THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

\

SUMITOMO METAL INDUSTRIES,
PROPELLER DIVISION
(SUMITOMO KINZOKU KOGYO K
K,

PUROPERA SEIZOSHO)

CORPORATION REPORT
(PROPELLORS)

No. VI

December 1946

THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

SUMITOMO METAL INDUSTRIES,
PROPELLER DIVISION
(SUMITOMO KINZOKU KOGYO K
K,

PUROPERA SEIZOSHO)

CORPORATION REPORT
(PROPELLORS)

No. VI

Dates of Survey:

20 October 1945

—28 October

1945

December 1946

y, S.

SUPERINTENDENT OF DOGUMtNlS

FEB

11

1947

This report was written priinarily for
nature.

tlie

use of the United States Strategic

P>onihing Survey in the preparation of further reports of a

more comprehensive

Any

conclusions or opinions expressed in this report must be considered

as limited to the specific material covered
ill

and

as subject to further interpretation

tlie liijlit

of further studies conducted

b.v tlie

Survey.

FOREWORD
Tlic Uiiil('<l Sillies
U\]-y ol' W;ii-(iii
;{

8tl-al('^i(', Hoiiiliillf;

Survey
Id
;i

\v;is
i\

estiililislieil

liy

llie RecM'O-

NdN'eiiiber 1!)44,

pursiuml

<liiei(

c

rinni tlie late

President
the effects

Roosevelt, lis missioti was to eondiutt an

iiiipiiriial anil e\|)i'i-1

study

ol'

iiir attacks on importance and potentialities of air power as an inslrunient of military strategy for planning tlw future development of the United States armed forces and for determining future eco-

of out' aerial attaek on (l(M'nian3% lo be used in (onneclion with
a

dai)an and to establish

basis for evaluating

lln^

nomic

policies

with respect to the national defense.
tln'

A

suminarj- report and some

200 supporting reports containing
been published.

findings of the

Survey

in

(lermany have

On

15

Au^st

1945, President
all

Truman

requested that the Sui-vey conduct

a similar study of the effects of
of the Navy.

types of air attack in the

war against dapan,
to the Secretary

subnntting reports in duplicate to the Secretary of

War and

The

officers of the

Survey during its Japanese jjhase were: Franklin D'Oliei', Chairman. Paul H. Nitze, Henry (J. Alexander, Vicf-CIiairincn.

Harry L. Bowman, J. Kenneth Galbraith,
Rensis Likert,

Frank A. McNamee, Jr., Fred Searls, Jr., Monroe E. Spaglit, Dr. Lewis R. Thompson,
Theodore P. Wright, Directors. Walter Wilds, Secretary. The Survey's complement provided for 300 civilians, 350 officers, and 500 enlisted men. The military segment of the organization was drawn from the Army to the extent of 60 percent, and from the Navy to the extent of 40 percent. Both the Army and the Navy gave tlie Survey all possible assistance in furnishing men, sui^plies, transport, and information. The Survey operated from headquarters established in Tokyo early in September 1945, with subheadquarters in Nagoya, Osaka, Hii'oshima, and Nagasaki, and with mobile teams operating in other parts of Japan, the islands of the Pacific, and the Asiatic mainland. It was possible to reconstruct much of wartime Japanese military planning and execution, engagement bj^ engagement, and campaign by campaign, and to secure reasonably accurate statistics op Japan's economy and w-ar production, plant by plant, and industry by industry. In addition, studies were conducted on Japan's over-all strategic plans and the background of her entry into the war, the internal discussions and negotiations leading to her acceptance of unconditional surrender, the course of health and morale among the civilian population, the effectiveness of the Japanese civilian defense orgainzation, and the
effects of the

atomic bombs. Separate reports will be issued covering each phase

of the study.

industrial officials.

The Survej- interrogated more than 700 Japanese military, government, and It also recovered and translated many documents which
Arrangements have been made
to

not only have been useful to the Survey, but also will furnish data valuable
for other studies.
to

turn over the Survey's

files

the Central Intelligence Group, through Avhich they will be available for

further examination and distribution.

Ub
tio,?^(

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Corporation and
The Air Attacks
Production Statistics
Its Importance in

the Aircraft Industry

1

5 7 9 9

Evaluation op Preattack Intelligence

Reference Items
Appendices
:

A—Products
B —Flow
Chart

10

— Hamilton

Type Propeller
Propeller

Pacing p 10 Facing p TO
11 12
VS

C— Flow

Chart— VDil Type
Program

D — Dispei'sal
E — Planned,

Capacity, and Actual Pi-oductiou Figures

F—Production

Capacity Curve

Kanzaki Plant (Plant Report No.
Sakurajima Plant (Plant

VI— 1)
YI

14
36

Rej^ort No.

— 2)

HE CORPORATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
Ilamillon
Vereinii;te
TIk'
li'jiiliiii,'

itroduction

sijindard

eounterweijilit

type

and

tlic

Deutsche

Metallwerke
well
t(!ehni(pies

(VUM)

type.
l)y

iinmurHcluror of propellers in
of

llie

I'x'iiiR
nsinf,"-

linaneiiilly

stroiiff,

organized, and

piiiirsi'

lMni)ire, the Suniitoino I'l-opeller Division

production
.Iul>-

line

(by Japanese

luiiiiloiiio
('till

I'uropera Seizosho)

tln'

Suniitoino

standards)
reached.

the propeller division delivered 3,140
1!I44 wln'ii

liiilusti'ies

(Sumitomo Kiiizoku Kogyo
all

oilueecl

66 percent of

K), propellers used in Japa-

K

propellers in

|MMk production was

sc aircraft.

opellers for the
ri'cnt

This represented praetieally all the Japanese Navy, and nearly 40
1)y

Sumitomo
proiiellers
in

lien-an

the iirodiietiou of metal alloy
I'Xi'.i

of the propellers used

Army

aii-eraft.

located in

he

Suniitoino
(if

mlui'tion

Corporation concentrated on the two main types of propellers, the

at their copper works north of Osaka Harbor (Figure 1): In Octolier 1935 the demand for variSakurajiiiia,
jiitcli

ilarch

alilr

propellers ])r(impteil Suiiiitomo to pur-

chase the jiatents of the

VDJI

lype from Germany,

establishment of

tliis

were pureha.sed through the Ameriean Government. By 1937 manufacture of propellers had increased to such
wliik' the j)ateuts for the llaniiltoii typ(!

propeller division were
the

new phuit, tlie otfices of t moved from Sakurajima
1

new

location

administrative purposes.

and were maintained there At the same time a

:

proportions that

officials of the

Sumitomo Metals

ludustr}' placed Sakurajima on a divisional status on equal standing with the corporation's other divisions. In November the copper works at Sakurajima was divided into two parts, the Copper Works and the Propeller Works.

search and design section, charged with the dev opment of prototype propellers, was established

Kanzaki.

The outbreak of World War II and the sub queut increase in demands from both the Nav.v

Army

resulted in the establishment of two m(

The possibility production requirements would become greater than the capacity of the Sakurajima jjlant was quickly recognized bj- tlie officials

propeller plants at Shizuoka
of the city of Shizuoka,

and Tsu. The

Shi
soi

oka plant, located in Shizuoka prefecture just

Sumitomo Propeller Division. In January 1939 a new site was purchased at Kanzaki, 1 mile north of Amagasaki and about 5 miles northwest
of the of Osaka.

was completed and cc menced production in jMarch 1943. The Tsu pli to the south of the city of Tsu, was converted fr
already existing buildings of a cotton mill
*1

Construction of the Kanzaki plant was

began proijeller production in September 1944.

completed early in 1941 and in April of that year Concurrently with the initial production began.

The projieller division, one of six divisions Sumitomo ^letal Industries (Figure 2), was

of
fin'

SUBSIDIARY WORKS

SUMITOMO METAL INDUSTRY

mliirl.
iii.ili'
I

llail

1li(^

Will' (•(iiiliiuK'd
I

it

WHS

]>laiiuc(l to

Na\y

wi'rc

iiitci'cstcd

in

iiollow

slei'l

|jladi\s

and

\'1.).M

produi-tiiiii in

lie

llircc Miiallcr

phmts

eountci- rotating

six-bladcd

propellers capable of

I

his

had been

prohiliitive tlirous^'h i\ufi'ust l!l4ri

al)sorbiug the iiigh iioi-sepower of

some of the new
re-

ir
III

In tlie retodlitifi- rc(|iiired, tJie

great increase in

experimental engines.
Financial aid
to tlie Suiiiitonio

assembly time, and the consequent drop in
.ill

from state banks was never

cr

pi'dpcMcr

pi'iiihii-tinn.

i|uested since the propeller division always a[)jjlied

i

III

1

was tlie ackiiowh'dKed leader ihc propeller fic^hl and employetl some of the ling Japanese research eogineei's there was con|r'r;il)l(> pressure from the government agencies Sumitomo, particularly in the field of new
r.rranse SuniitDiiio
iigns.

Metals Industries for any financial

help.

Organization and Operation
Since Kanzaki was the largest
sion the chief of the Kanzaki
])lant of the divi-

i)l;int,

Osanm

Sugi-

moto, was also president of the Sumitomo Propeller

Direct supervision

by the Navy or

Army was

Division.
in the
setts

vev applied and no militaiy personnel were staned at any plant in other than routine resident
peetoi- status.

An exceedingly able man, having .studied graduate school of aeronautics at Mas.sachuSugimoto was head of Sumitomo's research antl design
vice
also
sec-

institute of Tec-hnology,

Botli bi'anches of the service

were

titular
tion.

ally interested in developing a "full-feathering"

Assisting the president as production chief executive

miilton

type proi)eller, favoring the Hamilton

and

president
Shirai.

I'espectively

were

However, since the VDM type )e s full-feathering and Sumitomo engineers were
over VD^l.
^er successful in
in

Bunzo Hito and Isanui

men on
rajima

the staff

The remaining three of the Sumitomo Propeller Divi:

obtaining a blade angle greater

sion were as follows
i^lant,

Soji Ilori, chief of the Saku-

60° on the Hamilton, the emphasis
tyi)e at the close of the
diificulties.

was on the

Joyoei Takesako, chief of the Shizu-

)M
a

war

despite produc-

Similarly,

both

the

Army and

oka plant, and Jlichitoshi Kitano, the chief of the Tsu plant (Figure 3).

ORGANIZATION CHART SUMITOMO PROPELLER DIVISION

GENERAL MANAGER
(OSAMU
SUGIMOTO)

PRODUCTION MANAGER (BJNZO HITO)

BUSINESS MANAGER (ISAMU SHIRAI)

INSPECTION

DEPT

TECHNICAL DEPT

ENGINEERINS

INSPECTION

LABOR
ADMINISTRATION

DEFENCE
DEPT.

BUSINESS
AFFAIRS

DEPT

DEPT

T'iU

PLANT

KANZAKI PLANT

SAKURAJIMA PLANT
(SOJI
HORI)
I

SHIZUOKA PLANT
JOEI

(MICHITOSHI KITANO)

(OSAMU SUGIMOTO)

TAKESAKO

)

Produetiou methods of the division (Appendices -were considered excellent when judged by Japanese standards, but the plants were without the modern mass production equipment em|)loyed by leading American manufacturers. There

company never considered

establishing

a
it

threi

B and C)

shift woi'king ilay because of the

woul create. A great imrcase in labor woukl have bee necessary and an additional burden placed on tl already overloaded public transportation system.

problems

were no mechanical conveyor systems and, although original contour cuts were made by machine, complete hand grinding was necessary in
the blade finishing section.

Although labor trouble was never considered
"bottleneck," examination of daily work atten

The number

of vi'hicles

ance records reveals a surprisingly high percental of absenteeism at all plants. The over-all absentc
ism at the Sumitomo plants appeared to be about
to 15 percent.
Oft'icials at
'.

available for transportation of parts between build-

ings

was

negligible.

system of confining workers to a single spewas successful, and it is perhaps significant to note that increases in production were sometimes accompanied by a decrease in man-hours,
cialized job

A

to explain

why
war

the

Sumitomo were request Japanese government wou
Their explanation

ii«i

allow such high absenteeism in such an importa
l)art

of the

industrj'.

w

that the government would not allow them to dr
rolls even thoiigh some them had been ill for many months. Thus, in mai cases, people were carried on the rolls of Sumitoi who were not and had not been pi-oductive lat

indicating the skill of individual workers at partic-

workers from the plant

ular jobs had greatly improved.
tices

"Job shop"

prac-

were not employed

in

any plant and even the

various dispersed locations maintained assembly-

The relatively high efficiency of Sumitomo plant was attributed to the fact that many of its officials had ^^sited the United States, and Sugimoto had personally visited the Hamilton
line techniques.

for extremely long periods.
Oft'ieials

the

were questioned as to whether or

Standard Propeller Division of United Aircraft in
Hartford, Conn.

