1.1.
BasLc ldeaa.
facta
Ln matheuatlcg that
X  0.
nrnbers
a and b, we have
(6  /6,12 o, ,
a 26 +b> 0.
( 1 .1)
,t
2
{ab
By replaclng
a by a and b by b,
we obtaln
an alternatlve
forn,
( 1 . 2)
}ab,
rhlch
elearly
holde
for
poselbly
negatlve
a md b ae rlell.
A releted
lnequallty
ls glven
in Exerclse 1.1:
( 1.3)
R lT'7.
Glven two poslttve nrnbera
a*b
a and b, the number *+i 16 ls le called called the
ren
ue le that meaq.
the g.oretrr"
inequall.tlee,
la alwaye lqortant
to know when, In
an lnequallty
2 
(1.1),
we have that
and gemetrlc lf a  b.
means of two
Example l.
numbers.
rt
follose
fron
(1.2)
that
,2*b2>2ab ( 1 .4) b2 + c2 > 2bc .2*"222ca, where ve obaenre that equallty i r an a ooly'lfa=b, holdt ln the three Btatementa tn (1.4) i. e . , a b ' c . A d d ln g t h e e e
by 2 ytelda
"2*b2+c2 2 a b * b e + c a ,
wlth equaltty lf and o1y lf e b o c. (For other proofe, see
Exerclse L.2.)
Example 2.
Let ua rewrlte
(1.4)
in the forn
lnequalitLes
'.
3 
that
three
( 1.6)
"3
equaHty
* b3 + c3 ) .o g+i
and only lf
* u" L{i*
g{i, ".
rlth
lf
a  b  c.
1.1.
Prorre (1.3) .
L.2,
of
(1.5)
by considerlng
inequalltlea
of the
of
(1.5)
by flrst
loee
to the
(a  b) and (b  c).
1.3.
"3
= $d3lz
+ (ca)3/2 +
thlg
in another !ray?
L.4.
the rtghthand
slde of
(1.5)
3abc. in order
(Elnr. and
the trLple
of lnequall.tlee a3 + b3 + , wirh
(1.4) "3
= 3.b"r
equlvalently, if a  b  c. a,b,c.
equatlty
1f and only
1.5.
Show that
r.6.
Prove that
*b
4
L. 7.
Pro v e th e
th a t
2.2 2') .22 ab + bc * ca > abc(a + b + c). of lnequallties ab bc ca+2a*b*c. cab .3 * b3 r (a t u)3, orr more elegantly, (1.4) by appropriate
(Hint. quantities
tri p l e
1.8.
Show that
1.9.
show that
2'
1. 10.
Let
a rb rc rd
b e positlve
nunbers. c*d
(a)
Show that
a*b*
tT
a *b *c *d r
ffi
(b)
4V
L.2.
We have seen in the prevl.ous sectLon how which cannot be negatlve let bl into a useful in
{ar,ar}, = b2.
{Ur,Ur} Then
be two increasing
if
and only lf
a, = a2 or bl = b2.
Multiplying
this
out,
^ZbZ.
^Lbz
^ZbL
factor,
and divide
by 4, we
(1.7)
,^r*
^,
.bt*bz
2 We sha1l see Ln the ex
a, = a, or b, = bZ.
Note is
*We are using the t,erm ttsequencett for a pair {ar, ar}, of length 2, with a view towards later developments.
even though it
5 
that
{br,Ur}
a16o.
numbers.
Ttren {atrbm}
both increasing
cording as a < b or a Z b.
(1. 8)
Note that equallty
0 s e < T/2,
let
"o"40
' l "ot2*20 )
+ srn2+20l
Then
2{ "o"2*2e
"irr242e
]=,t'+d]t
sin 0 = cos 0, i.e.,
Therefore
(1 .e )
with equality if
4^ 4^ 1 cos'O * s in ' O = . t
and on1y if 0 = tt/4. in the and we
holds in a specific
+ sin40 is always "o"4e 0 in 0 < 0 s n/2 (indeed, for all 0). least value, Lf2; in other words,
sign prevaLls in
rii
6 
Lnequalltles for
or
deternlning
EXERCISES
1.11.
of (1.7),
prove that
for
(or decreaslng)
eequences tarraZI,
{Urrtr},
ttbt"t
I 2
tzbz"z
* t, , ", 2
bt * bz *._it . "t   T . 2
condltion. be renoved? Cen
attentlon that
to the equallty
1.12.
not prove lt
here explicltly,
note that
the ln
problen
shon that
I [.o + b n );
tTJ
1.13. For t ln the lntervel
, I t 2a ' l t' . ( ,t
a*b 2
of
[t .1 ]t * tr r . =l'. , [ [r
*.2J *.2J
1.14. For any pair shotr that of poel.tLve numbere a and b such th"t + 2n, , where n is a poaltLve e3 + b2  l, integer.
7
1 .15 . 1.16 .
1.17.
S honthat 1*tan"0
RlA
>f
e x c e p t a t 0 1t 1 4 .
1.18.
to the parabolic
arc G, + 5 in (1.7)
1.19.
shorr that
the lnequaltty
the other
La decreaeLng,
unchanged.
1.3.
Chebyshevrs laequel!,ty.
oae poeaLble
gmerallzatLon
of (1.7).
Ttren ae ln the prevloua sectlon, (at (aZ (al ar) (b,  b2) > 0 ar)(b ,  b 3 ) > 0 ar) (b,  br) > 0 ,
"lb1 "2b2
.3b3*.1b1 . . 3 b 1 * " 1 b 3 .
If ne now sln theec lnequalltles at and then add .1b1 * * arb,'to
^zb.
both
eldee, we arrlve
8 
( 1.10)
wlth equaltty lf
 "l
and only lf
'zt
JJ'
^3,
bl * bz * b3
cl.ses, {a1,
a, a3 or bl  b2  b3. In the exer"2 is asked to generallze thle to two sequencea of n numbers "', bo} :
'. .,
. . . * a o b r,
a, * a, * ... * ao
b l+ b 2 +
Ttre lnequallty
(1.11)
le knorrn as
Exanple 5. order.
Glven three
real
ln lncreaaing
Then by (1.10),
.2 D
>bc*cafab,
glvlng lf
(Note that
equallty
holds lf
and only
a  b = c.) Exanple 5.
( 1. 13)
+ c2
a*b*c
3 afb*c
3,("3 + b3 +
"3 )
> (b c + c a i a b )(a + b + c ) ,
9 
with
equaHty
if
and only if
a = b = c. notation.
To make another notation
Note on the summation and product more compact, we write is n tlf"t for
the sun a, f a, + . . .
* a_. n
T h u s (1 . U )
nlr"non
k=l
=i*.i,
"k] for the product ... ^L^2 8n. Thus n II k=n! k=1 and
Sinilarly,
we write
n IIa
 2L 2 3 .!.t_
,"*!,
= nf1.
EXERCISESFOR CHAPTERI (a) Use the methods of this from the origin (b) Sirnilarly, find
1.20.
chapter to find
the shortest
distance
su rfa ce G + 6 + E  6 = 0.
L.zL, Find the mLnlmum value of the function = "irr4 (. 2t4' x + ll Yl lL  y,)
f (x,y)
0 < y < 1.
Wtrat values
L.22.
Let f(x)
Showthat explain
theuseof apparenr
rhis
with
wt.leh follows
fron
(1.9).
L.23.
Show that
the inequality
is reversed if
one sequence
1 0 
L.24.
L.25.
lf
n le a posttlve
lnteger
and arrdzr..rsn
are poeltl.ve,
F mrl
)and only
1rlr"t l; ,
[" with equaHty lf
tt% ' n
lf n a, ^2  8o. Ttrle generallzes
Exercl.se 1.1?.
L.26.
(*t
+ yt)n
tf
numbers.
L.27 ,
xo  1.
Show
1.28.
be posltLve
1, and let
a permutatLon of *1,...rxn.
(*t+.h l )...(xr
L.29. (a)
the product
(b)
(c)
If
product
1.30.
for
0 < x s 4.
1.31.
Flnd themlnimumvalue
of
ryz lf
x * 2y + 3z  6, xryrz
) 0.
11
L.32.
Arnongall edges is
rectangular
parallelepipeds
such that
1.33.
Arnongall area,
rectangular
parallelepipeds
show that
1.34.
Find the maximum value of G. + '6 + G it For n positive (at numbers r1r...
*2 + yz + z2 = L.
1.35.
1.36.
=) + (b +
' l?
1,
)\
f,)',
t,
L.37.
x( 6,
J
.1
be p o s it L v e n u mb e rswit h . 1 . 8 . , = 1 . j= l J = 1(r,2 + L )2
n'
"j.
1.38.
For positive
a and b
the series
i n=l
1.39.
tf
1
(a
+ (b + 1b)" *1"
tl 3.
the series
1.40.
...
,3
be positive
and letp>0,9<
0.
Show that
nl_
"f*q
equality
if
and only if
'L= ^z =
1.41. Let arta2t ,,
be posLtive
Prove that
n .L " ! l=r
t p+q
[*
[t il ,i,"r],i,'
L 2 
L.42.
arbrc ab ,a+b*c af b2
ca c*a
1.43.
Prove that
for arbrc ) 0
a{t*c
"ab""
wlth equaLity lf
> (abc) 3
lf a = b = c.
and only
I.44.
Show that
for
a,b,c
) 0, we have
t _ 3 
Chapter II.
The Arithmetic,
Geonetric,
2.L
Means.
of those of
define and consider the arithnetic, power, and two symnetric The arithmetic tistics, sinply neans.
harmonic, quadratic,
in sta
the mean.
^L*'2+"'+an
,n = lI
n
.. l= I
a.
l
progression,
mean of the
since three
consecutive terms can be written of the first and last being (ad)
+la+d)
2
The geonetric &1, u2, "', 4r, it mean is s in ila r. is
4.
Of n positive
numbers,
= 'r',' ('1,
of positive terms, each term is the geonetric
In a geometric progression
L 4
ff i = ^ .
The harnonic mean is defined as the reciprocal of the arithnetic nea! of neah of the reciprocals of the nunbers. Thus, the harnonig
"'. na
is
l* r
"l ^z
+ ...
I a n
+ 
11 ^2
"l
* ... * la
n
il
l1 ai
A .hamqrLc" progression is a Drogression such that the reciprocals of its terns form an arithrnetic progression. Thus, each tern in such
a progression ig the harnronic nean of the adjacent two. we should justify the use of the tenn rneanr', for a mean lies l{e shall seldon consider negative nunbers,
est (it
I_
a,(a^(a IZ
+ ... ^2
^l
+ an :8n,
lt
If we nrultiply,
< an
we have
!t! r !
e. a rn n
a
,l.dding, we get
n ,!*l*... "t"1 ^2 or
+ 1 > tt % " o
"rj
ll ++
4r
.oo
t
n
(4
^2
Thus, these are indeed means. All three neans appear in elenentary Euclidean geonetry. exanpLe, if AABC has a right foot of the perpendicular For
AT, then cH is the geometric nean of AH and HB, and cM is the arithnetic mean of All and HB.
 t6
cH= ffiffi,
ttl= ry
Also, given a trapezoid ABCD(see Figute 2.2), with IIBparallel to 6, if t{ and N are the midpoints of lT'and ET, and if such that FF is parallel X and Y are
points on Aband F
section of the diagonals, Id and ffi, then MN is the arithmetic AB and CD, while XY is their harnonic mean.
1 9 + CD MN= _z
2 = XY
 +
11
CD
AB
Figure 2.2.
2.2.
Given
at least
numbels, a and b,
( 2. 1)
+>6 ,
L 7
if
and only if
a = b.
Indeed, this
(1.1) .
In Problem I.24,
we saw'also that
nunbers, a, b, and c,
:
with equality true if and onlyi fa=b=c. for n positive
+ o ..
3,/ffi
,
ln fact, this relation is
in general
numbers:
uI
* ,2
* " r,
( 2 .2)
, v6T
,
= rrr. This is known as the This inequality may
with equality
if
and only if
a, = d2 =
and geonetric
means.
be proved in nany ways, and we present first To prove (2.2), assertion: If the product of n positive we proceed by induction
nunbers is equal
to 1, then the sun cannot be less than n. Fron what we have done in chapter true for n = 2 since, if ara, = l, 1, we know that or ar= 1/a' the assertion we have ar+I/a, is true fot L, 2, is
2. ,k;
the assertion = l,
arar...akak+l
t k + 1, with equality
We may assune that at least two of the numbers"k*1. we call them here a, .rd the property that a, < I and "k*lhave t 1, for if all the a. are less than 1, for example, their "k*1 product could not be 1:
 .18
(a,an*1) az"'
"k
= l.
