by gear A

(i) Hydraulic system

x = spool valve displacement y = cylinder displacement When the spool valve moves to the right position, the fluid from supply will flow toward right part of the cylinder. Thus, the mass will move to the left. Flow rate,

∆P = pressure drop, Ps= Supply pressure, PL= Pressure difference

If PL << Ps q = K’x q = ADy Where A= cross section area of cylinder and Assumption: no leaking, compressible fluid , constant supply pressure

(j) Servo system- Positioning control system - for l1 equal l2

-For l1≠ l2

General formulation for level

Derivation as follow:-

For 2 same triangle:-

(k) Liquid level system -Variables -> level and flow rate -Parameter ->resistance and capacitance - For laminar flow


Resistance of the pipe

qi = inlet volumetric flow rate qo= outlet volumetric flow rate h = liquid level
Using conservation of mass, where c= tank capacitance or cross section area of tank

- 2 tanks system(interacting tanks)

Where input= q and output=h2

(l) Thermal system

Assumption: no heat loss to surrounding, no heat stored in the insulation, uniform heat flow Thermal resistance, Where = outlet fluid temperature, h=rate of heat flow By using conservation of energy

(j) Electrical system




(j) Electrical system

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