Employment
Beginning in 1933, when the first propellers were produced at the Sakurajima plant, the Sumitomo Propeller Division always used a two-shift system. The day shift, utilizing about 85 percent of the employees, began work at 0730 and worked through 0730 that evening. Although the night shift was considered a production shift, only tiie machining
sections functioned. All subassendily

Sumitomo company paid these individuals a it was discovered that when an individual worl was absent for a period exceeding 14 days he v no longer paid by the company but was giA unemployment compensation by the Japanese g ernment. "When Sumitomo was required to subi figures to the Government relative to absenteei
the

they therefore prepared three percentages for

ea

and

final

as-

month; one, the total figure; two, the percentabsent which normally wovild be dropped from rolls and three, the actual absentee figure. Peak employnunit was reached in November I'J when 23,160 employees were working at the &
;

sembly shops were closed down.
U666

Officials

of the

l)lants

(Figure 4).

2

-

111

till'

r;irly ycjirs
\;iricil

ol'

I

he wai'.
4(1

laliiir
')'-J

I

iirii-iivcr nt
Ill

times,

the

projecteil

iuilliliilliii

lic'lwi'cli

;ill(l

prlcrlll.
nil'

s])eeded

up by
late

944,

li(i\\

r\('r,

line
idiis,

tn

llic

I'lTcds

III'

rjiids

on
fo

pleted

liy

movements could have been months and probably comsummer.
sevcr.-d

roi'kiiiii'

I'liiiilil

lii{'

Iciidrnry

of

faiiiilirs

Like

iitliir airiM-aft

companies, Sumitomo favored

lOVc

rriiiii

iii;iiiii I'jii-I iiriiii;'

arras Id rural
I'or

ai'cas,

ami
on
6

di-:pei>iiig plants to ex-schools

and converted

mills
to

u increase

in

i-nnscriplidn
tii

flu' ar.ncil

sci'viccs,
I>asc(l
lirst

(Figui-e

5
a

1.

Kanzaki,

for

exam|)le,

dispersed

ibor (iirn-i)\rr iiii-rcasi'd
ibor

T^i

pen-cut.
Inr

Kaiiiau,

couvi'rtcd
Iki'dn.

weaving mill; Naniwa, Sanda,

tiiriMiNcr
l!l4r),

rates

a\ailalilc

the

lOntJis of

labor tni'n-over would
(III

have de-

easod during the year to roughly
iiction
,j,

percent. I'ro-

uncertainties that acconipanied

mass

dis-

and the lack of positive tigures of number ol' ersonnel reijuired at planned dis])ersal lucafion-;
prsal

all converted school buildings; newly constructed, semiiinderground, factory built by Sumitomo at Iliroiio village. Since in most cases the dispei'sed sites were in

Shi jo, and

and

Ilii'iiiKi, a

luloubtedly caused this reduction in turn-ii\'er.
''

rief

Discussion of

Appended

Plant Reports

Since Kanzaki was the leading plant ot the divion,

|iroducing roughly 50 percent of
propellei's
a

all

.Sunii-

nio

and

:{.")

percent of

all

Japanese

same general area as the ])ai'ent plant (Appenno major labor trouble was experienced. iMany families had already moved from industrial sections into suburban areas near di.spersed plant sites and some furtliei- movement of Sumitomo employees was undertaken as part of the general dispersal program. Sumitomo officials expected labor
the

dix D)

•opcllei's,

tletailed

plant

report has been pre-

U'ed
as
L-1

on this plant.

Similarly, a complete reitort

conditions to be better after dispersal because there would be fewer man-hour losses cau.sed by alerts.

'*

prepared on the Sakurajinia plant wliicli wa.s e leading plant in the empire from ]1);!4 to 1943. le two smaller plants, Tsu and IShi/.uoka, for loni a status eiiuivalent to Kanzaki and Sakuraiia was planned had the war continued, produeeil llectively only 15 i)ercent of the .Suiiiitonio prollers. These two plants were not investigated in
tail

The mental state of individual workers, released from the strain of constant bombings, was also exl)ected to improve.

It was estimated In- officials of the corporation that problems connected with dispersal alone, dis-

''"^

but

information relative to them

may

be
file

und
ar

in the U. S. Strategic

Bombing Survey

regarding any other wartime difficulties, would have causetl production at the various ])lants to drop until August 1945, after which, it was hoped, recuperation would begin. Kanzaki plant managepercent,

Urcraft

Division), Adjutant General's Department, AVasbington, D. C.

Otfiee,

ment estimated their production would and Tsu, 60 percent.

droj) to

30

ispersal

THE AIR ATTACKS
Heavily damaged by area attacks against major
or attacked directl.y as assigned targets, all four of the main Sumitomo plants suffered from the B-29 raids during the period of 1 June until
cities,

Orders were issued by the Air IMinistry to Sumi-

mo

in

December
of all four

1944:

to

disperse

production

tivities

main plants and a search was

mediately started to find suitable locations.
arch
tual

By

had been procured and jiroduction started in a few. Kanzaki was
1945 eleven
sites

take
JDt

up

six of the.se positions, the Sakurajinia

Both Kanzaki and Sakurajinia, the two larger plants, were destroyed almo.st completely production at Kanzaki dropping from 1,672

26 June 1945.

was to ])e dispersed to three, and the opera >ns of Shizuoka and Tsu were to be moved to i dispersed Handa and Hatori plants, resi^ecely.

propellers in ^lay to 377 in June,
jinia

and

at

Sakura-

from 1,016

in .May to

100 in June.

U
3r.

appears that governmental planning in regard

Never a target for direct attack, the Kanzflki plant was nevertheless heavily damaged and lo.st 90 percent of its productive capacity in the area attack
against Amaga.saki on 15 June 1945.
attack of 1 June 40 incendiary
In the area

the aircraft industrj^ dispersal

program was very The transportation "bottleneck" resulting

)m the simultaneous exodus of

many

companies,

wed down the completion of all dispersal plans, mitomo, for example, had planned to complete dispersal program by December 1945, yet, had
table transportation
"ij-t(197—

been available at required

bombs landed within the plant area but were quickly extinguished by file air raid defense corps without damage to the plant. No extensive rej)air of damaged buildings or heavy equipment was undertaken at Kanzaki after the 15 June raid but it was planned to attempt

47—

\n

repair of eiiouyli
iliinery to
)roi)rflcrs
ioii.

ul'

I

lie su|H'i-lici;illy

djiniaged

iiui-

ly al

ilanda by

I

>eiM'nilicr

1945.

Tlie original

'I'su

permit

proiiuilinii of

350 Hamilton type

planl

was

to he retained as

a warehouse for parts

monthly— 2(1
and

piTcciit of the

Mny

j)r(ulue-

I'lnhiiiiJiKi'd iiiMchiiicry
Shi/.ii(il<a
'I'sii

was

disporisecl lo the

and material only. The Shizu(jkM plant,
of
2(1

as a i-esult of the air attacks

liroiio,

plants.
pi-odiietioii

.Inne. lost 99 percent of its ])r(jductive capac-

Two
he

air allacks directly affei-led

at
1

Sakiirajiiiia

plant.

The

lirst

oeeiii'red

on

si))le Iiut it

lune 1945 and the second on 24 July 1945. Daniige from tiie I'ormer attack was slight, only a few

ueendiary bonil)s falling within

tlu;

plant coni-

ouud;
frecked
leeu

the

second

attack,

however,

completely

Complete reeuperalion was not considered poswas planned to contiinie limited as.sembly work at the undamaged shops until the Hatori l)lant was completed and could attain a production rate of approximately 500 Hamilton type propellers monthly expected by December 1945.
ity.

Since dispersal had already tlie plant. accomplished, the attack of 24 July did not

PRODUCTION STATISTICS
The period of greatest production for the Sumitomo Propeller Division was from April 1944 through March 1945. During that period 32,596
were produced, representing 72 percent government short-range orders and 77 percent of capacity (Appendix E). The Kanzaki plant was the largest producer, manufacturing approximately 50 percent of all the Sumitomo propellers. Production from the Sakurajima plant increased until June 1945 when it produced approximately 53 percent of total production (Figure 6). Production of both Tsu and Shizuproi)ellei's

production to any great extent and it was ijanned to continue production at Nishinomiya,
tfect
logo,

and

]\Iatsuzakaya.

Although Nishinomiya was
in

aniaged

considerably

the

area attack of

6

of

was rapid and it was hoped tliat would be regained by 1 September. roduction
ugust, recovery

The Tsu plant was damaged only slightly in the ttack of 26 June. A considerable part of the disersal to Ilanda had, however, already been eomIt was planned to produce approximately leted.
00

Hamilton and 500

VDM type propellers month-

1

COMPARATIVE PLANT PRODUCTION JULY 1945 APRIL 1944

jAn.

oka also increased uiuil March 1945 when they coutrilmted about 27 jierceiit of the total. Capacity proiliK'tion was never attained, but during July 1944 a total of 3,140 propellers was produced
representing
79

percent

of

estimated

capacity.

to alerts and air raids were 10 percent at all plai. Engineers at the Kanzaki plant also claimed potential capacity was greatly reduced beca they wei-e forced to make the VD5I type prope which required ap]iroxiniately 75 percent more ui
t

From December 1944
peak
capacity

until the close of the war,

asscndily time.
[

production declined sharply due to air attacks and problems connected with dispersal (Appendix F).
actual
In the first half year of 1945 alerts

and

The

officials of

Sumitomo

belii'\cd that the

gl

oiunicnt i)laniicd
\\as too

prdduction

for

the

corporal

and actual

high tlirougli ^iarch 1945, but thereaf

raids caused a lowering of jiroduction capabilities.
Officials of the

liad the proi)eller division of
lis

Sumitomo maintai
i[\v

company estimated

that losses dne

war time

rate of expansion (Figure 7),

would liavc l)een attainable. Government orders were submitted in October for the ensuing year and long-i-ange planning was acconii)lished at this time. Sliort-ranye planning was ba.-ed on quarterly prodiicti(jn timiics submitted approximately two months before the beginning of a new quarter. Tlie over-all iiro(hictiou of the Svunitomo Propeller Division is sliown in Figure 7. Unusual fluctuations in pi-oduction are explained on the graph, Init it may lie signilicant to ])oint out that although govi'i'nmcnt orders do not include requests for woodcn-bladed |)ropellers, the actual jjrodnction
included iipproximately 400 sue] pi'opellers.
i

to

conserve aluminum, Sumitomo began the

Hamilton tyjj January ]!I45 and had produceil 120 durinjf month of June. According to production heads of tlie eoml failure on the part of Sumitomo to meet Go| ment orders was attributed to various causes, lack of I'aw materials, or, more correctly, the] control over raw materials by the governmenj
duct ion of the wooden-bladed

considered the chief "bottleneck" (Reference!
1).

In

many

instances materials eontracte(l

l<"'orced

were not received on time, thus making fnlfilll of committments an impossiliility. In the opi

i'(iiii|i;iiiy

olTicijils,

till'

,l;ci\ i'|-liiii('lil

\\;is

ciiiitiiill-

EVALUATION OF PREATTACK
INTELLIGENCE
Siiiriciriit

y

(ivi'iTiiipiiiisiziiin' Diic

lliiiit;'

di'

aiiol licr.

Wln'ii
I'.iw

niitiii

•I'piirtcd
oil
liillrli

that the

tlii-y

were not getting
Wdilld
pnicurcllielll

itci-ials

liiiic.

(inviTliinent
nil

Iheii

data was not availahle for \V1)
Service (!-2 to
])i-fdii't

.Mili-

K'C

sn

cilllill.isis

of these

1ar\'

iiilrllijicni-c

monthly
esti-

iterials tiiat
!

lluy woulil
items

1eiii|)()rarily t'oi-yct alioiil
(if

prodni'tioii of i)ropellirs.

However, <|uar1erly
low.

other
liiol

ei-ilii-al

the

imliislry

sueli

as

mates,

made up

throiijjh the first (|uar1er of 1944,
thouj.'li slii;litly
fai-t

Kjr,

I'epaii-,

iii-Dciireinciit, rte.,

thcrrliy eausi)ahinee.

were {generally correct
iieiirc s<iiipci's

Intelli-

thc entire

|>r(ii;i-aiii

to he

thrown ont of

did not ic\cal the
opcratioii

that the

Tsu

addition, plant

oll'icials

offered the I'oihiwinj;' as

itrilintiny I'acfors in tlicir inaliility to

meet
(3")

|)hiiit

was

in
I

tiie

and no mention was made

(nested
__

i)ro(hietion

(piotas:

(]j

disj)ersal,

(2)
diffi-

in ..Militaiy

iitelliuem-e Service rei)orts to the pro-

lenteeisiii

due

to alerts

and

air raids,

duction of ihis plant,

ty in the proeureinent of maeliine tools
ts,

and small

(4) the necessity of iirodiieini;' surh a ureat

REFERENCE ITEMS
The
follow
inji'

•iety

of prodnets.
i)ro(lnetioii

material

is

in the tiles of

I'SSBS,

^.etnal
ler
[4

data of the Suiiiitoiiio Pro-

Aircraft Dixision, in the Office of the Adjutant General,

Division for the periixl ])revious to April

War

Department, WashiuKton, D.
1.

(J.

was destroyed

at

Kauzaki

in the air raid of

June.
4
a

Production statistics subsequent to April were available and are submitted together with from the Air .Ministry for the period from
l!i41 to

Eeference Item
ceived
tracted For."

Chart,

"Raw

^Faterials Re-

Compared With Amount Ordered or ConSumitomo Corporation Report No.

-ril

April 1944.

VI.