If
we set z = 8,?,_.,,
I K+ I
1^
w have that
zr a.1r ,..,
&v is 1, so that,
by the induction
^ L*
rZ + ... * ak *
"k*I
z>
z L
=k+1
* "k*l
* tl
"l"k*l
 I
 a r),  1 ) (l  a r ) > 0 .
nit i= 1
a.
1
= ... = ^L= ^Z "k*1. As an innrediate corollary of the assertion above, we have that
,L*^2+...*"n
.l l r
>
(aa^..a
LZ
^L
" rr.
F o r, if we s e t g = n E G ,
r9 
^r.
g
a.a^ a 4* 4 g I
+ ...
t t g " ' n .
18,
Let us give another proof of (2.2), which we feel gives a different insight into (2.2). By (2.1), if the sun of two numbersis given, their This nay suggest that, nore
product is greatest when they are equal. generally, Lema. P roof. their
That is,
we add xY  a(x + a) to both sides, xy < xy * ay  a (x + a ) = (x + a )(y  a ). l{e notice that, by the definition suchthat in (2.2), if not all the numbersare equal, then soy
whe re A = * i= , T t ru s , if we t e t a l = A , "1.A . ^ 2, " i. = ,L * a2  A, we have * ,2 = * and, by the Lernnaabove, ^) "I ^l ^) , ala), ot ^L^2
2 0
"ary^*,
Repeating this nunbers all
, ",Eg;.::"
we arrive at a set of n
"'arn^,
unless = ^l ^2  "'an,
< A
^l*u2+"'+a
nt
Thus, (2.2)
is established. Note that given, their (2.2) implies that. when the producL of n numbers is equal., or, their what is the is a
sun is a minimum when they are all when the sum of n nunbers is given, equal. t)"
sane thing,
product
Exanple I.
equality
Exanple 2.
A sinple
consequence of
(2.1)
is that
(2.3)
u **>2,/ffi, x
_2I
if
and
O nI Yl. aX = /  . .\l t
ID
tf
'
To use (2.3),
let
us substitute
Y=c+x.
Then
(a  c + y)(b  c + y) f(x) =
c)(b : c ) +y+(a+b2c)  (a :
(x) with equallty if and only Lf y = lrGllTG:T. That is, f (x) has  ffi)z.
 cI  c, where f = Gffi
If this value of x is complex, then, since equality in (x) can never occur, f has no rnininum in the real donain.
Example 5. Heronrs fornula Given a triangle with sides of lengtls K, as ar b and c,
K = f fi,
wtreres, the serniperineter, equals *F Let us use this and
(2.2) to find the triangle of given perimeter which has the mst area.
l{e have
 22'
.s4+sb+s
rT
: c,) 3 = s (5J s 3 5 s  2
,4 =T' with equality if and only if s  a = s  b  s  c, or a = b = c. has the nost area, namely
* ={ b=f ^' .
The inequality just derived also showsthat the equilateral triangles triangle has the least perimeter anong all E xanple 4. (a+b*")2= of a given area.
Let us ex p a n d (a + b * c )Z a n d u s e (2 . 1 ):
(^ 2 *b 2*.21
(r2 rb 2*"21
3 (a 2 * bz * .21 ,
t
( 2 .4)
T_.^/
and only if
a+b+c
/^'*b2*.2
,
a = b = c.
Maximizy = * 2 7 t  Z * 1 .
If we consider y as a product of two factors., x2 arrd (1  2x), their sun is not constant, lo that (2.2) cannot be used. sider y as the product of three factors, sum, x + x + I  2x = l,
'I
If,
however, we con
is constant.
Hence, y will
na m ely (l/3)",
whenx=x=
  2 x , o rx = L / 3 .
T h is a p p lie s o n ly t o
. 2 3 
x ) 0, since (2.2) is applicable only to positive n u mb e rs . A t x = l/ 3 , therefore, ily we have a relative, or local, rnaximum, taking on arbitrary
Maxinize )r = x {G.
,orx=*rsince {z
'=t. ,':ft'',.']
Thus, the naxinun is at (*,
b
Exercises
r,.)
2.I.
, tn.
prove that
+ ...
^z ^s
2.2.
(2.s )
with equality right
*r!, ",tffir4
= = The terrn on the ^Z "rr. is known as the quadratic nean, or root mean square, of the if and only if a, =
of two opposite angles, Bretschneiderts fornrula gives the area, K, as K2 = (s  a) (s  b) (s  c) (s  d)  abcd "or2 f, where s is the
 24
6.\
2 .4.
olmlperlneter. teral
Aseunlng thts
foruula,
prove that
the quadrlla
of glven perlneter
of the right
clreular cme
cyllnder havlng
of nsxlnun altltude II
ln a rlght
elrcular
of baae R;
2.5.
(a)
circular
cone of largest
(b)
Find'the right
in a sphere of radius a.
< a, whefe
2 . 7.
Prove that
5
(Hint:
r_sry
Cube, expand , a n d n s e (2 . 2 ). )
s/Tm
..,j}
:i:;
2 5 
2 .8.
Prove that
2 .9.
(a) (b)
l,trxinize l,bxinize
(1  x) s( r + x) ( t + (x.
z*) 2 .
s121sx 7) ( r 1 x )g (x + 1 ), x )0 .
2.L0.
Prove tfuat
a+b+c ..3. \ a + b)(b + c)(c + a
2 nr.unbers , *2 , *1 ., on bI n
.sffi
the n
2 . 11.
Given n positive
ol=*l**2
**n
L
1 =I
xi,
62=
*r*2 *r*s *
O=
xx^ ..'x
LZ
+ '
[ i l < i 2:....i n
* ., x! 'L '2
...x. l n
o = xx^ ...x n Lz n
n lx .
i=l
slmetrie
* r'
*n')
1+
n n . I o1 =.'I I (1 ilr i= l
+ * i)
1r + ?[)n
by showing that
 26'
o, I tll o/" ,
m=l,2,"',D.
(Notice that this gives an alternative .n 2.12. when o_ = l.) (a) Prove that, their (b) 6ive if
solution of Probl.emL.22
sun is less, the closer they are. another proof of (2.2), sinilar text, to the first proof
given in.the
2.L4.
(a)
of a rectangle
is glven,
show that
the
(b)
to slt against
2.L5.
(a)
Prove that
lts
surface
area
a cube.
(b)
Given the surf ace area of a box wlthout Lts volune a maxLmum?
a top.
I'lhen ls
. :7. '.:i.
 27
. \l
2.L6.
Construct
wlth
a reetangular
box of
lnto
three
2.L7.
(a)
, than (n + L)l4r
(b)
2.18.
for
any positive
integer
k,
meaa of than
n lntegers
(n+1)*/2*,n>1.
z.Lg.
of a sector
of a circle
be glven.
Find lts
(x+ y) + (y
 28
K the area, R the radius of the circle r the radius of the inscribed circle,
^ R= abC
ff,
2.22.
^L'
.. , gn,
. "3, (1
Give conditions for equality.
,"+.
the
2.23.
Let a andb
be positlve
constants. 1b ;;
2.3.
Mean. Figure 2.2 sugges$that the hannonic mean The ffrarrnonic nean. This is true, in fact,
is not greater than the geonetric rnean. This is quite follows directly l{e have
nr fr .L .
1 = I1 \
;:
[,], , +J
1ln
n
or ( 2 . 6)
n $1 < (n )1 / n III a.l [ i= 1 t )
I a.1 1
t\
{
c
2 9
wh erea.>0for
1
all
and only if
a, = 8^ = ...
LZn
= a .
Exanple 7.
(2.6) inp L ie s t h a t
ii ["']#.
Let us expand the left side, getting
2 n.
to Exemple 4.
n I
1=l
1 " .1 a .1
where the index on the second sumation over all i,j frorn I to n such that i < j.
i, j=,2 13
, then
o f c o u rse ,a .',=r
= ,j.
and
.
J1
^i
n(n r)
(there are n choices for i_and n  I for j, because of the requirenent that i < j, ( i ,j) ) . there
2=n2,
 30
Example8.
ll1
0 ( * t
lte have a n d o n ly
2.24 .
2.26,
Prov6 that the hsrnonic neen of two positive sum, is greater th closer theY are.
1ft;
on i t * t t'
2.28.
cLrcular clrcular
clrctcrcrlbcd of
t.
3 1
2,4. tion
Undeternined Coefficients.
such as y  x(l
 2x), we cannot apply (2.2) as the function observation that y = +t(2x) (1  2x)], The point
to the quantity
inside
the coefficient
of 2 to the factor
Exanple 9.
of a rectangle
h is the altitude
of the
and r the radius of the then the area of the Figure 2.3.
(x)
A = 2rh * t
TT
T.
1lrrc
+ 4hJ,
adnitted.
The perimeter
is
We desire
to multiply so that
the first
factor
in
(x) in We
the coefficient
 32
A =*
and, fron
we desire,
Thisgives0,=4+nand
and only if
(4 + n)r = Tr + 4hr
a nethod which is useful in nany areas of nathernatics' more factors, however, there afe nore consider
y = *(a2  *2) , Example 1.0. One way to naximize the function (2'2): where a is constant, is to square and use
il
.)/ .
_33
(r)
+ x], / = x(a  x)(a + x) = i= [ a x ] [ B (a  x )] [ a l{e desire that the strmof the facof x in
tors in (r) be constant, or, looking at just the coefficient the sun, (xx) o  I + I = 0.
Wemrusthave, also, that we can Solve for x, since we have three fsctors which nust be equal for somevalue of x, if these si^m.rltaneous equations have a solution and B, namely, that the solution we are to apply (2.2). That on a
be ttre same. Thus, we mrst have identical , ox = o t x r B (ax) = a + x the solution of the first being
a * =m
x = f f81= 6  la z i?
where we have substituted
t
That is to say'
#= o f u a
o2  z o  z = o
OT
o= 1 + 6 ,
3 4
The coefficient
B = o+1
is also positive.
a x= l , r/3
solution. would have been useless to put in one coeffithe sum of the factors
each factor.
by the last
undeteflnined and one equal to unity. The reason why we must solve two equations in two variables, reduces to solving in y. a quadratic, is that there are three different of the function which factors
In the calculus,
to be
equation.
glves us a quadratLc
Exercises
2.2g.
2.30.
 x),
where a is constant
2.31.
(a)
inscribe
',,
t'i
 35
(b)
2.32.
(a)
(b)
0, lnscribe,
above the
xY Plane, (a) the cYlinder and (b) the box of naxinun surface area. 2.34. Inscribe the rectangle of greatest area under each of the curves Y =I/*,P =1,2,3, to the right of x = a > 0. (That is'
( ",#) ' )
3 6 
2 .35 .
Minimize the surface area of a right volume aird the shaPe of its
(polYgonal') base.
2.36.
Given the area and one angle of a triangle, (a) (b) (c) the sum of the two including the opposite side; the perineter.
minimize
sides;
2 .57 .
2 .38 .
\l
0.
2.39.
and harmonic
tneans of two nunbers is not less than the geonetric mean of those nunbers. 2.40. Prove that for any positive nunbers, a, 'b, c, such that a + b + c = l,
( ;  1 ) ( i  tl( i t) > s.
2.4I. Prove that a3 * b3 * 93 + lSabc < 2(a + b + c ) (^ 2 * b 2 , c2a)(aa2 * bc2 *
111
" 2 ).
2.42.
Prove that
(a2b * b2c ,
t g^282.2. ""21
 37
2.43.
from (4,2,I)
to the Plane
2 .44 .
l*,=tt,' t '
) A , )r, q B , i
 l .
= lr
"'r
llr
x/r3
1
inside it.
(B  A ).
2 .45.
Pass a line
through the
the triangle
of mininun area.
3 8
Chapter III.
3.1.
In this
chapter we shall
investigate
Y =^*2+bx+c observation
( 3 . 1)
is equivalent to finding
the naxinum or the mininum of the function have a nininun or a maxinun according as
(5.1); a is
Exanple 1.
y=3x 2
for a possible
1 2 v + 1 7
As in the case of analytic the coordinates of the vertex geometry, of the
naximun or minimun.
v
.or The vertex coefficient upward. that point
=S(x2
4x+4)
+17L2,
=g(x2)2*5.
(2,5),
i, positive,
the function x = 2.
at the
3 9
of view, which can then be extended to a wider range By completing squares, we have transformed the which is the sum
a
of applicability. function
) ^) 3x'  l2x + 17 to the form 5 + 3(x  2), 5, and a nonnegative variable 5 + 3(x  42 will
hence,
least possible
the function
possible
the following
principle,
of a parabola:
whenever F(x) is a minimun, and the function will be a maximum whenever F (x) 15 a ml nl num.
Exanple 2.
(x + 3)(x + 5) x+6
has the
z24"*3
+:4 a
= z 2/7
*! q
z
+ z {5
b E  ?) ' . 28
This last
 4.
expression is of the forn A + F(z), where A=284and The expression for F(z) will assume its
F(z) is nonnegative.
t"l
4 0
 /7//Z
= 0 or when z  ,8, and the minimun value of be 2/3  4, which is achieved when
expression will
If wewrite*.f,
m i nimunvalue A =Z
occurswh e n (t 
we pose next a geonetrical problem which can be solved by ninirnizing a quadratic function, and which has many applications. ExanPle 4.
vertices that A, B, C.
of A, B, C be
( x r , r r),
tively,
(*2 ,Y 2 ), (xa ,rr)' r esPecand let the coordinates of x and y so that the expresslon
P be (x,y).
J 3
S=PA'+PB+PC=
(3.2)
is a ninirmrn.
sions in x and Y:
( 3.3)
= A rx2 * 81* * C1
A ry 2 * B ry + C, ,
xr)
'
Bz
_z(y *Y2* t
22 2 11 * Y2*Y3
y3)
'
ct
cz
4 L 
Since A1 = A2 = 3, and since x and y are independent, S will its mininun when the two quadratic
achieve a
mininun. of A'
B, and A'
$=
T I
lx i.
T I 22 lv
2. 3(*r **z*
.
5
s
2t
l* t *
,2 x2 + x 3 )
+3
t_
( v r* v 2 +v 3 ),.!# l *sl2
..,
I
J
(t '
* Yz * Ys)2
t.
Hence S will whenever
* r* * 2*
_l
r[ ".':.'7
(* 1 * * 2 * * 3 )2
1 (Y t * Y 2 + Y 3 ) 3
?
+C r+C r
I
J
achieve its
rnininun value,
cr*c2,*,
**z
*r ) '  *,r ,
*1 **2 **s
(3 .4)
Y = Tis called
yl+y2+y3
The point
(x,y)
given in
(3.4)
(3.2)
is nothing more A, B, C
to have an intuitive
4 2 
which we deal,
it
is worthwhile
to define precisely
the physical
con
cepts associated with sone of the inequalities. Thr Moments oL a PointMass .System. Let Pl, of n points in the (x,y)plane, there having coordinates P2, "', (x'Yr), (i P' be a set (x2,Y2),
= I r 2 r " 'r i l )
(x,y)plane,
and let
The sum
( 3 .s)
*1d1 *
^Zd2
* trd'
first
systen with
More generally,
k, the sum
(3. 6)
rrul * nra\*
*rdk nn
he to alk k th nonen I .o f the systen with resPect to L. otal is defined to be th ek= For the ca se on (3 6) is called 2, he expr S S io eex re ,t the noment of inertia
pect t en wi of the sys ten witth re sp ctt to L ar I di ke wo erpe nd Let u st take tw pe pend cu1a li ines in the plane, al first c nsi ert he the yaxis ,aand con de the t o ta fi wo ines respect to these tw 1i ES : the xaxis and
( 3.7)
{ Mt 1I M^ lt.z
tr*1 + t1r1 +
^2*2 ^2Y2
...
nx nn
n' n
+. . .
+ ny
( 3 .8)
such that,
if
nass of
the systen were located at P, the total and M. are the sane?
L
nonents Mt
.:
_ 43_
exists ^Z *
for,
mass of the
(nt *^ 2 (mt *^ 2*
by (3. 7) ,
=Mr
=Mzt
so that,
*1*1 *
t1
^ 2*2
* t2
+mx nn
* tn
+ ...
i=1 n
1=I
m.x.
11
I m .1
( 5 .s)
n
tlrl
*
tl * t2 *
^zYz
+ ny +n n
n' n
i= 1
n
m. y.
l _ 1
It.
1=I
P with coordinates
given by (3.9) If
is called
the center of
is not difficult
first
Exanple 5.
L in the plane.
the moment
of inertiais
We letl.be
the line
through the of
of the system and express the mornentof inertia line f para11e1 to the given line about Lo. Let L
 44
and l;
if
I, = nrdf ,
o
(3.rr)
L=
+ nr ( dr , * o) z
If we expand the squares 1n (3 . 1 1 ), we h a v e ^n Ig = fo+ 2c L Drd, , gt I rn, , ]. 11 1 =I i= 1 where the first sumnation is the total first tnonent with respect to Since n
L,'and the second surnation is the total o Lo passes through the center of gravity, relat ion ( 3.12) Thus the line parallel of the systen will inertia. I/ = I l * o ' 2M . o
Exercises 3 .1. 3 .2. Find the ninimm vaLue of Find the naximrn value of
(5x + 2)(x + l) 2x+1 7 x+4x+5
fo r xr  lz
3 .3.
x+5 xo+4x+5 .
4 5
3 .4 .
,3 5*.os4**sirr4*
3.5.
For positive
x and y, find if
+y
+ 11 r +2
* Z
xy
3 .6.
For positive x and y, find 18 the maximun value of
Y/ L
3 .7 .
If
,/x+yl
flnd the snallest using the
ArBrC are the angles of an acute triangle, tarr2A + tan2B + tan2c. prove first
(Hint:
the identity
3. 8.
following
Equations (3.9),
namely, that
if
P is zero.
3 . 9.
D is a ninimum.
3.10.
Given a 3dimensional pointmass system consisting located at points Pr(x, ,yi,zi), i = 1, 2, ..., the total n. first
II: ax + by + cz + d = 0, we define
4 6
fron p. to II (for
example, d. p. lies
P. lies (3.8)
below II).
is easily
in three planes, we
dimensions, and, with respect to the three coordinate are 1ed to the coordinates n of the center of gravity n n
y.m.
11
of the system
I
xilr
*.t. 11
M
t
i=1
i=1
z . m.
11
M is the total first mass of the system. moment of the systen with respect is zero.
where
n M =.I n. i=l 1
show that
the total
to any plane passing through the center of gravity 3.11. For the pointnass
the quantity
*r'di,
given line f
of
in space, is cal1ed
rL. Given A, B,
16
o\
C,D(thatis,m.=1,i=1, line
2 , 3 , 4 ); f in d
if L is t h e
BCD.
3.2.
Schwarz. (3.1).
nethod of using the quadratic two sets of real numbers this section we lift ^1,
3n
and
the condition
bk be positive.
 47
y = (.1*
cannot be negative, i.e.
+ (anx  Orr)t
(3. 13)
Y=
Ir("k* ft:
bk) > o
.2
that equalitY in (3.13) can hold only if each of the )') (.r,* b rr) is z e ro ' that is, only if terns (atx  bl), "',
b^ b, l ._ =  2 = ...
a4 aa LZn
( 5. 1 4 )
b_ = n .
a_
y=
(i,'i):o
which is'of
I 1 tk2 k=
n
2
( 3 .1 s )
I
I
b=
t
n c= \
k=1
tkbk
k=1
I al
Notice that we have inposed on (3.1) the additional condition (5'13)' nanely, that y cannot be negative. The value of a in (3.15) indicates
y cannot that the parabola (3.1) nust open upwards, and the condition that be negative neans that the parabola cannot closs the xaxis at two distinct points. Consequently, the discriminant b2 ' 4ac of the quadratic
4 8 
\ o ( u i ,tn'ni
ln
OT
( 3. 16)
This is the CauchySchwarz inequality, equality useful holds is given by (S.I4). by taking
under which
Another forn of
may be obtained
( 3.17)
I n L I _\ k=1 "nonl k = f
F
(.t, "i)'''
suggestive, is 2 or S. since each The fo11owmeaning.
The righthand
side of
(3. r 7 )
asa
the geometrical
Exanple 6.
in a
Find the angle between OA and 6T, where O denotes The three sides of triangle 0AB nay be found by the
I (* (3. 18)
loB
iAB_
2 1
.b? = l3
or)' *
(a2
L/2
\ui,'i)
^rbr)2
irt'". t
= on)" (i, I
(at , \ 7 /2
4 9
(at
br)2 * (az
If
cellations,
* ,Zb2 * .SbS ,
( 3. 1e )
cos0=
"1b1 "1 *
*^2bZ*^Sbs
*^3
The formula
(3.19) for
(s .L7):
and +1, and can be I only when the angle is arithnetical proof of (S.17) allows spaces;
The fact
of an angle into
higherdinensional
is precisely . spaces .
geometry ln
higherdimensional
Exanple 7.
to find
T
the minimun
We have
5 0
"or2*)
> (fi csc x sin x + r,/6sec x cos x)z , or A csc2x * B sec'x > 6A + JE)' , with equalitY if and only lf ,r/[csc x sin x tan2x = 6secx cos x
'')
,o T
4 lA . x = a rc f , a n q / 9 .
value of the firnction 8. Find the mininnrm Exampl,e 2 4' ' L ( 16 + x +y )(T 6 *i .L . 4l . This expressionis essentially the rightyI b2= hand si d e o f (3 .1 6 ) w i th a , = 4, d2= x, 83 = y2 and b, = l, Ir
b3=
+ v
r, tr.
xy
> (1 + I + 1)2 = 9,
with equafity
if
4x == L /4
rl x
x = 4,
y = 2.
t/yz
solution involving the
between arithrnetic
factor
L6*x2+
5 1
re*a*v xy
If we nultiply
,tm
we obtain
I
(16
t *2 , r4lr$
.*.*, xy
zs:m
9,
'uays, end several of these crtcnsions sre interchangeable intheirapplication to eloentary o a classical geonetry. fle wish to introduce here a simple forrn be treated at length in Chapter 4; Let {^r,^r,rr} and
inequality
rhich will
tbt,bZ,bSl
be two triples
( 3.20 )
(3 .2 r)
The proofs of (3.20) and (3.21) are obvious on the basis of our discussions in Exanple 6 abovez rf re fom the parallelogran of which two sides are C(a, + b'
be the point be
5 2
,r,r1.J
,/
(^., * b.,)'
* ("2 * br)'
* ("3 * br)' .
In the triangle
AC = OB , (3.20) and (3.21) f o llo w a t o n c e . ' I n o t h e r wo rd s , (3 . 2 0 ) asserts that the sun of two sidles of a triangle si de . Exanpl.e 9. From the point C(O , c ) a n a n ru n s t o a p o in t P (x , 0 ), O{* ( l, a n d t h e n t o t h e p o in t F in d t he " nust exceed the third
CP+PD=
(x*lx)'=
least value
or
x =
;J!
lx
c+d
which brings out the fact that Minkowskirs inequality, sa)'s essentially
that the shortest distance from one point to another segrnentbetween the two points. Reflect the point D
is the straightline
a;
5 3
in the xaxis
into
the point
Then the choice of the point ninimize nininize the sun CP'+ pD will the sun CP + pDt.
(1 , 0 )
nize the latter straightline Dr.
By elenentary that
follows
the minimrn is
(c * d)2 *
and1  x = #=
we shall
The additive property of the sunmation sign in (s.13) suggests that we may exploit even further the quadratic function (i.l).
assumesomeknowledgeof the elenentary integral calculus, even though, with the exception of the Lenna below, the following developmentsare co n ceptually identical to t h e d e riv a t io n o f (s . rg ), above.
Suppose that we have two functions f(x) and g(x) which are both the
(3 . rs ), a n d (3 . 1 6)
continuous on the closed interval expression [f(x)t a < x < b only if of f(x).  g(x)]z
a < x < b.
x in
g(x) = f(x)t,
is a real nultiple
Consequently, we have
( 3 .22)
for all
T h e c o n d it i o n s
prevails
5 4
The inequality
 2t f( x) g( x) + [g( x) J2) a* , o
or ( s.23)
where we have used t in place of x, since x is re_ in the integral; the coefficients of the
(s.2 4)
I
I
I
cannot
b ,2  4rrc' cannot
( 3 .2 s)
5 5 
which is called Schwarzts inequality lfe now take up the question of when equality can occur in (3.2S), and this is equivalent to equality inPortant in nany contexts, is essential. in (3 .?2). The following Lenna is
of continuity
LEIri{A. Let F(x) be continuous and nonnegative on the interval r'b a <x<b. Ttl F(x)dx = 0 , t h e n F (x ) is identically zero.
ta
Proof.
ze"ro.