•yi

APPENDIX A SUMITOMO PROPELLER DIVISION PRODUCTS
Blade
Size

Shank
Sise

A AB

D D

D
E

D
E E E

H H
I

E
E

E
E E

K G

E

E

H
L

H H

M

O
P

Q

S

T

M
N

Eip.

FLOW CHART
HAMILTON TYPE PROPELLER
PLANT SCHEMATIC FLOW CHART
STOWAGE (MATERIALS)

PROCESSING FLOW CHART

BLDO

VDM
PLANT
STORAGE
(MATERIALS)

FLOW CHART TYPE PROPELLER

SCHEMATIC

FLOW

CHART

SHALL PIS

yiDOLE

F>TS

BEARS

BARREL

BLADE

BLDO

DISPERSAL PROGRAM

ORIGINAL

PLANT
KANZAKI

DISPERSED LOCATIONS

(1)

APPENDIX E
Planned, Capacity, and Actual Production by Months

SUMITOMO PROPELLER DIVISION
Production capacity, H-type Propeller

1941

Period

1933 January. February.
.

1934

1935

1940

H Capacity H
570 580 590 6,449

.Actt

20
22 24
166

39 40
41

March

.

.

.

58 60 61

110 120 130

230 235 200
2 330
,

340 350 360

460 470 479

Total Fiscal
April

407
43 45 47 49 63 65 67

1.026
140
160'

3,660
370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450
488 497
,506

26

May
.Tune
.luly

28 29 30
. . .

170 180

.August.

31

50
51

Septeniber.

October. Xoveinber.
.
.

33 35
:57

52 54

December
Total Year

38

56
567

69 70 80 90 100 845

190 195 200 210 220

250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 3,275

515 573 530 640 550 500

BOO 632 084 696 728 760 802 835 883

2,025

4,740

0,168

Period

Capacity

Actual

VDM
January. February.
.

H
974 1.050 1,005

March

,

.

.

910 947 990
fiscal

Total
April

11,184
027 1.065
I
,

30 30

9,591

May
,Iune

1

,

102

July
-August.
.

.

September. October
. , .

1.140 1.180 1.120 1 255
.

November. December
Total year.

I

,

.iOO

1,.340

13,376

MONTHLY CAPACITr

SUMITOMO METAL INDUSTRIES
KANZAKI PLANT
(KANZAKI SEISAKUSHO)

PLANT REPORT

No.

VI—

14

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I'ACiE

The Plant and

Its

Function

in tiik AiiiCRAFT

Inoustky

16

Effects of Bombing
Intelligence Check

20
25

Vulnerability

25
25

General Impressions
Reference Items
Appendices
:

25

A — Jlap

of Plant

;

Facing p 26
27

B—List
C

of Products

—Departmental

Organization

28
20

D— Flow Charts, Hamilton and YDil Type Propellers E— Employment Statistics, Api'il 1941 -August 19-45 F— :\lan-li<)urs Worked, April l!)41-August 1945
G — Actual
II

33 34

Planned and Capacity Production

Statistics

34 35

— Map

of Dispersal Locations

15

THE PLANT AND
Introduction
Tlie

ITS

FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
type figures. Kanzaki produced propellers for
25 different aircraft (Appendix B).
sc

Kanzaki factory, largest of the four plauts of the propeller division of Sumitomo Metal Industries and tiie lai'gest i)ropeller manufacturer in
Japan, was located in Amagasaki (34-44N, 135-253()Et.
ilivision

Plant Organization and Operation

The chief of the Sumitomo Propeller

Divis:

The main

oflfices

and design

section of the

Osanui Sugimoto, was also the head of the Kans
Jilant, and in jjarticular was in charge of the des department there. He had studied aeronaut

weie maintained in
Iniilt

this plant.

Kan/.aki was
Wi.r.

in the 3

years preceding the

eonnnencing operation in April 1041, and contained 129 buildings with a total floor area of 2,414,676 square feet (Appi'udix A). No major
expansion
of

engineering at the Ma.ssachusetts Institute of T

factory

buildings

was undertaken

after the initial construction of the plant, the in-

crease in ])ioduction from 1941 to the onset of air
raids in 1945 being attributed to increasing skill of
tlie

Isamu Shirai was chief assistant to S moto both in the Division administration anc Kanzaki. lie was especially concerned with b ness affairs and labor administration and was addition, charged with the air-raid defense sys of all four plants. Bunzo Hito, a staff menibe
n.ilo^y.

workers and the development of labor-saving

the Propeller Division, acted as production su

jigs

and tools. The research section, however, was expanded greatly in 1944 witli the completion of the wind tunnel in Marcii and the addition of two new lest cells in .May. This I'cndered the research anil design section independent of the Sumitomo plant at Sakxn-ajima, whose facilities Kanzaki had
been compelled to use up to this time.

intendent at Kanzaki, in general charge of the
duction, engineering, technical, and inspection

partments.
K;inzaki
tlie

was organized

in

seven

departme

business dep;irtnient, undi'r Keiichi

Wada
pol

rectly,

and

idtiniately on the divisional

and

making
jilant

level

under Shirai;

tli(>

labor admiuLs

There was no cimneriion between the
the government
e.\ee|)t

and
jiro-

ti(in

department, under Shirai; the defense dep

in

matters relating to

ii;ent.

under Shirai; the production departn
Soji
TIoi
i

fr«i

duction re(piirenients, and there were no govern-

Tiiuler

directly

and

llito
;

finally;

ment supervisors

at the plant

other tiian the usual

engineering depaitment, under llito

the tecln

Navy and xYnny

inspectors charged v.ilh lh" ae-

department, directed by Sugiir.oto but administ
liy

ceptaiice or rejection of fiiushed prop.'llei's for their

llito;

and the

ins|)ection
\'()sliida

department under
directly
(

respective services. All financial recjuirements were

Lcnerally and Inao

A]ipendix

met by Sumitomo

^Nletal

hulustries, which in turn
at

Production-line technique was used suecessl

was dependent on the Sumitomo Bank. Sumitonui
.Mel;,!

Kanzaki

excejit tliat
still

output
low

in relation to

a

liKbislries iiad set

aside a

fnnd

io

be used

able Hoor area was
iean standards

when judged by
Conveyor
officials

A

in

tile devel()|)inent
foi'

of i)rop( Uer designs

and majiu'
pi'opeilers

(A|)pendix D).

sys

loans
at

j)rototy])e c-onstruetion of

new

were not used.

Many Sundtomo
in

had stu
ar

Kanzaki were chai'ged against

this fund.

mass pi'oduction methods
teni])t
jolis

Anuuica and

Kanzaki produced boUi
couiilerwei.Ldit
lypi'

tlie

iiamilton standard
the

was made to confine A\orkers
thi'ii
It

to partic

propeller and

Vereiniyte

and

to (b'\'elo]i iii(li\idual skill ("stai

DiMitsehe

.M'

t:,llwerke (\'1).M) piopeller, for

which

ization").
a

was
cft'ect

felt

that

sound planinng had
se\
.spit

Sunutonio purchased the patents from the United States and (Jermany i-espectively. In 1!I43, about
4(J0 j>i-opellers of a

beneficial

on production and on

modified Hanulton type were

occasions monthly |)rodnction increased in

pi-oduced, 120 of the-;e in .June.

This propeller had

an accompanying drop

in the

luimber of employ
at

wooden blades and was
l.at

not aee( ]>tablp
installeil in

under

cdhiair-

Student labor was empbiyed

Kanzaki

f

coiulitions, but

was

iirst-line

A|nil 1944, but, with the exception of dischai

ci-al't

used as advanced

ti-ainers.

Production

statis-

men included
ilier labor-

in woi'kei's of civilian status,
1

no
]

tics for this i)ro])eller

are included in the Hamilton

was used (Figure

and Appendix

16

on the night
of the plant

sliift

— the

tinal

and accordingly the main part assembly shops was shut

down during

this period.

Supply of Materials and Components

Kaw
of

materials allocations were

made

at meetings

not handled satisfactorily. The plant was pendent on over 40 different suppliers for raw n terials and components (Reference Item 1). The following products were made from raw n terials propeller blades, propeller hub bann blade bushings, liners, counterweight brackets, sp
:

company and govei'nmeut
reepiirenients

officials at whieli the

ers, pistons, gears,

and miscellaneous small
at

pai

government
terly)

also presented its short-range

(quar-

Blade, barrel, and propeller assembly for lioth lie
ilton

and the company requested

and

VDM

types were done

the plant.
bla(

such assistance as was necessary. When materials were not delivered on time, formal objections were

In addition to the use of
in place of

wooden propeller

aluirdnum, shortages of critical materi
or(

made

to the Kinki district office which in turn informed the ^Munitions Jlinistry if the matter was

compelled a nuudjer of other substitutions in
that production might continue (Table 1).

Table
Original material

1.

Sumitomo Propeller
Substitute

Division,

Kanzaki Plant— Use

of Substitute Materials
Development
ar

Where
Spider

.Applied

Reason
Shortage of Ni Shortage of Ni
1.

for use

success of substit

Ni-Cr-Mo
Ni-Cr-Mo

Steel

Si-Cr-Mu Steel
Si-Cr-Mu
Steel

& Mo
& Mo

Mass-produced
.\ugust 1943.

fr

Steel

Barrel, bracket, counterweight
etc.

Mass-produced August 1943.

fr

Ni-Cr-Mo

Steel

Carbon

Steel

Cylinder head piston, etc

Case-hardening Steel
Light alloy propeller blade

Case hardening Steel

Gears

(VDM)

Shortage of Ni & Mo No need for high strength 3. Easier working properties,. Shortage of Ni
2.

(^Mass-produced ( from .\ugust 11

Mass produced
August 1943

fr

Wooden Wooden
Hollow

propeller blade
propeller blade

,

,

,

.

Propeller blade for Ki 51 Propeller blade for

Shortages

of

.'M

{Schwarz type)
. .

ALass-produced fr .lanuary 194.5

.

,

QlWl
Hll

Shortage of Al
} 1.
.

Not-mass produc
of

(Hardened wood type).
steel propeller

A6MS, A6M2-K, G4M3.
Propeller blade for

blade

KL

Shortage

Al

3

Not mass-produ

/

2.

Superiority in large blades.

Be bronze

casting

Al-bronze casting
Malleable cast-iron lining
,\I-br(jnze casting
of

Blade bushing

Shortage of Be
Shortage of

Mass produced
19.39.

A' -bronze casting

Blade bu.shing
Oil supply line packing

Cu

Mass-produced
-August 1944.

fl

Leither packing

Rubber packing

Shortage of leather
1.

Mass-produced fr October 1944
(

1

Superiority in preventing
oil

Copper-asbestos packing.

Rubber packing

Cylinder head packing

^
(,

2.

leakage Shortage of

Cu and

asbestot

(

Mass-producec from April 1

Production

Statistics

high s])eeds.

Results

:

Several sections were
figures

a

Kanzaki reached peak capacity of 2270 propc^llers in October 19-1:4. Planned production had reached its j>eak in 8eptemb(>r 1944 with a pro-

tained which were improvements over current ty

month

Experiment
.suits:

:

To obtain

on changes
pitch,
li

blade length and to determine

optimum

jected

:{ll4(t

i)ropellers but actual production never
(

rose above the 1878 of .Inly 1!)41

Fignri' 8 and A|)-

pendix

G

Best blade lengths were determined, tl retical figures on airfoil ratings were obtained a study was made of heavy-loaded propellers.
Vibration.
istics of

)

Kepair work was not pcrforiiied

;it

Kanzaki.

Experiment To study the charac
:

propeller blade frequencies. Results: Ni
:

Diversion of Plant Capacity and Effort to

Experiment

Mea.surement

of

the

vibral

l^t.

Experimental

Work

stress of rotating propeller blades.

Results: Ni

As mentioned al)ove, the Kanzaki plant was the home of the research section of the ISumitomo Pro pellcr Division. Experiments carried out and a
coMi|)l('tc'

stress ilistribution along

tabulation of results were

a.s

follows:

Experiment: To obtain airfoil sections for propellers that would perform best at

Aerodynamics.

Experiment: To determ shank and boss of Ha; ton type propeller. Results: Stress diagram obtained by photoelectric and direct measureme Experiment To determine the torsional rigic
Propeller Parts.
:

of various propeller blades.

Results

:

Figures

vi

18

LEGENO
Actual Produclion Production Copocity

Government Plons

NOTES ON ACTUAL PRODUCTION
1.

Difficulty

irt

ossetnbly of

VDM

type propeller
Z. Increose

m

skilt

of worhers

3 Shortoge

of piston springs and

spinner hollow-steel belts from

Chuo Spring Co

,

Nogoyo

4

Shoflage of ports

5 Dispersal

6 Recovery from dispersal 7
Air roids

NOTES ON CAPACITY
A Enponsion
B Conversion C Dispersot D
Air roids
of plont facilities

to

VDfi^ type

April

1945

Government adopts system of ordering bosed on actual circumstances of compony

US STRATEGIC
SUMITOfvIO

BOfVie

SURVEY

PROPELLER DIVISION KANZAKI PLANT

I

APR,

1941

APR 1942
I

I

APR 1943

A

l>

D

F

1944

1945

tained for several light alloy blades.

Experiment;

To improve the

electric

motors
Results:

To determine a suitable lubricant f the pitch-control mechanism of the VDil proller. Results A suitable lubricant was discov: :

Experiment

used to change pitch on the
Useful data obtained.
oil

YDM

type.

d.