F(xo) by A; we nnrst have that A > 0 since F(x) is nonnegative. F(x) is continuous, there cxists an intenral l*  *ol . 6, o"
*o  d ( a < *o * d, such that F(x) > A/z for every x in this (rf xo should be one of the endpoints, I or b, it will half of the stipulated interval, suing argunent will tive, we have
^interval.
be enough to take
(nanely, that 0 > 0), we have that F(x) lg idettlstep in the A6.)
chain of inequalities
5 6
To conplete the discussion of Schwarzfs inequalitlr nonnegative quadratic function arising distinct reaL roots.
fore in (3.25), if, the quadratic function (s.22) possesses one real r oo t, say to. The function Then for this re a l ro o t t o , we h a v e { o t t t * la o [f(x)to  g(x)]2 i,  e (x )lz dx = 0.
so that, for all x in a < x < b , g (x ) = t o f (x ). Exanple 10. va lu e 1/S . we have Let us consider the integral .t x . x 3 , a n d if * u ' l* " *o dx, which has the
f (x ) = x a n d g (x ) = x 3 ,
= (I'
. .fu, ur'(r
case, we have
E=
i.nequallty le related to Schwarzrs lnequality, the fact, how the lnequallty uay be applled.)
'57
(x  t1 2 = ({'..)'
*) r t*'
 , )),
rh e n c e
2(;  tl'
x tl
< log x,
ot
2 { * , , t ) x+l
< ro g x .
( l, or e < S.
If we set x = e L t 3
va obtain
TT
2(e" " _ t)
.Iroe"=,
or
" .4 =
2.744.
l'e renark thet this resurt rs useful in the nodern calculus course, where log x is defined ,tf.* dt/t, ard where the inequality of Schwarz rl is easily proved at the tine that the definite integral is introduced. of course' the inequarity Taylorseries of Exanple ll nay be obtained fron the
expansion, but this concept usually appears nuch later calculus course. bound for e nray be obtained by analogotrs nethods.
**r,
e
we have
and, if for
"
r 3 * 6
exanple,
5 8 
Exercises for Chapter III ,1 S howthat [x + y * z )(i S hswthat (x,+r^* 'LZ
tl , ..., X
3.12 . 3 .13 .
rr * i *;) ,\rl L
:9
f o r p o s it iv e x , y , z .
* *r,)(+ .
) r,2fot positive
3.L4.
For positive
AB I  cosr
I + cosx
in the intenral
the
point (x,y,z) is constrained by the relation x2 * y2 * z2 = l. 3.17. 3.18 . Find the nininun value of S howthat g sec6x * 3csc6x for 0 < x < n/2.
+,t.?: T ,+ .?
#. #  # ls lz f o r p o s it iv e x , y , z .
wit h a > 0 a n d b > 0 .
2 22
3 .1 9 . S how that
3 '2 0 .
l*,
"2. a 3 ), (b r b z , bg ) ,
jr'ti
5 9 
. 4 c2,
"!rtaf* a l , ulr.
) 4x"  " '' ^ For x in the range 0 < x < tt/2, show that ' " " "  + + s in 2 x < "anx 2x (Hint. S tart with t h e id e n t it y * = 4 * x . a re re a l, 2 ' 2 n  < n ( *i**r +  "' 2 **i) ,' sectcostdt.)
3.24.
+ x )z
and conpare the regult wlth (2.5). 3.25. Let alra2r...r8n be poaltive ntders a re re a l, t h e n euch thet
E
tit"f
. 1.
Shon
thst lf *lr*2r...rx'
(.a*r.*
^Z*2+
(Coupare the resulr wlth problens 3.18 and 3.24.) 3.26. Find the largest and smallest values of arx, * ,Z*Z * for a, , ?2, ..., 8n p o s it iv e if x+ax nn
222 *1 *2
i*i+...*+ bi b;
3.27.
b;
 l.
on the interval < b; a q x ( b, prove that r \
\%
of Schwarzrs inequality.
 60
3.28.
Given two sets of real nunbers trr, Prove the CauchySchwarzinequality sun nn j=l k = l is nonnegative.
"r ,1
a n d { o r , ..., bJ
that the double
II
("jo*  anal2
3.29.
X a1 and X b; are convergent. Show that k=l K k=l n series f, a. b. is absolutely convergent.
k=l KK
the
suppose that
f(x)
and ft(x)
trt"ll2ax and rl
of f r(x).
61
Chapter
IV.
The Inequalltlee
of Hiilder
and !,llnkwekl
A l,ecna. ntober
Lt p be a real deflned by
nunber greater
(4.1)
l*!Pq
I :
lt
follose
at once that
q > 1.
Our prlnclpal
tool
ln thls chapter
(4.2)
4 qt= :2 p
only
xy,
real nun
wlth bers.
eqtrallty
+t , n,
an Lneqnallty ehotr that resulte (4.2) relatlng the arl.thetfc and gemetrle for ratlo,nal means. I{e ehall the
p and q frm
of chapter for
(4.3)
.1 b 1 +a rb r+ " '+.o b o
nlth
eqtrallty
lf
and only
lf
(
I
6 2 
( 4 .4)
ap =. n bq n
Hiilder,s
inequality,
is an inportant
of cauchy and schwarz. when p and q are rational, "elementary methods", processes). can
We wish to enphasize.here the fact we ate able to deduce (4.2) that is,
(or infinite
the functions
example, *P ."n be defined as eP(log x)r, nethodsn are necessary. sane results renarked, it Certain analytic
so that
socalled
methods will
also yield
in the case that p and q are rational, is one of our objects directly to show that
but,
as we have of
the inequalities
relating
neans whenever p and q are rational. x and y and for rational the posltive integers p = n/n > 1
To prove (4.2)
for positive
m and n:
mm
+
xp p
yq q
,,*il *.
(.r n
 ,,)y*n
between arithnetic
(*tyt)r/m
= xy , Hence
with equality
only for
xP = yq.
ii, ,:
6 3
*P*r9, pq
with equality if and onty if
xI'
Now (4.2) holds for real p and q satisfying above, when p, andthereforeq, is irrational,
(<), one must realize that the symbol can degenerate into the 'flessthan o r  e qual" case (5), e.S . 0 < t / n , b u t 0 I llg (f f " l. cases involving lirnits of inequalities, inequality He n c e , in t h e
 +! 
for rationar
X/.r
and let
(4.5)
xy
,+. t
=d>0.
We shall show that there exist rational ( 4 .1) such that ( 4.6 )
x v ,# .*,
*,; it
6 4 
from the exprcssion on the lefthand and the fact that the expression
(4.5),
p and q.
be approximated arbitrarily
by rationals,
*P = *Po + e, and yQ = yQo + e2 for po and Qo sufficiently and q, respectively, (4.1), wherd e, and ez are arbitrarily but this relationship offers
close to p
e, depends on ry
We have that
xv,*.f+ t #. *] } = ,
=n *to D
_*P .*._ p qo
v'o
lq'  o I
'ot
+ _+
l. rl
I I
ll
lezl
q
. * P o lp
* y q o lq  e o l * lr ll
Since this last expression tends to zero ,, this that
po tends to p, we can choose expression is less than d/2, Hence (4.2) holds for xP = yq. 5 will
last
we seek. if
with equality
and only if
the powerfuland
urifyingresults
in chapter
and irratlonal
6 5 
4;2.
Wit h t h e e s t a b lis h n e n t o f (4 . 2 ), v e
are now in a position to prove Hiilder's inequality in the form (4.3). ..., arr} and { b r, b 2 , . . . , b rr} b e t wo s e t s o f p o s it iv e n u n ^ 2, bers, and let p and q be real nunbers satisfying (4.f). Let us set L e t {^ L, A p=
... ., 4P n
"?r * "\ *
(4.7)
B q
ol.ol.
...
.r 59 n
=Bd
np= np"f *
so that ( 4.8)
lP c! + . . r +
tl . "! + "'
*cP=1 n
Si m i l arly,
(4 .e )
dl . d 2 . " '
*dQ=1 n
 66
( 4 . 10 )
I I
"tbt
= A B (c rd r). < A B
^ ZbZ=
A B (c rd r). < A B
ab nn
=AB(cd) nn'
<AB
[$ .$ i
we obtaln the reault
If
of (4.10),
a rb r'+ a rb , + .,. *
otl "r r bn :
cP n
af.
. a;tl
)'
and, by (4.8)
"lbl*^ZbZ*
+anb6 I
(i. AB +) = A B ,
(4 . 3 ). E q u a lit y h o ld s in (4 . 3)
the conditions (4.4). Renark. The inequality (3.f6) of Cauchy and Schwarz given in Chap
ter 3 is a special case of Ht ild e rt s in e q u a lit y (4 . 3 ), wh e re p = 2 , e = 2 . Also, since our proof of Hiilderrs inequality above rlas based on the inequality between the arithmetic CauchySchwarz inequality and geonetric neans, it follows that the between
6 7 
4.5.
Minkowskits Inequality.
[i q ) " '
\ k=l a, ,
and {b, , b2, br}, was easily ^j} l{e wish to prove a generalization "n} The
( 4 .11)
t/K
and onty if
t4,L2)
bt
bz
^z
o f Hd ld e r' s in e q u a t it y (4 . S ) ;
I
FT
that
, so that I *
= t.
T h u s , it
f o llo ws
* bi )^ = ,1,
vn
ar(a, +
6 8 
we have
,!r("t
* bi)K'
+ D.l L ')
..KI
\  K 1 K

* o r ) *]
K 1 K
={[,], ',*]'/*.
[,!,
o.* I r)
* b i )* ]t i ,
or
t"' [ ,1, *
which is (4.11). directly
(n
t'* bi)* ]
iI
I
l
I
I
ffi n
a n
n.K D
n
I I
ry
ffi
bt
or,
since (K  1)Kf = K,
and
"r *bl
b n ;+ Tnn
E=
;!
"l
6 9
real
consequence.
4.4.
( 4 . 13)
pq
If we setl/p=cand
= I.
.l1
and
na
( 4.14)
The condition
(4.ls)
B ,B ^ B
= ... = _
suppose now that we are given three ntuples of positive {Ar , "', A rr}, {t,,..t B n } a n d t c r, . . ,
numbers
i.:1
7 0 
expresslon
i= l
['t'*]'o=
(Di)r',
1= I
I l? nlo 11
At
= = ... Dr Dz
8y
after observing
Yl 0
l,
 n
,= B . n
r=Y
l ii=l \
with equality only if
rn
B
Bl0 i
r3r n
' \Y
rrl,tiJtr!,ttJ '
Bt
q
This inrplies, finally,
that
=, z n r=
B^B
=q'
7 L 
(+. ro)
N, for any s e t { o l, o , , a N} o f p o s it iv e ^=,r ,,,..., such that o1 * o2 + ... * = l, namely, t{ n ( 4 .L7) i=l
we nay change (4.16) to a forn sinirar to (4.s) for certain applications. "r , t h a t , i f l /s = p , L /B = q , l/\ = r , *e haveA. = with S ta rti n g w i th (4 .16) , letusset Ol = ti = b, and CT = c i' "1, B, = bg, C, = r
so
"i'
l. i *I ='.
firen (4.16) becones n f .arb,c. i!1 rrr ( 4.18)
L/t
...,
";l w i th (4.17).
are proportio n a l s e t s .
A sinilar
 72
Examp_le 1. Showthat
nunbers with
"lbl"r
tsbg"s ^zbz"z* =
l.
. " "i 1"1 "?t "3)3 . ul. ulltf . .l * "9., 1ui .3ij .#J [#J :1'
(4.18), have,since From we + " +* * = r,
.3 with equatityif andonly ir af , uf : .l = = t ,, V3, lo g "?, "l "l = x : y : t , s o r , e h e r e r /zyL ls " i. ( = s. Ra isin g * x both "! "!l of this inequality to the sixth power and dividing the desired inequality. l{e nay also generalize Minkowskifs inequality Let us take inequality (n (4.11), even nore easily.
, t " 36 = sides
by 56, we amive at
\i= I
II
if
(*i *
with equality
and only if
addt.I, "flt/*
to
. [ri, x)r/x
c. I
L)
II l \ i=
1n
(a . * b . *
t'*, *J "r,
rtr
 73
inequality
if
and only if
(4.le)
(! lI tilr
t/*
r); "fl b. and f c.
I
, II (a. \ i= I
1
(n
+ b.
*] t'u, "r,
and only"if
I.
E: ]tbz
1S
constant
is constant, which
tz=
=a
nn
:b
cn.
This is
II I (xil \i=
* *i2 * ...
* *iN) *]t' * a
+ ...
.,*]"*' ['!,
xnl : xn2 :
: xnN'
4.5. integral
The Int,egral Inequalities of Hiilder and lr{inkowski. We obrain analogues of the Hiitder and Minkowski inequalities in rnuchthe
o f th e inequality (4.3) in S e c t io n 4 . 1 a b o v e . Let f(x) and g(x) be continuous and nonnegative on sone interval (4.1); we as
a ( x < b, and let p and q be positive nunbers satisfying sune that neither of f(x) and g(x) is identicalty avoid proving a trivial result. Let us set
zero in order to
7 4
J trc*llPa*= Ap
rb
rb
( 4.20)
JIer * llea*= B Q,
where neither of A and B is zero; the functions q [f(x)JP and [g (x) ] are continuous since f(x).and g(x) are. Let us set
( 4 .2L)
= F(x)+
G(x)=9;
.h
continuous. rb
Since
A P = J " I f ( x ) ] P d* =
a Sinilarly,
it
follows
that
t. J te C*llPd x=
J t c C *)l q d x= 1 .
Now
rb ;b x J f(*)g (x)d x = J A B F ( x ) c ( x ) d= A B J F (x )G (x )d x ,
fb
.
Hence
so that,
by the definitions
of A and B,
7 5 
(4,22,
For three (or lnore) nonnegative continuous functions f(x), h(x) on a < x < b, and for three positive o + B + y = l, it
g(x),
is an easy rnodification of the proof bf (4.16) to in its integral forrn rnay be written as
( 4.23)
Jro gB nY a*
For
numbers p, g, r with
t p
we also have the alternatlve for:m
G.24)
[I'
as in the case of (4.11), the proof dependsupon Hiilder's Let f(x) and g(x) be continuous and nonnegative on the We
7 6 
consider
the integral
1b J If( x) + g ( x ) l* u * ,
and write it
.h
in the forrn
I f(x)[f(x)
a
+ g (x) I K t d*
. Ior(x)[r(x) + g (x ) l t t
a
d*
Ri
so that
i.#=t.
If
we subsfitute
rT
for
J tr ( * l + g 1 x)l K a x :
rb
( 4 . 2 5)
I/K
7 7 
which is t he form of Minkowski ts inequality holds only if of (4. 25 ) that f(x) = ag(x). Note also that
rf b (4 .2 6) l j lf(x) + g(x) \a
+ h( x ) r * u, . j
L/x
g (x ), h (x ), wit h e q u a t it y if
fo r c o n s t a n t s o a n d B .
36
'x
. r!*!*y
)t
(* 5 * y 5 *
" 5 ).
4 .4.
Showthat,
for positiv e X , L
z,
27
. : (1
 + l
4.5.
only for x = Q.
7 8 
4.6.
For x , 1, let a be a rational nunber greater than l, Show that (1+x )a > l+ c x , with equality for x = 0. a ) 0,
a > l.
4.7. '
use the result of Problen 4.6 to show that if 'c x ) 0, the nininun of the function *o assumedwhenx= (1)lo . ct
s > l, and
=l_
"*
is (r  n) (3)"1 and is
4.8,
For x t 1, lt a be a negative rational nunber. (l+x)a > l+ c D(, with equality only for x = 0.
Showthat
4.9.
Extend Problem 4.5 (and therefore problens 4.6 and 4.g) to the case that a is irrational numbers {rrr} such that ll1 rr n# by the use of a sequence of rational tr, = r.
4.10. For real nunbers x, d, c such that x ) 0, 4 > 0, o > I find the nininum value of the expressior *o 4.11. Use the identity
, l.t
"*.
"or2* showthatrfor0sxsnl},
for x = n/4.
7 9
4 .L2 . llsing the ideas of Pro b le m4 . ll , s h o wt h a t r f o r 0 < x i t t lT , 3" cos x + s in " x > L / n
with equality for x ' fi/4,
any real
number u > 2
4.14. Let 0(x) be continuous and positive on a < x _1b, and let f(x) and g(x)be continuous and positive on a < x < b. prove the fol
0(x)a*]t'0, "lo,r(xrq
f in d t h e ma x irn u n a lu e o f a x + b v
4L6. Use the result of Problem 4.10 to prove the fundamental inequality (4.2) for real p and q s a t is f y in g 4.L7. Let p, g, r be rational x, y, z be positive.
xP Pqr
(4 . 1 ).
pqr
1, and let
prove that
yq ,'
 + 4 +
xyz
with equality if
xP = yq = zT.
8 0 
4.18. Prove the following analogue of problem 4.14 for suns: .i {bl, (i = L, 2, ..., "', n ) b e p o s it iv e , a n d le t { a rr . . . ,
Let
a rr} a n d
a.b.c.
I 1 I
1=l
_4=
uf
4 .1 9. s how that (x + 2y + 4 z ) + .
4 .2O . S howthat, for xr, .. . ,
?. h
2 4 9 , f o r x , r . z p o s it iv e .
x n p o s it iv e , 2
I
>
(xt
2x, + ..:
* 2n 1 x r, ) l,L + +
xr
*2
&\ "tr+ l
 D2
L+*C b
4.23 .' lf
o'
c+a
t2 ,
a+ b
>
" 2 P ; 9
 8t
4.24.
Let f(x)
and g(x) be
functLons
Llp + l/q
show that
there
a eonstant
a \a /\a
4 . 2 5 . S u p p o e th a t f(x) a n d.f' ( x) ar e c' ontlnuous 05 x < eod thrr e for the tntegrars (x) lPdx and f lf {lt'(x) lqax are flnlre, wherep
and q are poel.tive lntegral numbers nith f'(x), t/p + l/q  1. t*g If f(x) f(x) ie the g. (See
of Lts derlvative
show rhar
4.26.
Let xrr
xrr
xn be poslttve
nu6ers.
+ g) x'
: o 2 (o + 1 )2
4,27.
Ler xl,
',,t
*t
be posltive
nunbers.
Show that
rn
, nu(n r)6. +
8 2 
Chapter V.
Convexlty
Convex Functlone.
be a functlsr
deflned
thar,
( s . 1)
Ttten we shall that f(x) say that
uf{t1 . 1. 2 J:
f(x) is
r(xr) + r(xr)
2.
t{e shall only that asaume throughout there are ftmctLone
of a rather satlsfy
nature
(5.1).
saya in Lntuitlve
and geonetrlcal
between x, end xrr the graph of f(x) cannot lle above the chord Jolning the
a*1
nldpolnt
f(x,
If
= *2 on the intenral
(s(o.
,[+] _[rr:n],,
", Chapter I that and for .lt and x, in I,
f( xr ) + f( xr ) 22
22 *1t*2
Lr ls an elementary
congequence of
(1 . 3 ) ln
8 3 
.*r
so that (5.1) is fulfllIed,
* *z)2
tTJ
22 a*t**, 2',
*2 is convex on I.
The function
f(x)
xaxis
because tn (5.f),
for every x.
prevalls
ls eleo conceve on the entire rrot be necessary to discuss observatlon that, if f(x)
concave functlons is
aeparately is
because
of the sinple It
ls possibLe for
intenrals
xaxis
sLderations,
Example 3.
Ttre functLon I:
f(x)
that
0 < x S fi. x,
sLn x, * sln
t
. = srn
*1 **2 Z
that
< I
sin x, * sln x,
2
*.t * *l
<sin ry,
 sin
z
t
/.6.ln
x, + sln
2l
sin x satlsfies equivalently
8 4 
It every
is
clear
th a t
if
w e h / ere to
devi se
a method of
veri fyi ng of
(5.1)
fo r
given
function,
we should
be confronted
r4rith a variety
formidable
tasks,
to a specific function
function
properties
to determine
the convexity
to establish
of our first
condition,
lead us to a plan of development for from the plans of the earlier the Lnequalities inequalitles give first independently
this
chapters.
as well
as to sums.
be satisfled
(Theorern 5.1),
then proceed with a development of Jensenrs inequaLLty based on (5.1). THEOREM 5.1.
a non neg a ti v e is convex on I.
Let f(x)
I:
s e c o n d d e ri v a ti v e
on a < x < b.
Then f(x)
P r oo f. B y T ay lor fs
x, and x, in I,
rhe poinr
](x,
+ xr)
ts in I.
we have
f ( xr ) = r [+J *
w h e r e*r . L. i (" ,
["'
_r.:l,,[1]l 2
)  l2
.l[", +]",,,o,,,
+]2r,,{*r)
+ xr), a nd
r ( x r)=r[+]
*[*'
* t * * r J * , [ 1t _2. }, L T * Tlz j [ 2 2 )
8 5 
where f(xr)
(x,
+ xr) .V 2.
*2.
and
2
Noll the negatLve second gLnce
= t[+J
'F#l u
whlch ls (5.1), so that Iile note, on I, aa a corollary ls then f(x) 0f all convex, or, the crLteria I,
f(t)
+ f(xr)
the theoren is proved. to Ttreorem 5.1, equlvalently, that f(x) Lf f"(x) is ls never posl.tLve
conditlona turn'out
in whlch we shall
Ilowever, we gr.ve some er(ampleg to show the type of exceptlonal (5.r) but not possessing even a first f(x) = derlvative.
case satLsfying
Exanple 4.
The function
lxl
tffustrared
to
any chord JotnLng two points on the graph cannot ao that the function
and xrrY2)
ll.e below the graph, satlsfles intultive Fig. 5.3 (5.1). feature
pro\re useful
ln the eequel:
For each x
86
in I, is,
on I possesses a line
of support,
that
a straight
the graph of the funct.ion in one or of the graph lies below the line x, the for x # 0 of
no point
the graph has a tangent at the point of support, as in the case of line l"l
tangent line
x = Or any straight
y = mx through tire
be a line
l,
tl l' tl ll tl
function.
It
is clear
f(x)
I
tr
sati sfi ed
and that
t r a*l*2"3*4b
.f
of support at every
5.4 The ideas behlnd Jensenrs inequality farreaching, f(x), and are based solely
Jensenfs Inequality.
are
on the
( s.2 )
for
any pair
be shovrn to follow
from (5.1) whenever f (x) is continuous. if ..., f(x) x' sarisfies in I, (5.1) in an interval I,
8 7 
(s . 3)
the lnequallty directly (5.3) Ls a useful tf forn of Jeneelts lnequallty, Zk. and folLons if
frorn (5.1)
2
n ls e power of 2, say n 
For exanple,
n = 4 = 2, we have
tirf
we now proceed, by a forn holde for any positlve let
of the iaductlon n.
to ahow thet
(j.3) poelof 2,
iategcr
n le aa arbLtrary n * u ls e porer
tLve lnteger;
say, n + n  2J.
any polnt 1
xo ln Ir
'I
If
xtf
:"*xrr*nn^1
n +m J
*(*,
g o r.
sfrir ( x t )
+ . . . + f (x rr) + n f (x o )).
lles in I, whence
xo =
* x, *
...
* xo f
* (* ,
...
+ xrr)
m*n
* Ttre foru
of the prlnclple
that
ne uae for
to as ploof
the proof , soretluee ref erred proceeds by ehowing flrst thet a sequence many lndlces We obeerve that n and then that we have already the es
of proposltlons truth
lnflnltely of Po1.
tabltshed
for
inflnltely
powera of 2.
8 8 
shlch reduces to (5.3). Now (5.2) lndeed, lf follows easily for any ratlonaL value of a Ln 0 < c < 1; integers wlth r s e, then
d = r/s,
.l
(s  r) s
,r*") _. cf(xr) z I.
+ (1  c)f(xr).
that real
we have not yet used the contlnuity nunber wl.rh 0 s a S L, and let
of f(x).
Now let
in r such that
1.e.,
( s.4 )
f(cox, + (1  cro)xr) t oof(xr) + (t  ao) f.(xr). there must exist an lnterval J about the point
By continulty \
(s.5 )
1..,
(s.6 )
f(cox, + (1  co)xr)  o o f (* f )
xl as close to xl as ne please, to cto as we please,
(1  c ro )f (x r) = d > 0 .
xj as eLose to x2 as lre please, so that
ct as close
8 9 
!'*
whence f (X')
c'*i * (1  o ' ) *i
oo*1 * ( 1  oo) x2 = \
of inplies
,
thar
= f (4).
(s .7)
and (5.4) lnplfes
f(Io ) I oof( *r )
whence
tt  oo) f( xr ) ,
lr(x')  r(4)l = lo'r("i) + (r  o')r(xi)  oof(*r) (r  oo)r(xz)l s a'lrr*i)  r(xr)l * tr  a')le<xi) r(xz)l * lo' ool(lr(xr)l* lr(xr)l) s lrtxi)  r(*r)l+ lr(xl)  t(xz) lo, ooll[rrxr)l+ lr(xr)l). l+
Each of the three ter:ns ln the Last llne of thls *L, laet inequalLty this can be nade
cholces of xl,
and ot;
so that
(5.2)
hotds for
aln0<c<1. Let us say brlefly lty does not lnclude of the function what we have shorm. Ttre definitlon (5.f) of convexthe
value
exceed the average of the values Ihe property (xrrf(xr)) lf (5.2), on the other lte
above the graph of the curve between x, and x, rn thls latter case, is
a in (5.2)
(5.1)
of f(x)
However, without
of f(x),
9 0 
lre can prove no more than (5.2) this result. Let us proceed dlrectly
for ratlonal
c;
(5.3)
Ls a speclal
caee of
to the prlncLpal
lnequality
of thle
chapter.