Experiment
rts
ita

;

To determine the strength of the
type propeller boss.
Results:

of the

VDM

To improve the performance of the motors used to change pitch on the ^^^M type. Results Useful data obtained. Experiment. To improve performance of VD^I
Experiment
: :

bjeeting parts to centrifugal force
)vemonts.

was obtained for worm, worm wheel, etc., by and twisting
Expei'imiJiit

governer. Results: Useful data obtained. Experiment To devise a satisfactory featlicring
:

mechanism for the
:

VDM

propeller.

Results:

Use-

Governing Systems.

To check the
Re-

ful data olttained.

rformanc'e of the Hamilton type governor.
Its
:

Wooden

Propellers.

Experiment

:

To determine

Several dimensions were changed and an im-

9ved performance obtained.

strength and fatigue of ordinary and improved plywood blades. Results Engineering data on ueees:

19

sary strengths were obtaineil. Experiment: To develop a L-eiueiit for nse around

ing both leather and synthetic rubber packing wei
developed.
Metals.
plating.
stitutes
tain(Hl.

blade shank.

Results:

A

cement suitable for

mass

production was obtained. To develop a eoating to protect Experiment
:

To impro\e on existir The use of cadmium and its su was studied and reference data was o
E.xperiment
:

Results:

blades from weather.
for mass production

Results:

A

eoatintr suitable

Chemicals.
Results:

was obtained. Experiment: To obtain suitable

Experiment
lu-

:

To determine

the jiossibility of u
Result

bricants for various parts of 1he

VD.M

propeller.

ing

new types

of steel in propeller blades.

Study completed and operating require:

Data obtained.
In addition to these experinu'uts, seven expei

ments satisfied. Experiment To

test the possibility of

using syn-

thetic rubber as packing.

Results:

.Metiiods of us-

mental propellers were constructed for l)lanes (Table 2).

jji'ototy

Table

2.

Sumitomo Propaller
Type

Division,

Kanzaki Plant
No.

—Experimental Propellers Constructed for Prototype Plane

VDM VDM
Haniiltun (cjunter-rotating)

VDM VDM VDM

and Hamilton (hollow

steel).
. . .

\'DM and Hamilton (plywood)

4

Photo

1

— Building

S-1

(Hub Assembly Shop),

looking west.

Photo 2
7U1«'J7— 47—

— Building S-2

(Hub Assembly Shop),

view of roof.

21

/ ".^^^

'li

Photo

3

—Building

S-2

(Hub Assambly Shop),

west wall.

Photo 4

—Building

S-3

(Heat Treatment Shop).

22

Photo

5

— Building

S-4

(Final Assembly Shop).

«-:'• '*

-^

•fl'^iwa

Photo 6

— Building S-4

(Final Assembly Shop), east wall.

23

Phcto 7

— Building

T

(Machine Shop), southwest corner.

twice, the
in

numerous

alerts c-aused extensive losses

man-hours of work.

This

is

shown

in Table

3.

Table

3.

Sumitomo Propeller Division, Kanzaki PlantMan-Hours Lost Dur to Air-RaicI Alerts

Month, 1945

. .


Table
Description
4.

Sumitomo Propeller
Floor area
(sq. ft.)

Division,

Kanzaki Plant

— Dispersal Program
No. workers

Prodncts

itmn.
jo

iiiwa

da...
ono.

Spinning mill School School School Tunnels and Woods
School

da...

73,333 21.164 27,513 16,931 148,148 47,619 31,746

Hub (VDM)
Tools mid jigs

».?

Research and design Tools and jigs

Assembly Assembly

(

\'DM)
of pitcli-controUiiiK parts

(VDM)

AIM'KM)1\
LIST OF PRODUCTS, KANZAKI PLANT,
<liank

i;

SUMITOMO PROPELLKH DIVISION

APPENDIX C
KANZAKI PLANT, SUMITOMO PROPELLER DIVISION
DEPATiTMEXTAL ORGANIZATION
Departments
Sections

General Affairs (Haruichi Hiyoshi)

Accounts (Kyuzo Koniinami)
Business
{Kaiichi

Wada)

Storage (Yasukazu Naito)

Transportation (Gentaro Masuda)

Personnel (Haruichi Hiyoshi)

Labor - Administration

Labor Employment (Tatsuji Kijinia)
Education (Tamotsu Sakaguchi)
Welfare
(

Isamu Shirai Business Manager and
Chief Assistant in I'ropeller Division

(

Isanni Stiirai

Ryosaburo Yoshii)

Defense

Planning (Keizo Hama)

Osaniu Suginioto Head of Plant and
Chief of Propeller Division

(Isaniu Shirai)

Guard (Keizo Hama)

Planning (Yasuo Jippo)
.Materials (Tokishiro Shiina)

MfK- No.

Production Soji Hori
(

Mfg. No.
(

1— Parts 2— Blade

(Koji

Ogawa)

Assembly

Kojo Ogawa)

General Affairs (Sei \V;ilanabe)

lUnizo Hito

Machine Tools (Yoshio Matsui)
of

Production Manager
ind Staff

Member

Engineering
(

Construction Materials (Noboru Doi

Propeller Division

Bunzo Hilo)

Repair Shop (Jinkichi Ohi)

Designing (Shuichiro Kamitani)
Teelmical (Osaniu Suginioto)

Research (Kikusaburo Nagashima)
Service (Kikusaburo Nagashima)

Inspection No.

1— Assembly and Bla( (Masakl Hatagaki) 2— Parts
3— Outside
Orders

Inspection No.

(Masakl Hatagaki)
Inspection

Inspection No.
(

(Inao Yoshida)

Inao Yoshida)
(

Measuring

Inao Yoshida)

Kainan Dispersal Plant (Shigeru Kawabata)

28

PROCESSING FLOW CHART
HAMILTON TYPE PROPELLER
BLADE

HUB BARREL
FRONT REAR HALF HALF

BLADE
STORAGE (MATERIALS)
MATERIALS

BUSHING LINER

CWT. BRACKET SPIDER

PISTON MISCPTS.
MATERIALS
MATERIALS

MATERIALS MATERIALS MATERIALS MATERIALS MATERIALS MATERIALS
|

BLDG Noe

TURNING

TURNING

SHAPING

BLOo.

Nae

MA RISING GROUND FLR. TURNING
I

TURNING
I

I

TURNING
|

|

MARKING
|

GRINDING

I

GRINDING
I

GRINDING
I I

GRINDING GRINDING TURNING
I

TURNING(TURNINO)

DRILLING
I

TURNING

|

BORING HAND REAMING
I

I

DRILUNG
I

1

ORLLINO
BLDG NO. HARDENING
3

MILLING

GRINDING

FORGE
FITTING

TURNING
I

I

DRILLING

(HARDENING

HARDENING
TURNING

TURNING
PROFILE MILLING BY TURNING M/C

GRINDING

I

TURNING
GRINDING

I

MILLING
I

MARKING
I

TURNING
GRINDING Til

DRILLING

RECTIFYING PROFILE MILLING

TURNING
I

I

TURNING
I {

GRINDING

MILLING
DRILLING

BY PROFILER
I

MILLING
REAMING
GRINDING
I

FILING GRINDING (BLUE CHECK)
I

THREADING MILLING
|

DRILLING

I

RECTIFYING
2ND.

MILLING

TURNING
GRINDING

HAND
FINISHING

°'"hL"^«

HAND
ING)

fLR HAND MILLING BY FLEXIBLE SHAFT
MILL
I

-h-

GRINDING

GRINDING
I

I

HAND
FINISHING

INSPEGTINSPECTING
MILLING
I

(CHAMFER-FINISHING ING) (CHAMFER-

1"^''

(CHAMFERING)
DRILLING
SINKING

GRINDING

HAND GRINDING BY FLEXIBLE SHAFT FIBRE DISC F«PER
I

GRINDING
I

I

a

CHAMFERING
BLDG.

TAPPING
I

TURNING „,l „ SUPERI

BLDSfNaS
IHMOCNINS)

FILING

GROUND
FLR.

ETCHING

T
I

NO 9
HAND
GRINDING (BALANCING)

HAND FINISHING FINISHING
(CHAMFERING) MILLING DRILLING
|

BLDG.
NO. 8

BALANCING
BUFFING
INSPECTION
INSPECTION

HAND GRINDING
(BALANCING) INSPECTING INSPECTING
I

INSPECTING

INSPECTWG

INSPECTING
BLDG.
NO.

PLATING

3

PLATING

PLATING

(PLATING)

BLDG NOT

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

HAND REAMING
FORCE FITTING

ASSEMBLING
(BALANCING)
I

BLDG. NO. 4

INSPECTING
I

PAINTING (BALANCING)

DIS-ASSEMBUNG
PACKING
I

SHIPPING

U a STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

SUMITOMO PROPELLER KANZAKI PLANT
APPENDIX D

DIV.

(I)

29

PLANT SCHEMATIC FLOW CHART
HAMILTON TYPE PROPELLER

STORAGE (MATERIlLS)
i=

PROCESSING

FLOW CHART

VDM TYPE PROPELLER
BARREL
STORAGE MATERIALS
GEARS
SMALL PTS

MATERIALS

MATERIALS

MATERIALS

BUILDING
Ground
Floor

Na5

BUILDING
I

NO

I

BUILDING

NO, 2

BUILDING

MARKING
TURNING
GRINDING
I

MARKING
I

MARpNG
TURNING PROFILE 'milling BY TURNING "i/c RECTIFYING PROFILE 'milling BY PROFILER RECTIFYING
First

GRINDING
I

TURNING
GRINDING

TURNING
GRINDING

TURNING
I

TURNING

DRILLING
MILLING
I

BUILDING

NO

3

Floor

TURNING

PLATING

HARDENING

HARDENING

HAND MILLING BY FLEXIBLE SHAFT MILL

THREADING
I

DRILLING
I

HAND GRINDING BY FLEXIBLE SHAFT
FIBRE DISC PAPER FILING
Ground Floor

GEAR CUTTING
I

GRINDING
I

TURNING
I

HONING
I

GRINDING

SINKING

BUILDING

NO

3

TURNING
I

GRINDING
I

TAPPING

r ETCHING

CASE-HARDENING

GRINDING
I

TURNING
I

HAND GRINDIMG BY FLEXIBLE SHAFT
GRINDER
(balancing)
I

MILLING

BALANCING
BUFFING INSPECTING

THREADING
GRINDING

INSPECTING

DRILLING
MILLING
I

BROACHING OR SLOTTING
I

HAND FINISHING
DRILLING

DRILLING
I

MILLING
I

NO
TAPPING
I

3

GEAR GRINDING
I

HAND

FINISHING

HAND FINISHING
INSPECTIN-G

BY AIR GRINDER
INSPECTING

INSPECTING

BUILDING NO. 3 PLATING

PLATING

PLATING

STORAGE

(ports finished)

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

STORAGE

BUILDING NO. 6
FirsI

Floor

PARTS -ASSEMBLING

Ground Floor

ASSEMBLING
BALANCING
I

FINAL- ASSEMBLING
I

DIS-ASSEMBLING
I

INSPECTING
I

PACKING
SHIPPING

PAINTING (BALANCING)

US

STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

SUMITOMO PROPELLER DIVISION KANZAKI PLANT
APPENDIX D-3

31

PLANT SCHEMATIC FLOW CHART
VDM TYPE PROPELLER
SMALL PTSH

(MATERIALS)

1

[middle PT s] [gEARs]

|

BARREL

|

iBLADEp

BLDG NO 9

. . . .

. ,

APPENDIX E
Employment
Statistics,

April 1911 Aufiusl 1945
Students

Kanzaki Plant, Sumitomo Propeller Division
Total
Direct-Indirect

Hegular workers

Newly

hired

Men
1941
April

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Prod.

Non-P.

Total

Men

Women

Muy
June
July

August September. October November. Det-ember
. .

422 532 620 758 025
.503

27

35 43
54 108 177
184 199
1
,

449 567 663 812
133

.

.

.

.

662 845 743

180 198 212 259 309 325 326 338 376 385 398 403 407

1,680 1.846 2,044 1,923
2
1

422 532 620 758 1,025 1 503 1,662 1,845 1,743
,

27

35 43 54 108
177
184

199 180

449 587 663 812 1 133 1.680 1.846 2.044 1,923
,

.375

475 554 694 082
1.4.53

74 92
109

118
171
1
,

449 567 663 812
133

10

6
3

8 44

8
8 43

820 1.810 1,706
1
.

227 226 234 217

1,680 1,848 2,044 1.923

43 108 287
163

66
33 25 9
18
19

115

28
.53

1942
Januii y.
.
. .

February.

.

.

March
April

May
June
July

915 992 035 854 977
126

,

13

2 204
,

2 294
,

August September. October

.

November. December
,

.

.

170 642 241 320 382 463

3,163 302 452 508 018 626 718 785 4,870 5,160 5,622 6.146 7.128 7.900 8.016 8.221 8.253 8.122 8.087 8.065 8.287

1,915 1,992 2,035 2,854 977 126 170 642 241

320 4,382 4,463
4,736 5,185 5,660 6,570 7,318 7,434 7,627 7,655 7,528 7,499 7,463 7,697
7,846 7,939 8,206 9,051 8,898
9,6,33

198 212 259 309 325 326 338 376 385 398 403 407

2,113 2,204 2,294 3,163 3,.302 3,452 3 508 4,018 4,626 4,718 4,785 4,870
,

1,877
1,9.58

2,002 2,804 2,914 3,052 3,088 3,529 4,097 4,161 4,220 4,295
4 552
.

236 246 292 359 388 400 420 489 529
557 565
.575

2,113 2.204 2.294
3
.

44 54

21

163

3.302 3.452 3 508 4.018 4.626 4.718 4.785 4.870
.

419 365 160 74
.381

83 28 21
16

20
15
3

644 57 56
61 61

10

I94i January.
. .

February

,

.

March
April

736 185 660 570
,318
,434 ,627

May
June
July

August September.
October
.

665
,528
,499
.

.

November. December
.

,463 ,697

.

424 437 486 558 582 582 594 598 594 588 602 590

424 437 486 558 582 582 594 598 594 588 602 590

5,160 5,622 6,146 7,128 7,900 8,016 8,221 8,253 8,122 8,087 8,065 8,287 8,445 8,617 9,147 10.834 10.708 12.098 12.576 12.360 12.223 11.894 12,866 12.749
13.019 12.835 12.198 11.811 11.162 10.420 8,748 8.748

4.977 5,441 6.315 7.031 7.142 7.339 7,359 7,245 7 223 7,195 7,401
,

608 645 705 813 869 784 882 894 877 864 870 886 898 917 1.120 1.260 1.325 1 432 430 1 1.421 1.402 1.429 1.468 1.462
. .

5.160 5.622 6,146 7.128 7.900 8.016 8,221 8.253 8.122 8.087 8.065 8.287

14

79

35
54

652 483
178 112

74 36
16
14

88 202 43 66 87 288 238
81

8
7
11

16

20
11

1944

January
February.

.

846
,939
.

.

March
April

.

.

.

.

,706 ,766 ,583
,877

May
June
July

,590 ,346
.

August September
October
.

083
.

,718

November. December
.

.

.

594 476

599 678 941 1,400 1,427 1,472 1.489 1,484 1 463 1,490 1,710 1,735
,

8.445 8.617 9.147 10.166 10.010
10,.349

10.079

9.830 9.546
9 208
.

9..304

9.211

285 315 756 1,507 1,554 1.583 1,601 1.792 1,775
734 1,710 1,750 1,809 1,460 819 135
1
,

383 383 993 990 976 1.094 1.085 1.770 1,763
1.872 1.850 1,712
1,.362

668 698
1,749 2,497
2,5.30

2 677
.

2.686 3.562 3,538
606 560 462
171

10,097 9.900 9,666 9,319 9.386 9.251

599 678 941 1,783 1,810 2,465 2,479 2.460 2.557 2 575 3.480 3.498 3,397 3,740 3.491 3 325 3.206 3.214 2.748 2.748

7,547 7,700 8.027 9.574 9.383 10.666 11.146
10.9.39

10.821 10.468

11.398 11.285
11,428 11,270 10,632 10,233

8.445 8.617 9.147 10.834 10.708 12.098 12,576 12..360 12.223 11.894 12.866 12.747
13,019
12.8.35

19

152

104

1.166 78 708 1.062 148
1.59

124

282 30
194

1.048 73 442 256 28 155 23 775 248
225 43 9 89 97 31

J

945
.
.

January

February.

.

.

March
April

May
June
July

August

588 385 957 767 496 387 865 865

1,825 1,890 1,779 1,873 1,912 1,920 1,925 1,925

9,413 9,275 8,736 8,640 8,408 8,.307 7,790 7,790

135

1,294 1,294 823 823

754
113

958 958

9.322 9.095 8.707 8.576 7.956 7,206 6.000 6,000

I.,591

1.565

63
5

9,565
8,8.30

7,163 7,163

1.566 1.578 1.597 1.590 1.585 1,585

12.198 11.811 11,162 10.420 8.748 8.748

31

90
5
1

Yearly turnover: 1941, 81 percent; 1942, 73 percent; 1943, 35 percent; 1944, 65 percent; 1945, 6 percent.

33

APPENDIX F
Maii-Hours Worked, April 1941-August 1945, Kamaki Plant, Sumitomo Propeller Division
Month
1941
April

Men

May
June. July August
. -

Septemh

:

October Xoveniber

December
January
Febnu»r\'
.\!:irch
,

.

.

84.854 102.063 131.041 141.461 164,144 246 799 305,429 366.016 374.187
.

1942

April

.

May.
June. July.

.

.

.

August
September. October ....

November December
January. February.
.

.

-

.

1943
.
.

.

.

March
April

May

DISPERSAL

LOCATIONS

KYOTO

OSAKA

jU S-STRATEOIC B0M8IWG SURVEY

JMlTOMO PROPELLER KANZAKl PLANT

DIV.

APPENDIS H

35

2

SUMITOMO METAL INDUSTRIES
SAKURAJIMA PLANT
(SAKURAJIMA SEISAKUSHO)

PLANT REPORT

No.

VI—

36

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

The Plant and
Attack Dat
\

Its

FrxcTKix

in

the Aikckakt Inihtstkv

;!8

41
i'2

Effects of Rojibinc;
Intelligence Check

4:4

Keference Items
Appendices
:

50

A — Plant
C

Layout and

Hoiiili Ik.nili

Damage
Plot of the Nishiiioiniya Plant.
. .

Facing- p 50

B — Plant Layout ami

.Facing p 50
51

Di.sper.sal

from the Sakurajiiiia Works

37

THE PLANT AND
Introduction

ITS

FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
iim-crtaken.

From

lli:!7

until

the

coiiH)lctii)ii

of

The

Sakm-iijiin:!

plant of the Sumitdiuo ^Ictal

Industries was located in the harbor district of Osaka to the southwest of the town area. The phint

buildings formed a group comprising the southeastern
section

of

the

Sumitomo Copper Plant

(Sumitomo Shindosho), and were situated on reclaimed land to the north of tlie Aji River.
two largest buildings of the 36 constitutOf plant, one was utilized as a blade machining ing the and assondjly shop, and the other as a boss and hu.b shop. The remainder, all relatively smaller, were variously utilized as offices, warehouses and matlie

Kanzaki plant and the transfer of the main office of the Propeller Division from Sakurajima to Kanzaki in 1941, the Sakurajima plant was subordinate to the main plant at Kanzaki, and etiual to that of the two newly instituted Sumitomo propeller plants at Tsu and Shizuoka (Table 1).
tlu'
it not liceu for dispersal and liiniili damage was intended that tlie plants at Sakurajima, Tsu^ and Shizuoka should ultimately attain a status equal to that of the Kanzaki plant. During June and -July 1945 dispersal of the Sakurajima plant was cft'ceted to three locations in the Osaka areai it

Had

chine shops

of the Sakurajima plant

(Appendix A). The total floor area was 535,02-4 square feet.

Propeller assembly and some machining functions

Sumitomo

iletal Industries

commenced

the

man-

ufacture of metal alloy propellers in 1933 at the Sakurajima Copper Works. From this date until
sponsibility of the copper plant.

were transferred to a section of a brewery taker (Vi. at Nishinomiya, i miles west of Osaka. The iiuiiii otfice of the Sakura. jima plant was moved in June 1945, together witl
over from the Union Beer

1937 the manufacture of propellers was the reBy 1937 so much

emphasis had been brought to bear upoh the future importance of propeller production that an inde-

most of the machine tool equipment, to the base ments of two large department stores, Sogo am ilatsuzakaya, in Osaka city itself.

The Sakurajima plant was purely
unit during the period

a productivi

pendent division known as the Propeller Division was formed. This division became one of the sis
which, together, constituted the
Industries (Table 1)

1941-45, with all design

experimental and research activities concentrate!
at the

Sumitomo IMetal had its main oifiee and and

Kanzaki plant.
i>roductio:

plant located in the section of the copper works

Other than for monthly government
terials

formerly utilized 'by that division for propeller

orders and governmental supervision of

manufacture.
Table
1

Organization of the Humitoino Metal
Industries Ltd.
r Iron Plant (Seikosho)
Steel Pipe Plant

raw raJ and small parts supply and allocation, al financial and administrative supei'vision was exei cised by the Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltdl
through
its

roc

Propeller Division.
Jlinistr.
E0(

In the middle of 1945 the Munitions
allotted secret code
in

(

Kokan Seizosho)

numbers to all aircraft plant Japan. The original Sakurajima plant was give;

the designation,

"Shimbu No. 1085,"

while

dis

-Nagoya Light Metal Plant (Nagoya
Keigokin Seizosho)

persal plants at the Sogo and ^latsuzakaya depart

Sumitomo Metal -Wakayania
Industries Ltd.

lion and Steel Plant (Wakayania Seitetsusho)

ment stores were tillotted the code gi-oups, "Shim bu 1851" and •'Shimbu 1852," respectively. Gov ernment inspectors and supervisors stationed at thi

Copper Plant (Shindosho)
Propeller Division
bii).

kawa (Navy) and
terial supervisors.

Sakurajima plant were Captain Futoshi Shirao JInjor Juiclii Yano (Army) Two other officers completed the staff of minis

Main

office

Puropera Seizuand plant at Kan(

zaUi.

knrajiiiia wxirks producetl

Concurrently with the establishment of an indejteiident
|iro|>cllcr division,
iit

During the period July 1943-July 1945 the Sa Hamilton Standard typ I>roi)ellers for Zeke, Lorna, Jake, Taliby and Soni^
lypi' aircraft.
eiiiigte

construction of a
1

jjropeller plant

Kanzaki,

mile north of

new Amaga-

saki

and about 5 miles northwest of Osaka, was

Altlinuuli mass production of Ver Deutsche -Metallwerke (VDM) type pro pollers never took phice at the Sakurajima plant

38


|)|-(i|)rllrrs
iliiiiiii;

l!i

III'

the

\'I).M

type Were

assDiililcil

iliidivc iinil, lln' ;;rc:ilrr pMrl. of

tlic

orniinization

ili.M-i'

tlir

|iiriii(l

l!i4tl-42.

was

(>iiiia).M'il

in

diicci

lalmr will] (•ori'esi)ondii)j^ly
a,i,l
,-i(.ri,-al

Organization and Operation
lu'caiisr llic Sakiira.iiiiia
plaiil

•^'"•'11

a.lininistial ivr

dopartments

was

pui'<'ly a

pro-

('rai)li'

2

and Fimirc

1).

Tami.k 2

t>r<hiiih.iil\<iii

of Ihc t^iikurnjhint I'luiit

(Jonrial Affairs

Business
Giichiro Sliinano

-Acciiiiiiliiif;

-Knipliiynii'iil

Plant Manager
Soji Hori

Defense

'Storage

Soji

Production Hori

Production
l-Machine Tools

Inspection

Ebisu Dispersal
Plant

Nishinoniiya Dispersal Plant

SUMITOMO METAL INDUSTRIES
SAKURAJIMA
GRAPH OF
700

LTD.

PLANT EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

6000

500

4000

3000
1000

1939

Tlie flow

ol'

itrotliu-tioii

I'l-oiii

iiicoming- storage

Materials and

Components
('opiicr Plant

was

divicleil

iuto

live

principal

groups:

bhule.s,

lilade anil cylinder f(n-gings were received fnnw

barrels, gears, miseellaneoiis parts,

and small

parts.

the

Tiiese in tnrn progressed tlirougli vai-ious niaeliiniiig

processes and after iuspeotiou were stored prior

to linal assembly, balancing, inspection, disasseni-

and sliipping of the coniidcted propeller. The l)roduction flow at tiie Sakurajiuia jilant was generally comparable to those at tiie other Suuutomo
i)Iy

and from tlieXagoya Other suppliers included the Xagoya plant of the Kobe Steel (Kobe Seikoslio K K), Furnkawa Industries Ltd. (Furukawa Kogyo K K>. and the Japan Forging Co. (Nippoui Vakkin K K).
Light ^letal AVorks.
Propeller governers. in addition to
factured at the Kaiizaki
i)laiit.

Sumitomo

tiiose iiiami-

Propeller plants.
It

will be

plant

commenced production

noted (Figure 1) that t!ie Sakurajiuia in 1939 with aliout

8,000 employees.

By May

1941 employment totalled

almost
staif

.7,()0()

personnel but declined shortly there])lant.

were sin)plii'd by tile Tanaka Aircraft Instrument Co. (Tanaka Koku Keiki K Ki, the Osaka Metal Industries Ltd. (Osaka Kin/.oku Kugjo K K). and the Ja])an Aircraft Electric Co. Nippon Koku Denki K Ki.
I

after due to the transfer of over 1,000 workers to

the newly constriicted Kanzaki
noticeable

The

most

decline

in

manpower,

however,

occurred early in 1943 when approximately 2,000

workers wci'e transferred to the Tsu and Shizuoka
plants.

and forgings were supplied by variand heavy industries throughoui •Ja]nin, and bearings by three of Japan's majcn liearing manufacturers: Japan Precision Steel Co (Nippon Seiko K K), Toyo Bearing Co., and tlu
Steel bars

ous steel

mills

Koyo
commenced
of students
stutlcnt labor.

Precisioii

Steel

Co.