(Jensenf 6 Inequallty) r:
ln the lntewaL *2
any tl,
r xr,ln
t' Irlrot*t.;
(5.g) E \ 
'\ I
11
at f(*r)
'
*z
"'
 x_r aE if ;
Proof. f(x)
(5.9)
ts lLnear
or nore precleely,
anil largeet
rndeed, for
 f,cr r g ( x r ) ,
Ls the llnear
lre prok,
...,
on r and k + I posltlve
numbers orr
9 1
k+L
L l^I
.l orf(x r)=(1
% * r )
11
frmr the lnductlon
Sl'nce
(s.10)
,1,Ffr
o,
ot
'
(5.11)
' tlrlr"t*tJ'
SLnce (5.8) holdg for, n (5.8)  1 and n  2, the x, are equal, then equallty (5.8), clearly then, lf holds now follows ln (5.8). for rf, all n. If all
1k+1
.r
we retrace
our induction
= *n rrp to (5.10).
wtrence lt
follows
that
*i
= ...
 xk  *k+t.
. ue another unlfLed
of the preeeding
ctrapters.
the lnequallty
9 2 
to derlve
lnequalLties.
Ae we mentl,oned Ln the
ls not wLse to abandon the many approaches to a glven for one then loses both lntuLtion LnequalltLes treated and in this
problem or concept,
show, nostly
Jensenrs inequality
ExanpLe 6. I: 6 ( x ( , 
f(x)
r"
0 ( x <
Jensenrs lnequallty
the sinplest
t,lr'rl*il' lrlr"r*rl
ln
n 1=1
l"i I
are the sane, or, all the xi lie and this shows the need of
the xi lf
the condLtlon
of lLnearlty,
pleces
of the graph of
l"l.
=*Pfo.0<x(r ls p )0, wemust
ExaTple 7. distlnguish
two cases, p > 1 where f(x) is concave (lf The slnple forn
p = 1, f(x) (5.3)
of Jensenfe lnequaltty
 93
( 5.12 ) and
P>l'
(s.1 3 )
r
only lf
t.....t
1+
... + x \ D o l'
)... = *oi
*[.i.
thls
..
..
{],
o<P<1,
rtlth
equallty
x, 
ls a stronger
result
than that
( 5. 1 4 )
rx t I r
* x rD nl'
I
only if
n
x, a ...
)a xn.
*["]
"'
**:],
P<0t
with
equaltty
For p
 1r
lnequalLty Sectlon 3.
and harmonle means dLecuesed ln Ghapter 2, force of Jengenrs lnequality three Lnequalitles (5.8), for we have a,
posltive
( s .ls )
[,i,"*J' ,lr"'*l
[,if,.J' ,lro'*l
n n
p>0,
xl. : o;
(s.16)
0<p<
1,
*i t
( s.1 7 )
[rlr'*']'
only tf x, a ...
,lrot*l
r x. n
p<0,
*i t ot
wlth equallty
\;
9 4 
Exercises
5.1.
the funetl.on
f(x)
aa nod{fled
( 5 .18 )
(xrx, . r. *o)t/o.*1
**2*"'**o
5.2.
I, and if. rlrcl x, are poeitlve nunbere, show ttiat (5.g), apprled to log x,
( s.t 9 )
(lhts
ala2 *L *2 lnequallty
'"
Ls frequenrly
lnequallty 5 .3.
nuders
such that
(4 .2) of Chap
5,4.
nunbers
nl
* 1 , ...r so that
pn such that
* i, i
t,
(s.2 1 )
P r
< 3 + s +
*it . *;'
Po
.n
Pn
n
9 5 
5.5.
show that,
for
5.6.
of the precedlng
problen pr,
Let numbers
numbers, let
...,
such that
(s.2 2)
5.7.
If
oG sGs te'#)
5.8. Ict xrr xrr ".r xn be posltlve . numbers lees than ?r. (x + '.. Show that
sln x, stn x,
f x r
5.9.
resuLt.
Let
*D be n polnts
f (xr)f (xr)
or, what Ls the sane thl.ng, f( x r), ... r f(xo)
f ( xr r ) S
that
[f
ill",
value of the arithextended? be further
"
mean of the values
the gemetric
does not exceed the functlonal ..., xn. Can thls inequality
96
yql
ie the
A1 ie the area
between the graph of the curve and the xaxl.e between 0 < x a a, aqd Lf Az ls the area between the graph of the curve and the ya:d.a be
tweeo0<y<brshowthat
ab< Ar*o, =
wlth equallty tf aad only if
rP
t ,
Note that thls glves another
bq
aP  b9.
proof of (4.2)
tn Chapter 4.
5.11 .
Develop the Ldea of Problen 5.10 in the foLlolrlng f(0) f(xr)  0, be a contl.nuous increaslng < f(xo) for x., ( x,,, so that function f(x)
way.
Ler y
f(x), Ls,
of x for
x _z 0, that
Lz LZ
\,
x  g(y), g(0) a 0, deflned on eone interval 0 < y < Ior where yo *y be :to. Define A, and A, as or f(x)dx, Az g(y)dy, and prove  {" f that
:lb
inequallty.
5. L2.
S ho d th a t,
fo r
**R
*5** oa xi0. Evaluate
5.13.
Let x
rhe lnres:*.t
f,z 8(r)dy.
.:
9 7 
5.L4.
that
f(x)
= log(1 + x) is concave on x > 0 to show t hat, dZ, "', dn, + ar) .ir (r + an)' .. ^2r " "rr.
s hor , r
numbers al,
5. 15.
Us e th e t h a t, fo r
fa c t
th a t
f(x )
= 1og(1 + .I)
is ...,
convex 4n,
on co ( x ( 6 to
p o s i ti v e
n u mbers al , & 2,
(1 + ar) (1 + a r)
wh e re g is th e g e o me tri c mean of the
(1 + a rr) > (1 + g )t ,
numbers a1r "', ^2,
" r,.
5.16.
"',
ao and br,
"',
numbers.
k=lK
5,L7.
ao and brr
"',
numbers, and
of br,
(.t
+ br)(a,
+ b)
(ar, * brr).
5.18.
f(0)
furtction
of x for of
inverse
function
p(x,y),
and q(x,y)
be nonnegative Show
functions that, if
6p = pdx + qdy.
= 0 and.t*, ,a1b
p (a ,b ) s
oo
98
5.19.
Ict
y = f(x),
f(0)
function
of x for
of f(x),
as deeerrbed 0andxa
betweenx=
a solld
of rotation
of volune V whose
centrotd
ele
If
xr,
t2, x, f
co'ncave for
xrfxr*
"1"I
if x, = *2 = xr, 1.e.,
3l
]t"in
l l e n c e ,sl n xa * sl ,n x, * si n *3.3
"t"F
#)'
so that 12.
case of a rnaxlmungivee
the value
9 9 
rf ry2. expresslon
*1,
*2,
Problem 5.9,
"t "1o3
* *f * *1
klnd,
lt
Lnvolved;
rf
*1,
*2'
ao that,
to restrlct
the trlangle
we have
1 < j(tan
wlth equallty
onl,y for
only for
the equllateral
trlangle,
36.
1 0 0 
Exercl,eee
n'
(e)
5.5. propertLeg
Ftrrther
DgvaloF@te. cdrvex
Wc wlch functLon8
to point ntrlch
out sme
geoetrlcel
of contlnuous
relnforce
our fntultl.on
ftre requlte
we obtatn,
ag well
fuuctlons
treated. we returrr three polnts to the georetry of Flgure 5.1 and let If xl, *2, *3 be any
of I euch that
x a x l
x, . *2 . *3.
xtxr
;^  #*z x3xl
where o1 * o2. functlon f(x)
1*
x3 x l
x^ J
r(x2) "ffit(1).ffir(xg)
or, after nultlplylag by x3  *1,
1 0 1 
( 5.23 )
If we subtract (x
I  *t)f(xr)
f(xr)  f( xr ) *2  *1
If noy we subtract
f (x r)
 f (x r) * 3 * L
(x3
xr)f(xr)
(x:
f(x r)  f ( x r ) s f ( x r )  f ( x r )
*3o 1
and 1f re conbLne the two lnequalLtles
*3 *2
involvLng
'
guotlents, we heve
(5.24)
f(xr) _ t(ltl
x24
f(xr)  f(*r)
* 3 * 1
*1
f(xr)  f(xe)
If
we lnterpret
(5.24)
geometrlthat
cally,
I
I I
I
(5.24)
statetEat
xt
ir!
t'zJ
ta
I I
xl x^
held ftxed,
L 0 2 
that
increasing
function
must tend to
Let us write as
f( xr )  f( xr ) *3 *1
where ing s ide. the lefthand of side is, is as we have remarked bounded by the flxed
a monotonically quantity
increas
functlon Hence
Ax which
on the righthand
f(x)
 !(x Ax
 Ax)
is
the socalled
f (x) at x.
fashion
the linrlt
f(x+Ax)f(x) ax
(Ax > 0)
is
the socalled
righrhand result.
derivative
fl(x)
of
THEOREM 5.3.
I: a <x<b at
f(x)
in an interval
deri vati ve
h a s a l e fth a n d
and a ri ghthand
r l (x)
T
each point
of a < x < b.
Furthermore_, f t(x)
a ( x ( br = ff(x) .
< ff(x).
i f,
at
x in
ft(x)
= f](x),
then
f(x)
at x , w i th
= f ' (x)
Our observation
suggests t hen ( 5. 24) f or that
concerning
5.5 *Zi
we may obtain
Let *L.
s u ffi c l e n tl v
snall
frorn
we have
1 0 3 
f(xr+A x)f(x r) Ax
I n' t he limit a s Ax + 0 w e th en have
f (x r)
 f (x 2  A x ) Ax
r l( x r ) < f ' ( x r ) ,
and, since f'(xr) shows that
The righthand nondecreasing is tru e of th e
< fl(xr)n
we have fl(xr)
< ff(xr)
whenever *1.
*2, which
derivative
fu n cti on l e ft hand th e facts of
f I (x) is a monotonically T
x i n a (
We s u m m a ri z e s o m e o f form of a th e o re m.
THEOREM 5.4.
l_n I: a line L.
f(x)
satisfying xo in I;
(5.1) is,
tha!
below
for
coi.ncide with
whenever that
derivative
Exercises
.2L.
condition
that
in the intervall:a(x<bsuch
1 0 4 
*r. f (xr)
*2 *3
t 1 I > 0.
t(xr) f(xr)
5.22.
the rlghthand
and leftharrd
fi(x)
ls continuous
and that
5.23.
Show that
# fi(x)
ie denumerable.
of convexand
concavefunctlone
can lead to a
Let f(x)
be contlnuous
( s.2 5 )
ba
Iororf(x )d x < lo s [  * a
for f (x) constant. lt frm
, f ,,.,u]
I,Ie reproduce the slnple claeslcal of. convex  n, of vLew of the theory and then rrlte
with proof
equallty
only
Ln order
to analyze
functlons.
t
FLrst,
g(x)  f(x)
so that
{"
S(x) = O.
ba
1b J lo g (n + g (x ))d x
a
1 0 5 
If
we apply
( s.2 6 )
with equallty only for t
log (1 + t )< r,
0, we have
rfb . lfb tP ." < b  a lt"t r(x)dx los' + #; lIt P )  los n  loe{5ft J r(x)axJ,
h
slnce
{
e(x)dx'
O.
Equallty
holds only if
g(x)
0, that
ie,
only if
f(x)
ls the constent m. ltre analysla we observe that tloo y of the proof (5.26, turns on the alnple than the fact inequelity that (5.2d), ead
le nothing
rore
1og(1 + t)
has a line
of support 
hae derivatlve y  r,
1 at t
0, the line
ltne
and t\e
Lnequaltty + t) lles
1og(1 + t)
< t ls elnply
the aaeery  t.
of eupport
Lern=
slnce F(y)
vtll M guch
that '
La, there
1111 exlat
a nuder
y deecrLbed above,
( 5 :27 )
r(y) < F( n) + u( y  n) .