(

Koyo
Plant

Seiko

K

Iv

In Api'il 1944: the Sakurajiuia plant

employing
reached a

Employment

(USSBS

Aircraft
1 ).

Division

Report

Vl-1

maxinmm
shifts

Reference Item

of about 800 early in 194.1.

The 12-hour

were worked daily, from 0730 to

1930 hours, and from 1930 to 0730 hours. It was estimated tiiat throughout the whole period of production at the Sakurajiuia plant about 85 percent of einjiloyees worked on tlie 0730-1930 shift with
the remaining 15 percent on
tlie

1930-0730

shift.

Light metal alloy forgings were sujiplied direc W from the source to the propeller plant where 1h finishing and assembling proceises took place. Smal rough turnings, completed screw.s, and piston ring were dii-ected through the Kanziiki Works prior t ilistributicn among other SumitOiUo propeller plant

No

soldiers

were employed at the plant at any time.
T.via.K 3

(Table 3).

Floir ol Small I'aitx to thr Sukiiruiiiiiii I'lnnt.

Name

of firm

Loration

Product
Special type

Terauchi Works (Terauchi Seisakusho
Ishiwaki Precision Co.
(Ishiwaki Seiniitsu

Kyoto

KK)
Osnka

hollow screws
Special type
liollow

Sakurajin
Plant

KK)
Osaka

screws

Honda Heavy Industries (Honda Jiiko KK)
Ctiuo Sprin.s; Cox

Micarta Barrel Support
Piston Spiiui;s

KmizaUi
piaiit

Nagoya

Tsu
Plant

(Chuo Hatsujo

KK)
Pokyo
Piston Spiiii.ys

Daido Steel Co. (Daido Sfiko KK)
Mitsubishi Sleel Co.
(Mitsubishi Seiko

-

'I'okyo

Piston Sprin^ys

KK)
Osaka
Koiiyh Turning.'^
Sliizuoka
I'lant

.\bout 130 small niacliine shups in Ihe

Osaka area producing

rnuf;h tuvniuys.

With

the

exception

of

snrli

items

tis

special

tlie foiiii

ol'

rough forgings or turnings took

jilac

screws, piston spi'ings, ami sundry small |)arts, the

al

the Sakurajiuia plant. Except for propeller go'

machining and finishing of

all

paris delivered in

II tiers,

no components or sub-assemblies were

deli

40

rli'd
I

r(ini|lll'lc

IVolll

(lllllT

|ll;illls.

SiiiiiildiiKi's ])i'iiici|>iil

ii-r

of siihstitulc iiiatcrinis
(if inctjil

WJLS in the use of \v(io(| in phicc
Icl'

Tor'

prnpclIn

lihldi's.

'riiis,
pl,-iiil

liii\\r\rr,

(lid

iiul

.'ipply
ii

the

>Siil<ur;i,jiniii

wIhmt

all

j)r()|)rllci-s

1:1:111 1'ac-

tiircd retained iiielal alloy hladcs.

Due
ilid

to

shortages

of

aliiiiiiniiiii,

the

use of hollow steel bhules

was
tlie

(•()nteiiii)lated

luU

tills

substitution

not reaeli

producliou
stitulioiis

stajje.

Siiortayi's of various other metals

sueli as lironze
(

ami eop|)er
Aireral't

ne(•es^itated other suli-

rSSIJS

Division Corporation

Heport

\'i,

Refereilee Item Ij.
Statistics

Production
prt.'duetioii

Cnlike the Tsii ami Shiziiokn plants, lai'^e-scale
of Uernian

VDM-type

pr'ojjellers

was

not eoiitemplated or undertaken at the Sakurajinia
plant, and, with
ei's

tiie exeeption of! 19 propelmaniifaetured during the period from April

VDM

1940 to .Alareh 1943, the output of the Sakurajima
plant consisted solely of
proiiellers.

Hamilton Standard type In the period from April 1939 to March 1944 a total of 39,250 Hamilton Standard proi)elers were produced and during the period of Api-il
th(>

1944 and July 1945
pellers
•,y

output totalled 14,405 pro-

compared

to

the figure of 15,200 ordered

the .Munitions ilinistiy dui'iiig this pei iod (Fig.

EFFECTS OF BOMBING
The Air
The
Attacks

No

figures regarding the destruction of

raw ma

terials,

supplies and finished products were avail

and the Sumitomo copper plant together formed what appeared to be a single group of factory buildings, and photo interpretaSakurajiiiia plant
tion never successfully defined the boundaries of
eaeli.

This target was listed in the Air Objective
194.5 liut all the
It was first attacked on 26 bombs that did fall witliin the copper plant and left the

Polder as 90.25-263A.

June

the target area hit

propeller plant untouched.

July
jiiiia

194.')

A second raid on 24 almost completely destroyed the Sakura-

plant (Photos 1-2) as well as the copper plant

upon propeller production were machine tools (Reference Item 1) had been dispei-sed by this date and the bombs fell on almost empty buildings.
Imt tiirect effects
small. All but 27

made by Suniitoiiu was that approximately 40 percent ol stores and finished products not yet dispersed froff tlie Sakurajima works at the time of the 24 Juh raid were destroyed. After the 24 July raid m rejiair of damage was undertaken. A part of the Sakurajima works was dispersec to a brewery at Nisliinomiya in July 194."). As result of the 6 August incendiary raid on the Nislii nomiya urban area, sections of the brewery takei over by Sumitomo were destroyed and productioi brought to a standstill (Appendix R and Refereiiw Item 1). The following are the ca.sualty figures suffered a tlie Sakurajima works and the Nishinomiya jilant
able but a general estimate,
officials,
<•

In only one attack, other than that of 24 July did bombs fall on the Sakurajima plant. This oecuiTed during an attack on the Osaka urban area on 1 June 1945. A small number of IBs fell
194.'),

Fatalities

Sakurajima works: 1 June 1945
24 July 1945

M-ithin the plant site

(Appendix A) and

slight

dam-

Nishinomiya plant, 6 .\ugust 1945.

age was caused.

:

hoto 2

Interior view of the Sakurajima plant

hub shop damaged by

the 24 July 1943 attack.

ountermeasures

Interruptions
as the Special Air-Raid Defense

Due

to Alerts

A

unit

known

i\lan-hours lost because of air raid alerts resulted
in losses in production as indicated below PERCENT 1945

orps and consisting of about 20 percent of the
mailable laljor force

was formed at each Sumitomo 'opeller plant for the purpose of insm-ing adelate defense measures during alerts and raids, le plant area was subdivided into 10 districts eh under the control of an air-raid defense squad. ese scfuads were in turn responsible to a central ladquartei's. The headquarters also controlled
ptions in charge of communications, information,

January February

2.8 2.0 4.0 1.5 1.5 1.9 7.0 2.8

March
April

May
June
July

August

neral affairs

and equipment.

Interruptions

Due

to

Area Attacks
19-15,

iThe squads in each of the 10 plant districts conpted

Despite three attacks on the Osaka urban area
in the
fir.st

of

fire-fighting,

relief,

construction,

and

half of

June

plant

officials stated

ansportation units.
doctors, nurses,
|ie

The relief units were staffed and other medical personnel.

that only in isolated cases did these attacks cause

construction units were responsible for effect-

any serious interruptions of electric power were not
ruption in
tlie

to

production.

Sources
dis-

affected

and minor

temporary repairs in the event that specialists bm the gas, electric power, and water suppliers Ire not called in. Observation towers and shelters
Ire distributed tliroughout the plant area.

transportation of workers to and
3 days.

from the plant lasted only 2 or
Interruptions to Supplies

Only

in six principal cases (Table 4)

was produc-

43

Table
Supplier

4.

Interruptions

to

production due
Cause
of

to lack of

components
Period of Interruption

Location

Interruption
Dispersal Air attack

Products

Terauchi Plant (Terauchi Seisakusho Kk)

Kyoto
Kk)
.

Honda Heavy

Industries Ltd.

(Honda

.luko

Lignite Industries Ltd. (Rigunaito

Koeyo Kk).

Osaka. Osaka.

Hollow and sn.all screws. March-April 1945 Micarta barrel supports. July-August 194.S
in

Lack of foa! from Vaiigi-heng North China

Raw

micarta

Chuo

Daido

Spring Co. (Chuo Hatsujo Kk) Steel Co. (Daido Seiko Kk) Mitsubishi Steel Co. (Mitsubishi Seiko Kk).

Nagoya (Tokyo.

Air attack Urbr.n area attacks caused transportation hold-up from Tokyo

Piston springs Piston springs.

February-.\ugust 1£ May-.\ugU8t 1945

tioii

at tlie

Sakurajinia works affected by the laek

persed
C).

to three sites in the

Osaka area (Append

of components from subeontraetors

and

suppliers.

Two

of these were in the basements of two

The Air Ordnance Bureau of the JIunitions Mingrave assistance to Sumitomo only in eases where a iiottleiieek was caused by lack of large seiiiitiiiished j)arts such as blades, spiders, and liubs.
istry

In

all

the shortages listed
.small parts

were cau.sed by
etc.

(Table 4), bottlenecks such as screws, springs,

In such eases the government
the shoi'tages and

to

make good
its

made no effort Sumitomo was left
an
alter-

entirely on

own with regard

to finding

nate source.

ott'icials.

One such instance was related by Sumitomo The Terauchi plant normally supplied Sumitomo with ai)pi'oxiinately 7(1 percent of its
hollow screw requii'eiiients, the remaining 80 perliy

Osaka (Photos and 4) and the third was located in a section of t Union Beer Brewery at Nishinomiya, about 8 mi west of Osaka. The sites in the basements of t Sogo and ilatsuzakaya department stores (Phol 5 to 10) were utilized as machine shop.s, the formj for large parts such as bosses, spiders, and hu and the latter for the machining of smaller pai such as brackets, counterweights, and cylinde Functions located at Nishinomiya included bla machining and propeller assembly.
the largest department stores in

Productive

activit.v at tliese

dispersed sites

tc

place only during the last 2 months of war, a

cent being supplied

the Ishiwaki Precision Co.

I'pon decrease of supply from the Terauchi plant
in -March 1945,

Ishiwaki was unable to increase

its

output to more than 45 percent of Sumitomo re(juiremeuts. Tliis caused hollow screws to become
a

bottleneck until Terauchi

managed

to regain its

formei- output in

June 1945.
the supply of piston springs

Simihirly
tlie

when

from

Chuo Spring Co. dwindled in ^Mareh 1945 because of bomb damage, Sumitomo called upon the Daido Steel Co. and the ilitsuhishi Steel Co., both in Tokyo, to make good the shortage. Supplies from these two Hrms in Tokyo were in turn considerably
delayed

was brought to a halt prematurely at the Nishii miya brewery because many of the buildings w destroyed in a raid on the Nishinomiya urban a on 6 August 1945. Because of the hurried last-miuute nature of dispersal program, ineft'eetive installation of chine tools, and the lack of preparation at the s themselves, the Sakurajima plant suffered a grea jtroduetion loss due to dispersal than did any nt Sumitomo propeller plant. Taking the ilay 1: production as 100 percent, it was estimated t in June production had dropped to 80 percent that by August 1945 output totalled only 10
i <

j

cent of the

May

figure.

by transjjoi'tation conditions caused by urban raids along tlie Tokaido railroad.
Percentages of raw materials and parts ordered wliich were actually received declined rapidly with
the pi'ogress of the war.

INTELLIGENCE CHECK
The
lilant as

.Military

Intelligence

Service
the

G-2,

V|

I)e]iartmcnt,

correctly

assessed

Sakuraji

In July 1944, 66 percent of raw materials and 94 percent of parts ordered

producing
it

jiropellers for both

Army
i-

Navy

aircraft but cried with regard to the ty

were delivered l)y suppliers to Sumitomo, whereas by July 1945, only 16 ])ercent of ordered quantities of raw materials and 86 percent of ]iarts ordered were received (Aircraft Division 'ori)oratioii Repoi-t No. VI, Reference Item 1}.
(

jirodiiei'd.

was known by .MIS G-2 and the Jc
ili(£i

Tai-gct (iroui) that the plant occupied a section

the exti'nsi\-e

Suiuitoiiio

facilities

in

the

Sakv
i

jima

ai-ea but ])risoner of war interrogation documentary and photo intelligence were not

f

licicnt to define its exact

boiiudari(>s.

Dispersal
Ivirly
ill

No
June 1945
the
Sjikur-i.iiiiia

assessment was made of the ])i'oduction

works

dis-

iudi\idual

Sumitomo

])lants.

Eslimatcs of

t(

44

oto

the Sakiirajima plant dispersed to this

3— Sogo Department Store, Shinsaibashi, Osaka. The workers entrance to the Sumitomo propeller plant in the "w..*^.^ ....111.11,.^ lu i»jc ^uiiiiiuiiiu pianE tne basements .s located behind the truck parked in the side alley. vla Machine tools were lowered into the basements through openmgs ^broken in the glass-bnck sidewalk which formerly served as a light -ve , shaft. The main office and machine shop of
'

site in

June 1945.

45

Photo 4

—Matzuzakaya Department

Store at Kawara-cho, Osaka.
store.

The

Ebisu plant of the Sakurajima plant dispersed to

thii

file in

June 1945. Photo shows west front of

46

Photo

5— View

of

Sogo Department Store basement showing

drills, miller,

and stacked

parts.

hoto

6— View

of second basement of

Sogo Department Store showing

lathes

and

stacks of unfinished parts.

47

Photo

7— Bench

milHng machine

tools;

second basement Matsuzakaya Store, Ebisu plant.

Photo 8

—Lathes

in

second basement, Matsuzakaya Store, Ebisu plant.

48

Photo 9

— Lathes

in

basement of Matsuzakaya Store, Osaka.

JOto 10

—Outer

diameter grinders in basement of Matsuzakaya Store, Osaka.

49

Sumitomo propeller output were low due to the insufficiency of basic data and the fact tliat the existence of two new Sumitomo propeller plants at Tsu and Sliizuoka was not known.

jutaut General's Office,
iugton, D. C.

War

Department, Wash-

Reference Item 1 Machine tool schedules for Saki;rajima plant (raids of 1 June 1945 and 24
J"ly l''^5) and dispersal shops at the Sogo and Matsuzakaya Department Stores and Nishinomiya Brewery (raid of 6 August 1945).

REFERENCE ITEMS
Strategic

The following is on file with the United States Bombing Survey, Aircraft Division, Ad-

50

SLOG

NO.

SAKURAJIMA

PLANT

.

APPENDIX C
Dispersal

From

the

Sakurajima Works
Ebisu plant

Name

of dispersed plant

Sakurajima works Second and third basements of the Sogo Department store at Shinsaibaslii, Osaka; this store remained intact amidst an area devastated by raids on the Osaka urbun area.
2:^9.948 sq.
ft

Nishinomiya plant
Various buildings of the Union Beer Brewery at Nishinomiya.

Location of dispersed

sites:

Floor area, of dispersal site:

Second and third basements of the Matsuzakaya department store at Ka wara Cho, Osaka this store remained intact amidst an area devastated by raids on the Osaka urban area. 89,372 sq. ft
;

243,107
8 miles.
127.

sq.

ft.

Distance from original Sakurajima

works
Macliine tool dispersal plan:
Actual number of machine tools dispersed:

4 miles
131

34 milea 249

131
. . .

Planned dispersal of employees: Actual number of employees
dispersed:

1,000
1.019
100 percent

249 1,600
116

127.

1.100. 1,076.

Percentage completion of dispersal
site:

100 percent
of large parts for

90 percent.
of small parts for

Funt-tion of dispersal site:

Machining
ilton

Hambasses,

Machining
ilton

Hamand

type

propellers:

type

propellers:

brackets,

spiders, hubs.

The main

office of

cylinders,

counterweights,

the Sakurajima works was transfered to this location
original plant

sundry small parts.

and thus the
retained.

Machining of blades and assembly of Hamilton type propellers. It was also planned to assemble type propellers from parts supplied by the Kanzaki works.

VDM

name was

Date on which production

commenced:
Date on which production terminated:

IJuly 1945
15 August 1945

17

June 1945....
August 1945.

25 July 1945.

15

6 August 1945 (assembly plant destroyed in urban area raids).

51

UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY
LIST OF REPORTS

The following

is

a bibliogi'aphy of reports resulting
of the

21

Vereinigte Deutsche Mctallwerke, Hildesheim. Ge-

from the Survey's studies

European and

Pacific

many
22
23

wars. Certain of these reports may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents at the Government

Metallgussgesellschaft

GmbH,
m

Leipzig,
2,

German
Bitterfeli

Aluminunnverk G

m

b H, Plant No.

Printing Office, Washington. D. C. Permission to examine the remaining reports may be had by writing to the Headquarters of the Survey at Gravelly Point, Washington 25, D. C.

Germany
24 25

Gebrueder Giulini G

b H, Ludwigshafen,

Gei
He

many
Luftschiffbau Zeppelin

G m

b H. Friedrichsliatef

European OFFICE OF THE
1

War CHAIRMAN

26 27 2S 29

on Bodensee, Germany Wieland Werke A G, Ulm, Germany

Na

2

3

Bombing Survey: SumThe mary Report (European War) The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Over-all Report (European War) The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy
United States Strategic

Rudolph Rautenbach
lingen,

Leichtnietallgie.ssereien,

S
lV-\
:

Germany
(

Lippewerke Vereinigte Aluniiniumwerke, A Lunen, Germany Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerko, Heddernheir

Ail

We

Germany
30

AIRCRAFT DIVISION
4

Duerener Metallwerke A G, Duren Wiltenau-Berli & Waren, Germany

I

(By Division and Branch) Aircraft Division Industry Report
Inspection Visits to Various Targets
port)
(Special Re31 32

Des

AREA STUDIES DIVISION
Area Studies Division Report
]

am
I

5

A A

Airframes Branch
6

Junkers Aircraft and Aero Engine Works, Dessau,

33 34

Germany
7

Erla Maschinenwerke G

m

b H, Heiterblick, Gerb H, Leipzig (Mockau),

A A
A

8

many A T G Maschinenbau, G m Germany
Focke Wulf Aircraft Plant,
f

Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombir on Hamburg Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombii on Wuppertal Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombli on Dusseldorf

Ulie
a!

Tie

35

Detailed Study of the Effects of Area BombiiJ

9

(Jothaer Waggonfabrik, A. G. Gotha,

lu

Germany Bremen, Germany

3G

on Solingen Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombii on Remscheid
Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombii.

Overall Report

37

A

11

Messerschmitt A G, Augsburg, Germany

Part
J

A
B
38

Part

A
A

12

Appendices I, II, III Dornier Works, Friedrichshafen & Munich, Ger-

on Darmstadt Detailed Study of the Effects of Area Bombir on Lubeck
Brief Study of the Effects of Area
Berlin, Augsburg,

Tlie

Coki

Gut!

Bombing

i

m
.N'tia

many
13 14

Bochum,

Leipzig, Hagen, Do:

Gerhard Fieseler Werke G m b H, Kassel, Germany Wiener Neustaedter Flugzeugwerke, Wiener Neustade, Austria

mund, Oberhausen, Schweinfurt, and Bremen

m
8eic

CIVILIAN DEFENSE DIVISION
40
Civilian Defense Division

Ce
.111?

15

Aero Engines Branch Bussing NAG Flugmotcrenwerke G
wick,

— Final

Report
Priei

m

b H, Bruns-

41
42

Germany

16 17 IS

Mittel-Deutsche Motorenwerke

G

m

b H, Tauclia,

43
44
45 46

Cologne Field Report Bonn Field Report Hanover Field Report

na
Bora

Gf I,

Germany
Bavarian Motorworks
Inc.,

Hamburg
hibits

Field

Report— Vol.

Text;

Vol.

11,

E

Eisenacli

& Durrerhof,
Munich,

Germany
Bayerische Motorenwerke

A G (BMW)

Bad Oldesloe Field Report Augsburg Field Report
Reception Areas in Bavaria, Germany

Germany
1!j

47

Henschel Flugmotorenwerke, Kassel, Germany
Light Metal Branch

EQUIPMENT DIVISION
Electrical

POtm

Branch

mi

20

Light Metals Industry
of

(

Part

I,

Aluminum
Magnesium

48 49

Germany

j^Part II,

German Electrical Equipment Industry Report Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim Kafertal, GermsiJ
I'

52

Optical and Precision Instrinnont Brancli
Oplii'iU

82

Daimler

licnz-CJaggcMiau

Works, Gaggenau,

Ger-

and

I'rccision

Inslriiiiiml, Iiuiiinlry

Kt'poil

many -2
83

Ai)pendices

Maschinenfabrik

Augsburg-Nurnberg,

Nuruberg,

Abrasives Branch

Germany
84
Clerniunj

German Abrasive IniUistiy Mayer and Scliniidt, Offenbach un Main,
Tlio

85
86

Auto Union A G, Chemnitz and Zwickau, Germany Henschel and Sohn, Kassel, Germany Maybach Motor Works, Friedrichshafen, Germany
Voigtiandcr Maschinenfabrik

Anti-Friction Branch
Tile

87
88
8!)

AG,

Plauen,

Germany

Germany

Anti-Friction Bearings Industry

Machine Tools Branch
Macliiue Tools & Machinery as Capital Eiiuipment

90
91

Volkswagenwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Bussing NAG, Brunswick, Germany Muehlenbau Industrie A G (Miag), Brunswick,

Germany
Friedrich

Machine Tool Industry in Germany Herman Kolb Co., Cologne, Germany Collet and Engelhard, Offenbach, Germany Naxos Union, Frankfort-on-Main, Germany

Krupp Grusonwerke, Magdeburg, Ger-

many
Submarine Branch
92

German Submarine Industry Report
Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg
burg,

MILITARY ANALYSIS DIVISION
The Defeat of the German Air Force V-Weapons (Crossbow) Campaign
Air Force Rate of Operation Weather Factors in Combat Bombardment Operations in the European Theatre Bombing Accuracy, USAAF Heavy and Medium

93

A

G,

Augs-

Germany

94 95 96
97

Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany Deutschewerke A G, Kiel, Germany Deutsche Schiff und Maschinenbau, Bremen, Ger-

many
Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Kiel,

Germany

Bombers

in the

Description of

ETO RAF Bombing
the Allied Air Effort on

98 99

The Impact
Logistics

of

German

100

Howaldtswerke A G, Hamburg, Germany Submarine Assembly Shelter, Farge, Germany Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack, Germany
Ordnance Branch Ordnance Industry Report Friedrich Krupp Grusonwerke

MORALE DIVISION
The
Effects of Strategic
I

101

Bombing on German Mor-

102 103

A

G,

Magdeburg,

ale (Vol.

&

II)

Medical Branch

The
in

Effect of

Bombing on Health and Medical Care

104 105
106 107 108

Germany

MUNITIONS DIVISION
Heavy Industry Branch

The Coking Industry Report on Germany Coking Plant Report No. 1, Sections A, B,

Germany Bochumer Verein fuer Gusstahlfabrikation A G, Bochimi, Germany Henschel and Sohn, Kassel, Germany Rheinmetall-Borsig, Dusseldorf, Germany Hermann Goering Werke, Braunschweig, Hallendorf, Germany Hannovertsche Maschinenbau, Hanover, Germany Gusstahlfabrik Friedrich Krupp, Essen, Germany

C,

& D
109 110
111

OIL DIVISION
Oil Division Final

Gutehoffnungshuette, Oberhausen, Germany Friedrich-Alfred Huette, Rheinhausen, Germany

Report

Neunkirchen Eisenwerke

A

G, Neunkirchen, Ger-

many
Reichswerke Hermann Goering

A

G,

Hallendorf,
112

Germany
August Thyssen Huette
Friedrich

Appendix Powder, Explosives, Special Rockets and Jet Propellants. War Gases and Smoke Acid (Ministerial Report Jl) Undergi-ound and Dispersal Plants in Greater GerOil Division Final Report,

A

G,

Hamborn, Germany
113

many
The German
78
Oil Industry, Ministerial Report

Krupp A

G,

Borbeck Plant, Essen, Ger-

Team

many
Dortmund Hcerder Huettenverein, A G, Dortmund, Germany Hoesch A G, Dortmund, Germany Bochumer Verein tuer Gusstahlfabrikation A G, Bochum, Germany
Motor Vehicles and Tanks Branch German Motor Vehicles Industry Report Tank Industry Report Daimler Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany Renault Motor Vehicles Plant, Billancourt, Paris
114

Ministerial Report on Chemicals
Oil Branch

115
116

Ammoniakwerke Merseburg many 2 appendices

GmbH,

Leuna, Ger-

Braunkohle Benzin

A

G,

Zeitz and

Bohlen, Ger-

many
Wintershall
117

A

G, Luetzkendorf.

Germany

118

Adam

Opel, Russelsheim,

Germany

Ludwigshafen-Oppau Works of I G Farbenlndustrie A G, Ludwigshafen, Germany Ruhroel Hydrogenation Plant, Bottrop-Boy, Germany, Vol, I, Vol. II

53

119 120
121

Rhenauia Ossag Mineraloehverke
Refinery, Hambui-g,

A

G,

Harburg

152
153

V Weapons

in

London

Germauy

City Area of Krefeld

122
123 124

Rhenania Ossag Mineraloehverke A G, Grasbrook Refinery, Hamburg, Germany Rhenania Ossag Mineraloelwerke A G, Wilbelmsburg Refinery, Hamburg, Germany Gewerkschaft Victor, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany, Vol I & Vol II Europaeische Tanklager uud Transport A G, Ham-

154
155

Public Air Raid Shelters in
sack,

Germauy
I, I!

Goldenberg Thermal Electric Power Station, Knaj,

Germany
Germauy
B

156 157 158 159 160
161

Brauweiler Transformer & Switching Station, Brat
weiler,

Germany Ebano Asphalt Werke A burg, Germany
burg,
I

G,

Harburg Refinery, HamOil

125

Meerbeck Rheiupreussen Synthetic

Plant

— Vol

162 163 164

& Vol

II

Rubber Branch
126
127 128 129

Deutsche

Dunlop

Gummi

Co.,

Hanau on Main,
Germany

165 166

Germany
Continental Gummiwerke, Hanover, Huels Synthetic Rubber Plant
Ministerial Report on

Storage Depot, Nahbollenbach, Germauy » Railway and Road Bridge, Bad Munster, Germaa|u Railway Bridge, Eller, Germany Gustloff-Werke Weimar, Weimar, Germany KaSsel. Germany Henschell and Sohn Area Survey at Pirmasens, Germany Hanomag, Hanover, Germany A N Werke Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany Friedrich Krupp A G, Essen, Germany 3 Erla Maschinenwerke, G b H, Heiterblick, Ge

i

GmbH,

I

M

1

Si

Ji

m

!