(5.27, and dlvlde by b  a, we have
If
we lotegrate
1 0 6 
F(u) +
vP fr
J 8(x)ax F(n).
theoren, Ln the
our reaultr
wtllch lc an lntegral
form of Jelrcente
of a ttreorcn.
Let f(x)
F be a
concave functloa,
oo a < x < b.
(s.28) r+
If F 1g convcx,
fr.r.*r)dx< r[*
a thcn
. Jor<*lu*J
(s.zs, r*
Equallty
holde onLv lf
be coatlnuoue
and poeLtlve
in the dlee
strow that
II
 s  lSOLUTIONS Chapter I
1.1.
If
we dl.vlde both sides of (L.Z) by 2 and add ("2 + Az)lt, to both we obtaLn * b2 , * b2 * ab "2 ra.1 !)2
sldee,
^2 T.T
T=
l  ) ,
yields
(1.3).
a = br the same is
L.2.
(a)
I,le have (
I
(2bc a )2 ro
(2cab)'20r holdlng a +b, everynrtrere if and only If tf 2a b * c,
t,
t
wl.th equallty
2b n e * a, 2clnequalltles,
or a  b  c.
we obtaln
three inequallttes
4"2 * b2 + c2 2 4ab r 4ca  2bc. Then addlng the three by 6 glves (1.5). inequalltles thus obtalned and d1vldlng
(b)
We have
^2 2 ^.+.2
= ( a r .l2>( T) 2 = 1( a  b) + ( b  c) f '2
ab+bcac b2,
> G  b) ( b  c )
tr t
a'+b'+c'2abfbc+ca,
\/:
if
and only if
a : e = 0 and a _ ! c b _ c,
"3
* b3 + c3 >
"b
""(gji)
Alternatlvely, ln if (1.5)
and onry if
1.4.
ls stralghtfomard
1.5.
If
we nultlply
the three
inequalltles
arb
whtch cme frm
> zffi,
(1.1),
b r c > z{fr,
we obtaln
c *a > 2fi:a,
Equallty holda
lfandonlylfabrc.
1.5.
Flrgt
Fron Bxerciee
1.4,
we have
> 3abc.
reeult, wlrh equallty
ltulttplytng
thls
the deelred
lfandonlylfabc.
Second eolutlon.
Notice
that
by (1.1),
for
all
x >. 0,
x+ l> 2,
s3
nlth
equaUty
if
and only if
x = 1.
Therefore
(i.fl * L!*os)("L+oe) + 2 6,
and only Lf 3  :  *  1, or a  b  c. and then the inequall.ty We have We shall_ use (1.1)
"l"b
t,6
>z.4$s..F'l]t3 6.
L ,7. Multiply the fr.rst rnequarlty tn (r.4) by c2, the eecond by by b2. upon addltlon of thege new lnequarltlee end the third "2, and
dlvisLon by 2, the deetred reeult r.c obtalned. andonlylfab.e. 1.9. Flrst solutlon.
Equality holde lf
in probla
1.7
r.6).
we
;;* T
. c8
and only lf
a  b  c.
As we sau ln gxanpre 2, a3 + b3 > ab(a t b), wrth equalr.ty tf and only lf a ' b. rf we n'rtlply thle by 3 and add a3 * b3, we obtain
.. ? ? 4(a' + b) Renark.
dB deelred.
a3 +u3 = (. t u ) 3 ( + ) , 
G * b ) > a b ( a+ b ) ,
s4
using (1.1).
etronger
( 1)
f f i' r G + c )(b + d )
holdlng if and otrly if
,
a f cbid.
at Ifwe the deel.red
wLth equellty
rn (1) above, tre grouped a * b * c * d as (a + c) + (b + d). If we lnetead group it and use elmilar lnequalltles
?t
lnequalltlce,
gives
> 2(ab f bc * cd f da f ac f bd), lf a * c  b + d, a + b  c * d,, Now dlvldlng ineguallty. by 12 and
f,(a ltlth
+ b t c + d)tf
equaUty
and only
1.11.
suppoee that the sequeneesare r.ncreaer.ng. then {brcrrbrcr} aleo increasing; note that positlvlty generally. Ttrus (1.7) glves
te
Applylng
(1.7)
that
+ lf
we get
lnequallty. and b,
holde It
a1 r a2 or thle
 b, ot "l all
 "2.
eeen that
and only lf
i s consr ant.
I
_s_5_
1.12.
The generallzatlon
I I
ftt
'l
I I
I
but one of the Bequencea Lg couproof, in fact, of a more general 1.24 for a full
l
tnequallty). have
Therefore, if
arbrxlr"'rro
are po'ltrvc
cumbere, we
I I I
ar''ts n+bFl
It*"'fU
lrrl
l
I I
: il
il
L e t t ln g I ,  r  . . . rU' n  1 an d
rl I l i
I I iI
a f&b"lr/o,'T'* b
f7l
rl
bv a and laplt
'l iI
.6* b 6={ t . * u) 6 #, J 3
2'
wlth equauty lf and only lf a  b. rn 0 s t s 1, thls 1g equlva
I I
I
tl
rl
il
 I
iI
T .t_ _ _ z _ J
with equaHty lf and mly if
 i ,.
:I I
ll
ll
l
ll
I
I I
;l ;l
rl 'I
'l I
s6
1.15.
1 + tan80 = 14 + (t"rr20)4 t except wlrere 1  tan20, or 0  nl4 1.15. rn the second ineqtiality
*<t 2'
+ tan2e)4
 $ "."80,
n  3 and U,  1, !2.  2, lr3  3. Ttre deal.red reEult folloss {mnediately. I{e have equallty lf and only lf a  b.
1.17. Let d //x'+ yt be the dlstance frm the orr.gfn to a polnt on
th llne.
Ttrenby (1.3),
d >#r*,
trfth equaltty !t:( y  3lz. That is, the nr.nlnr.n dlgtance ls 3ltz.
AzfrzF
at x  y  al4.
"L  "2or
ehons that
we get (1.7)
L .20 ,
(a)
rf d  /*2 * f;7
on the plane,
the orlgrn
ro a polnt
thea by (1.12)
u 2 r(x+v+ z) 2 25
rrlth equallty at '7, y x z  Slj. The nlnlnun dletance Ls
therefore
516.
s7
(b)
twlce:
r(x,y)$["r"2* = . [#]'
 t' ' 1'
"o,r*.[j?J' .o"rl
'"o.r*  (2r")'"o"r* LtY'
ft" roz"+cos2x)'t,
wl.th equallty ri md only 1f eln2x tf=41 orel n* '* , c o' *  f tvrr y n\.*'{5 L.22. If we apply (1..12), roe obtaln \ f (x) >
1 7 rn
itr '
+ c o s ' x + s in a x )a
. sln x, whlch le inpoeslble. requl.re 1  coe x Tttl's exmple should aerve to forewarn the reader that in looklng for extrema by uslng fnequallties, lty L.23. ls actually attalned. '.., bo} be two increaelag sequenceg one must be Bure that equal
Let {ar,
"',
" l b i r" JbJ=tr o,*"Jb, If ne sun all such inequalLtles and then add n a,b, to both sldee E
l rl rr
of the reeultlng
lnequalltyr
rre obtaln
s8
I tro, = L l .f,qrb,,f. J l t r1
2
clearly
nn
equality
i = 1 and J  n.
or b, = b_, but slnce each sequence ls monotontc, Jngequences rnust be constant. If stlll the ttro Bequencee lrere both decreaeing, Bo that (1.11) ls valld. If
hoId,
decreaslng, ls valld
(1.11)
L.24,
{arr,
...,
n a .1 I irrl, r,.I,..J It l
lf and only lf
rn m nmm.n
IF
> II r I n o
,r t=l
rl Jlt "tJ
trlr"*ljr_l
(2 )
J'l
if; 11
ttj
P l
lf r
fPl
In
trlr"rrir,
or t"o,),
r" consretrt.
i" llr"n:
(1), together wl.th ih. ptop"r equality L.25, t{lthout lose of generalltrr (othernlse, s)tmetrlc). rye sinply
relaber
= = ... s 8n "L "2 errd note that the reeurt Le of Chebyshevfs lnequaltty
where r*e have let all followg. Eenark. L.26. Flrst solutlon.
Thre reeurt w111 be generalrzed in chapter 5. Let x > y and z < (1 + ,o)t,
n
ylx.
that (1 + ,t)t
o"
nlrtl'
"*.Aq, "*
 s10 
slde contaln
on the left.
Second eolutloa.
(t)n
(IJt
t.
Then slnce
ttoJt* t?'t".
uulttplylnB L.27.
. (2Fn)
1.28.
By the
aame method
as ln
the
precedlng
problem
we have
 2n.
L ,29 .
(a)
(b)
Let xy' x  y.
x  y ( lf).
(e)
The proof ls the aame aa ln part (a), exeept Ehat ne uae the Lnequallty Oitg of (1.1). = 3tffi of Exerclge 1.4 ln place
s11 
Remark.
Parts
to as dual properties.
,t
to naximlze a product
lts
square, *2(t6
 *2).
of two factors
whose sum ls
by Exercise L.29(a),
or * R
have u s e d (1 . 1 ) d ire c t ly :
x{L6  x' =
t
= *2 t( tg  *2 )  r . 2
the same solutLon, ae Ln the By
1.31.
only one.
= L, ,
or * = 2, I  l,
z = 213.
1.3i. Let x,yrz tex. be the lengths of the edges emanatlng from a flxed By ver
1.33.
rf
xryrz
problen, zx).
area Ls 2(xy + yz *
v also maxlmize v2 (xy) (yz'l kx). tn v2 being a constant,  zxt whlch ls equlvalent y2 will
to x = y = z.
 s12 
1.34.
By Froblen
1.25 ylth
k  4, we have
tG+ G+ G
, equaHty lf and only lf x  y z  Ll6. } 8o. Problen
1.35.
I{lthout
loaa of gerteralltlr
!r may assum" rl
= ^2a..
= * s ... Henee * al d2
1 *... a.
1!
1 * ... + a a . I " ln ro
1 1 ,
 u +f
, ot (a  b)(1  #
O,
1 *l
a
ba*b
r  J
=4. ''
a  b i
1
I
rLth equalLty,
again, lf
and only lf
Therefore
!. (" *
1t
Though by (r.1) + (b +
1t
we have a * * t 2 and b + + 2 2, ot aD 
?
i)'
wanld requlre a  b  1.
L.37. Ualng the inequaltty
of Problen
 sL3 
:lr
n L
n .2 + I gl .JJ
jlr
wlth
equaHty
if
and only
tr = "'
= a
nn
= 1 .
= a + 1 . na n
nz
follows.
1.38.
/ =
(a +
f,)^' +
lr
(b +* , "
;ht'*
lf
o* * * h " 
n 2tt1 '
andonlylfa=b=L12.
n=1
<"+]1"+1u+f)n
=i , # =+.
are positl.ve. Uslng the
1.39.
!1.
n1 2rl
 s14 
ls an lncreasing
and equality
Therefore lf
1.23,
and only'Ln lf
1.41,
= ro.
men {al}lf
*d
the re
eult follqrs.
Renark. fhe aame lnequalLty holde for p;q > 0.
L,42.
4 inequallty.
the deslred
1.43.
t{lthout
lose of generalltlr
1og a < 1og b < log c, so that by (1.10) (1og a + log b * log c),
a log a tb
log b r c 1og
"
log(.tbb"c)
whlch gtves abc. Req4!&. the desired
> tog(aue)
result.
a{btc 3
Equallty
holds
lf
and only
lf
The lnequallty
clearly
generall.zes
to n numbers.
L.44.
If
(1.5),
we obtaln
(a + b * c)
> 3(ab * bc i
ca),
a *b *cr 3
wlth equal{ty lf and only
 { r ,,ffijg3
lf a  b  c.
'
Now applylng Exerclge
1.4, we obtain
.{3 with
@=ffi36 ;" ,
lf and only lf ab 'bc . b  ca, or a  c.
equallty
 s16 
CIIAPTERII:
SOLUTIONS
2.1.
Flrst
solutioa.
Froa (2.2),
we have
til
a rl/ a
 1'
lf aad only ao . r
holde ...
Then tn
^z
llence,
"3
"z
 8o. \ ls clearly
. "2 . t3
1.
"1
Ttte lnequallty
ttue for n
ls true for n  k.
a*2+. . . + % > k. t3
"z
"1
(at
or
"r.*r)t1
 octl) > o,
(2,
tk+l
" k * fu + r_ a = r.
"1 "1
!.nequallgy. clearly also true: nE1 Then rlr 6i 1. Let t ",
The followtng
 s17 
2,2.
Flrst shev's
Ttre slnplest
method of proof
is
of Chapter I wlth
L = 1r2r...