T:

many
167

A T G

German Rubber Industry

168
169 170

Maschinenbau G b H, Mockau, German Erla Maschinenwerke Mockau, Germar Bayerische Motorenwerke, Durrerhof, Germany Mittel-Deutsche Motorenwerke Tauch'

m

GmbH,

GmbH,

Propellants Branch

Germany
171

130 131 132

Elektrochemischewerke, Munich, Germany Schoenebeck Explosive Plant, Ligiiose Sprengstott Werke G m b H, Bad Salzemen, Germany Plants of Dynamit A G, Vormal, Alfred Nobel & Co., Troisdorf, Clausthal, Drummel and Duneberg,

Submarine Pens Deutsche-Werft, Hamburg, Ge

1

Fi

many
172
173
174 175

Multi-Storied Structures.

Hamburg, Germany
(

Continental Gummiwerke, Hanover, Germany Kassel Marshalling Yards, Kassel, Germany

Fi

Germany

133

Deutsche Sprengchemie

GmbH,

Kraiburg, Ger-

176

Ammoniawerke, Merseburg-Leuna, Germany Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim, Kafertal, G6

Fi

many
177

many

Adam

OVER-ALL ECONOMIC EFFECTS DIVISION
134

178
179

Over all Economic Effects Division Report Special papers Gross National Product...
Kriegseilberichte

180 181 182 183
184

Herman Goering

Works.. Food and Agriculture

which together comprise the
above report

Germany Germany in Valentin Submarine Assembly, Farge, Germany Volkswaggonwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Railway Viaduct at Bielefeld, Germany Ship Yards Howaldtswerke, Hamburg, Germanyi Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany Daimler-Benz A G, Mannheim, Germany
Opel
G. Russelsheim.

A

I

R

Daimler-Benz

A

G, Unterturkheim,

Fii

185

134a Industrial Sales Output and Productivity

186
187

PHYSICAL DAMAGE DIVISION
134b Physical Damage Division Report (ETO) 135 Villacoublay Airdrome, Paris, France 136 Railroad Repair Yards, Malines, Belgium 137 Railroad Repair Yards, Louvain, Belgium 138 Railroad Repair Yards, Hasselt, Belgimn 139 Railroad Repair Yards, Namur, Belgium 140 Submarine Pens, Brest, France
141 142 143 144 145 146 147
148 149

188 189

Synthetic Oil Plant, Meerbeck-Hamburg, Germai Gewerkschaft Victor, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany Klockner Humboldt Deutz, Ulm, Germany Ruhroel Hydrogenation Plant, Bottrop-Boy, Gt.

i:

n n

many
Neukirchen Eisenwereke

ii

A

G,

Neukirchen,

many
190 191
192 193 194

Railway Viaduct at Altenbecken, Germany Railway Viaduct at Arnsburg, Germany
Deurag-Nera,g Refineries, Misburg, Germany Fire Raids on German Cities I G Farbendustrie, Ludwigshafen, Germany, I & Vol II

.1

ife

Powder Powder
Fort

Plant, Angouleme,

France

Plant, Bergerac, Fi-ance

Coking Plants, Montigny & Liege, Belgium St. Blaise Verdun Group, Metz, France Gnome et Rhone, Limoges, France Michelin Tire Factory, Clermont-Ferrand, France Gnome et Rhone Aero Engine Factory, Le Mans, France Kugelfischer Bearing Ball Plant, Ebelsbach, Ger-

195

Roundhouse
I

196 197 198
199

in Marshalling Yard, Ulm, GermanFarbendustrie, Leverkusen, Germany Chemische-Werke, Huels, Germany Gremberg Marshalling Yard, Gremberg, Germany Locomotive Shops and Bridges at Hamm, Germai

G

11

Hit

many
150
151

TRANSPORTATION DIVISION
'Jfiit

Louis Breguet Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France S. N. C. A. S. E. Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France
A.
I.

200

The

Effects

of

Strategic

Bombing on Germ!

Transportation
201

A. Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, FVance

Rail Operations Over the Brenner Pass

54

I

02

Effects

ul'

l!(iiiibiiij;

mi

liuiiroad

liisl;ill;itiims

in

IS

Kawanishi Aircraft

('i>nii)any

l!(!geiisburg,
III!

tli'i-nian

Nurnberg and Munich Divisions Loconuitive Industry During the War

Corporation, Report No. Ill

Kawanishi Kokuki
(Airframes)
1!)

Kabu.sliiki Kaisha)

III

Cicrinan Military iJailroad Traffic

UTILITIES DIVISION
Of)

German
I

Electric Utiliti<>s Industry Report

()«

to 10 in Vol

07
OS

II to 20 in 21

I "Utilities Division Plant Reports" Vol II "Utilities Division Plant Reports" Ttheinische-Westfalische Elekfrizitaetswerk A G

Kawasaki Aircraft Industries Company, Inc. Corporation Report No. IV (Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo Kabushiki
Kaisha) (Airframes & Engines)

20

War OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN
Pacific

Aichi Aircraft Company Corporation Report No. (Aichi Kokuki KK)

V

(Airframes & Engines)
21

War) Japan's Struggle to End The War The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshiiua and
Suniiiuiry Report
(Pacific

Sumitomo Metal

Industries, Propeller Division

Corporation Report No. VI

Nagasaki

(Sumitomo Kinzoku Kogyo KK, Puropera
Seizosiro)

CIVILIAN STUDIES
Civilian Defense Division

(Propellers)
22

Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Tokyo, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Nagasaki, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Kyoto, Japan Field Report Covei'ing Air Raid I*i'otection Allied Subjects, Kobe, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Osaka, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Hiroshima, Japan No. 1 Summary Report Covering Air Raid Protection
Field

and

Hitachi Aircraft Company Corporation Report A'o. VII (Hitachi Kokuki KK) (Airframes & Engines)

and
23

and
and and
24

Japan International Air Industries, Ltd. Corporation Report No. VIII (Nippon Kokusai Koku Kogyo KK)
(Airframes)

Japan Musical Instrument Manufacturing Company
Corporation

and and
25

Repwt No. IX (Nippon Gakki Seizo KK)

(Propellers)

Allied Subjects in Japan Final Report Covering Air Raid Allied Subjects in Japan

Tachikawa Aircraft Company
Corporation Repcrrt No.

Protection and

X
KK)

(Tachikawa Hikoki
(Airframes)

Medical Division

The The

Effects

of

Bombing on Health and Medical

26

Fuji Airplane

Company

Services in Japan
Effects of
cal

Corporation Report No. XI
(Fuji Hikoki (Airframes)
27

Atomic Bombs on Health and MediServices in Hiroshima 'and Nagasaki
Morale Division

KK)

Showa Airplane Company
Corporation Report No. XII

The

Effects

of

Strategic

Bombing on Japanese

(Showa Hikoki Kogyo KK)
(Airframes)

Morale

ECONOMIC STUDIES
Aircraft Division

28

Ishikawajima Aircraft Industries Company, Ltd. Corporation Report No. XIII (Ishikawajima Koku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha)
(Engines)

The Japanese Aircraft Industry
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Corporation Report No. I
(Mitsubishi Jukogyo
29

Nippon Airplane Company
Corporation Report No.

KK)
30

(Airframes & Engines)

(Nippon Hikoki (Airframes)

XIV KK)

Nakajima Aircraft Company,

Ltd.

Kyushu Airplane Company
Corporation Report No.

Corporation Report No. II (Nakajima Hikoki KK) (Airframes & Engines)

XV

(Kyushu Hikoki KK)
(Airframes)

55

ol

Shoda Eugineeriug Conu)an.v
Cortmration Report \o. (Shoda Seisakujo)

56

Effects of Air Attack on

Urban Complex Tokyo-

XVI
57 58 59
liO

Kawasaki-Yokohama
Effects of Air Attack on the City of Effects of Air Attack on the City of

Nagoya
Nagasaki Hiroshima

(Components)
32

Effects of Air Attack on Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto

Mitaka Aircraft Industries Corjiaration Report No. XVII Mitaka Koku Kogyo Kabiishiki Kaisha) (Components)
Nissan Automobile Company Corporation Report No. XVIII (Nissan Jidosba KK) (Engines)

Effects of Air Attack on the City of

MILITARY STUDIES
Military Analysis Division
til

33

34

Army Air Arsenal & Navy Air Depots
Corporation Report No.

62
63

XIX

64

Air Forces Allied with the United States in the Wai Against Japan Japanese Air Power Japanese Air Weapons and Tactics The Effect of Air Action on Japanese Ground Armj
Logistics

(Airframes and Engines)
35

Japan Aircraft Underground
Report Xo.

65 66

Employment
ciflc

of Forces

Under the Southwest Pa

XX
War Economy
67
68

Command

Basic Materials Division

The Strategic Air Operations of Very Heavy Bom bardment in the War Against Japan (Twentietl
Air Force) Air Operations in China, Burma, India
II

36 37 38

Coal and Metals in Japan's

Capital Goods, Equipment and Construction Division

—World Wa

39

The Japanese Construction Industry Japanese Electrical Equipment The Japanese Machine Building Industry
Electric

Power Division
of of

69 70

40
41

The The

Electric

Electric

Power Industry Power Industry

Japan Japan (Plant Re-

ports)
42

71

The Air Transport Command in the War Agains Japan The Thirteenth Air Force in the War Agains Japan The Seventh and Eleventh Air Forces in the Wa Against Japan The Fifth Air Force in the War Against Japan
Naval Analysis Division

Manpower, Food and Civilian Supplies Division The Japanese Wartime Standard of Living and
Utilization of

Manpower

72
73

Military Supplies Division
43 44 45
4li

47 48

Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese

War

Production Industries

74 75

Naval Ordnance Army Ordnance Naval Shipbuilding Motor Vehicle IndustiT Merchant Shipbuilding
Oil and Chemical Division

76 77 78
79

49

50
51

Chemicals in Japan's AVar Chemicals in Japan's War
Oil in Japan's

The Interrogations of Japanese Officials (Vols. and II) Campaigns of the Pacific War The Reduction of Wake Island The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul The American Campaign Against Wotje, Maloela Mille, and Jaluit (Vols. I, II and III) The Reduction of Truk The Offensive Mine Laying Campaign Against Ja an Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party For word, Introduction, Conclusions, and Gener;

—Appendix
80 81

Summary
Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E closure A), Kamaishi Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E
closure B),
82 83 84 85

52

Oil in Japan's

War War — Appendix

Overall Economic Effects Division 53

Hamamatsu Area

The Effects of Strategic Bombing on Japan's War Economy (Including Appendix A: U. S. Economic Intelligence on Japan Analysis and Comparison; Appendix B: Gross National Product on Japan and Its Components; Appendix C: Statistical

Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E closure C), Hitachi Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E
closure D), Hakodate Area

Sources).
Transportation Division
54

The War Against Japanese Transportation,
1945

1941-

86

Bombardment Survey Party (E Muroran Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E: closure F), Shimizu Area Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E: closures G and H), Shionomi-Saki and Nojim.
Report
of Ships
,

closure E)

Saki Areas

Urban Areas Division
55
Effects of Air Attack on Japanese

87

Urban Economy

Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (E; closure I), Comments and Data on Effectivenei
of

(Summary Report)

Ammunition

56

|i

88

I'cpin'l.

of Sliips

n(mil>;n-(liiiciil
iiiiil

closuro J),

("(iiiinii'iits

I);i(a

Survey Party (Enon Accuracy of
99

Japanese Homeland, Part
port

I,

Comprehensive Re-

Firing
89 lioports of Ships

closure

Bombardment Survey Party (EnK), Effects of Surface Bombardments on

100

Japanese

War

Potential

Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence In the Japanese Homeland, Part II, Air/irlds Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part III, Computed Bvinh
Plot ling

Physical

Damage

Division

101

90

Effect of tbe Incendiary

Bomb

Attacks on Japan (a
102

Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part IV, Urban Area AnaU
l/sis

Report on Eight Cities)
^91

The

Effects of the

Ten Thousand Pound Bomb on

Japanese Targets (a Report on Nine Incidents)
92 93
Effects of the Effects of the

Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence Japanese Homeland, Part V, Camouflage Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence Japanese Homeland, Part VI, Shipping

in

the

Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, Japan

103

in

the

94
95

Effects of
Effects of

Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki, Japan the Pour Thousand Pound Bomb on Japa-

104

nese Targets (a Report on Five Incidents)

Evaluation of Photogi-aphic Intelligence in Japanese Homeland, Part VII, Electronics

the

Two Thousand, One Thousand, and Five Hundred Pound Bombs on Japanese Targets (a
in

105

96

A

Report on Eight Incidents) Report on Physical Damage Report) G-2 Division

Japan (Summary

106

Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part VIII, Beach Intelligcncc Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part IX, Artillery Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part X, Roads and Railroads Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the Japanese Homeland, Part XI, Industrial Analysis

107
97
98

Japanese Military and Naval Intelligence Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence

108
in

the

U_

s.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING

OFFICE; 19-46-704697

57

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