,.r2 a i + a l r ... r a L z
j>
( ^t+ "Zt
(.,, lf
... + ar r 12
wLth equalLty
and only lf
"L  ^Z
=a
Second aolutlon.
tz
L=1
Fz
{f and only if
i1
follows = 8n.
lmedlately,
with
equallty
The following
proof,
appearg
on probabtltty
and statLstics
ls eupecially polnt.
rhen
 s18 
nA
os
11
I("rA )' r
r t ( . ?  2 A e, + t2 )
1 1^r , lln^
tra
 oQ'  zll
c
11 ^ fi
a, + L t'
il I E
 oQ'  2A"[i
,lr.r,
+ nA4
equaldty
ff
and only1 if
a,  A for
every i,
lf
 !o.
(e  a)(s  b)(e  c)(e  a) and nlntnun of abcd cos'!, guchexl.gtg. Ihefltgt occura at e  a'"g ! "tit,  6  cB
tf d,
or a r b  c o dr wtrlle the second occurs only ln the case of a equare. Renark. eaally uslng The followl.ng geonetrlc nore general
Both occur
nethods: ls
area rrlth
glven perlmeter
the regular
( o,H)
eylLnder, r the radlus altltude. From the flgure forn of of lta
( r ,h)
bace, and h lts Ttren V n.2h.
r and h
are related by
E,
1. E 
 s19 
'
ot r +,
4/9 the volume
le at nost
of the cone.
2.5.
(a)
In the flgure, ls
It
x must be positive
The volune
u $ t.2 _ *2 ) ( a + x)
T,ti=,,#,(a  x).
Since the aun of the factors
z
Ls conetatlt,
x E 8  x,
,^ or x  al3.
of the cylln(xry)
the flgure,
v  2nx2y
and
22 *2 '+ y 8.
 s20 
Ttrus
[+J',
wlth equallty when Lyz\.,
.J
2^2
or x r a
Reqark.
2r*2ffi
solve thLe problem wlthout squerLng when we u8e the latter foru, V  2ny(a  y )(a + y ). / 2,6. Ttre maxLmn of (a + x)3(a  x)4 occura at the naxlnum of
,8 ()f x .3 ,a x .4
,
.?a7
, by (2.2),
occurrlng
whcre
alx
ax
'Z:'orxalr'. Ttrls technl.que of lntroducing Iggg. to nake e conatant It ls generalized eum or other quantlty
coefficlents
appllcable. aE ln
of lnequalitles,
Sectlon 5.2.
2.7.
.i
 s21 
and stnLfrom
and only if
ararb, = ararb, and "1.2b3 Dlvldlng these sets of equalLt{.es as i = Lr2r3, rre get *3*1
and lettlng
arlbr,
*1*2
*3
*2*3
*1
*2'
* 1 " * 2 * 3 .
al a' a" 1g,6=*:" is lnplied by the sets of equalltl.ee. Fur1D2o3 thermore, thla eet aleo Lnplles the orLglnal two. Ttrue, they are that equivalent, and our lnequallty becmeg an equality lf and only lf
the arg and the brs are proportlonal. Note. lnequalLty This lnequalLty (4.15). ls a special case of ltiilderts
holde if
^L  ^2
Remark. geometrlc
lnequalltyr
ln the arlthnetlc
,,
lrith (2,2)
equaHty
lf
lf
2x, or x  0. If
ls appllcable
are posltive.
 s22 
exactly
for
a But
maxlmun to occur.
(1 + x).
ie c@
the eolutLon
to
(b)
Note that
solutlon A.
1',ro
_ ,38 
x  3. on x ) 0, only ure factor "t Ilence, (2.2) ls appllcable for ftndtng the
a+ E +c   W .+ r!3 m 3
tffi
In each caae, equallty holda lf
Jm3ffi.
and only lf a o b o c.
n 1
tlnes.
Eence,
 s23 1
o,
(l)
,n1
] =[ ;_<lit1<ltII *T/o 
ntr
[ rt '
114
o1/o , n
(*)ffi since
and only lf x, n *Z ...
=
= *r1. nn'
Equalltv holds 1r
of orr
n II (1 + xr) l1
 1+ . IlIor > t + .
n
I  t f iloi' "
mBl
by the blnonlal
tt xrr'
nlq'n'
theorem.
2.L2.
(e)
Flrat x < y.
golutlon.
tet
Aesune that
cloger than x and y ln the sense that lax fl we are requlred to show that .1 ax + ; y < x+y.
Fron the condltlons on a, we obtain * . ot 1, ! " )r, o . t;lt < x + I r a B d e el r e d . (a  l)x. + r  (1 "* Seiond solutLon. Let xy  rs be euch that r and s are closer
Then x ( r, and, Lf we uultlY  rr we obtain
quantlty y)r,
xy  xr < yr  t2, f I,  r
or x+
y t t **
es deslred.
 s24 
(b)
If
not all
(2.2)
are equal,
two of then,
such that
,1 a G ,
G ' (rlr"1)^":
a) arc closer ai. * ^).
. 1la
a, i
Repeatlng
tLnee,
we arrlve
at a get
al  G euch that
* i" '* [";io [F,J"". ttrus, (2.2) r.B true and equallty holde if tl '' 2.13. rt w111 be ehorynthat (2.2) is true for n = 28, where r Ls any Loteger, and that tt n'k  1. (2.2) ts true for tr  k, then it Ls true for and only lf
for all n.
We have seed Ln (2.1) t h a t (2 . 2 ) ls true for n lre may assrae thet (2.2\) ls true for n 2t, or that

(1)
iJr"=
"L^2r '..
,2t
where .1r.. lf
and only tf
nnmbere, 81,e''1a2tt
dpt+Lr...,a2rtL.
we have
."4
r$
 s25 
F'l"J:F,i',"'] j;,,tr
or 1 1 ,r*L
rlth
,1*t
Pt+t lF
.!,"t'[r1r"J
lf and only if a,
'
 "Z ... a,t,
equal.lty
holdlng
' "'
' ar  *r ,
a,
and ar ar ..."Z"
* ... (2.2) r
and only lf
 "Z lnductlon,
that is,
large r.
(2' ',
*i",' [,],',J"o'
tet
k1
1
tlrtt'
Ttren by ( 2)
i\
 s26 
{ = ,1r", [tlt'r]'n'
r,.r" .f;l >
k1
.k
f "t'
ot
kl
rlr",
[I1",]*,
(2,2) holdg fot all n.
... ntrere equallty holds lf and onty lf  a_t  t = "l  "2 r kl = tr, w?rlc hle t o 8 a y , a l : t h u s (2 .2 ) 1T  ^ Z . . . t_f. i holds forn=k1 lf lt h o ld e f o rn k , . T h e re f o re , b y t h e prlnclple 2,L4. of backrard lnductlon,
Ttre oaly ualn steps that need be added are those that prove the equallty eondltfon. { Along wlth aesumlng {nductlvely r ...  Gn Lnplles a,
 Gn and A  G (alao,
that {*,
re easuoe that
lmpllee thet \
 "k.
\
Then
 A).
Gk,  Gk+l {
thar
Thla tnpllea
 1
and
%+1
{*f
, or fu+t
for
Ttrerefore,
equallty. It le
also clearly
2.L5.
For.n
1, (2.2)
true.
for n
k.
If
a mean of arr ... r8k, ie not greater each of 81r...r "2 ... r ap. A+f . Ttrus b 2 0. Now
whl.ch ls at leaet lf
Furthermore,
b  0, then a, *
F
_i"t*"t*r + r ' 3  ] l a r  '  8
Thue
k{ + { ,*b 1'\
 s 27 
d*t*rd
t" r At
Lr.r
r
"t*f
> (arar..;1)aOr1 ,
\ theorem. for n Equaltty * l.  k holde tf holds if and
where r,e have ueed the binmlal ' only lf then, b  0. Ttlue (2.2) for all .
tg true
(2.2)
ie true is,
n and equalrty
"1  "Z
the lnequallty
(1 + h) > 1 + nh, wtrere h > 0 and n le a poer.tlve integer, equaLlty holdlng tf and only lf lnequallty, n > 1. known as Bernoulllfs h o 0 or n  1. inequalfty,la rn fact,
wlth
thls
See problen 4. 2.L6. For n  1, (2,2) ig vacuously satr.afted. rf rc > 1, then *k,
la each ceee lf
* k 1 , * k l * k 2 , . . . ,
Lf x  1.
f
and only
Addlng,
oor * 1),
k*k
> (* k1
* * k2
or
k T (x  1 ) > (x k l + . . .
+ 1 )(x  1 )  *k  1.
 s28 
Rearranged,
thls
le
(1)
*k i 1 , wh lc h g lv e s k x k < (x k t + . . .
...
#
 1, or
1 f 2 * ... * n n
n! < lAJ$n.
Equallty caanot hold for any value of n > 1 because no two of
the fectorg
Ln n! are equal.
 s29 
2.18.
(a)
Tttus, the
the cube. the box ln the plane of the mlsslng reflectl.on forn a box poeare
(b)
Flret face.
solutlon.
Refleet
sessing twlce
new box le
maximlzed when lt
naxlmum of the origlnal cube, whose blggest Second golutlon. and c the other voltse.
face ls
Let arb be the edgea of the mLeeing face edge. Let S be the aurface area and V the
ltren S  ab t
= i(gtt , v2  f,t"u)(2ac)(2bc)
wlth half equaltty at ab = Zac  2bc, or I  b  2c' solution. Thle la a eube, ae ln the flret
2.L9.
Let r be the radiue of the clrcle g the angle of the seetor. perlmeter If
and
P le the
Thus, rhe mortm'maree ie p2!L6, where <  tzr)(ro) f;enlz. 0 2 ra d l a n sa a d r=P 14.
_ s_30_
2 .20 ,
4tEW=46/@fa*
l.7 t.t
+y+z)2
i [(x
Equallty
+ y) + U + z) + ( z + *) Jt s ( * + y) z + ( y + z) 2 + ( z + x ) 2,
holdg tf and only if x = y  z.
2.2L.
the lnequality
$ + z)(z + x) ( x + y) 2 Br yz,
r*rtch la ptoved eaetly holde lf y and only if by ualng z. \ (2.1) (eee problen 1. x). Equallty
Xy=
I  8r
We obtaln  c)  &(,2
aF=;'
o r 2 r s R,
and only lf lt a = b = c, the equilateral is sho$n that trlengle.
wlth
equality Regark.
lf
ro geonetry,
The centers
the equi_
trlangle,
of course.
2.22.
Froo (1.2),
we have that
ei;q.+(t,rt
 s31 
with
equallty
ln the flrst
lnequall.tlee
of each llne
lf
and only
r r f a r l  l t  a r l , l"2 l  lr  a r l, ..., l.o [ 1 1 a r l, a ndi n the second lf "'r 8n2 and only if "1 .1 = 0, L 0=.r< "2> lfor 0, e2 I 0, 1 _ .3 2 0, Addlng, 0' 1> 0; i.e.r i1r...ro.
we obtaln
E
condltione absrre are
both1equallty
satiefled.
or al for  "3 3 "'  a'_l  "; If r ^2"4 n Ls odd, "'  I  "o1'ao  r  a1, ... arr  1a,
0 S a s 1. t3  r
al  1 "2or ^L=
^2
"'
 an
1 2'
We have, by (2.1), of
deternlnes
we reflect wlth
the perLmeter
 s32
the area of the orlglnal. four eldee included le a square. 18 half in its
when lt
has mextmum
2.1g.
we have
G + : ; ( 1+ ! y ( 1 5  1 + ,* .i * ) +
* .+ .
# .* ,.#
' 3 ',3 .3
3 r ' x + y lz t
1*
= ,fL
, , *I
r rA,
and only if
x = y = z = l, whLch contradlcte
,  r  = 1* * =;F=;T
,2
{
tJ
wlth equauty if and only r.f x  0. guaranteee that L  *2 la poaltlve.
l*l
. r
 s33 
Second eolutlon.
Since
u 2
'
n rx
,+
2
1*x'
lx'
4'
elearly
y ls nlnlnLzed
at x = 0, where ! = 4.
2.26.
(x+a )(y a ))x y , where 0 < x < y and 0 < a<y  x. x+y: !tr1s glvee
*. + ' , . +;.# ;r o r
whlch la wtrat ls requlred.
; +
11
'rh,
xy
Hence, by
"'F
2.27.
speclfied,
all
v =*
t,,82 .
**
**
*r+. *
. *.
T # * T+E
EntT?I+
tf and only lf
x) + 2(1 + 2x)  8 ,
1  x = 1 + x  1 * 2x, or x  0. altltude, and R the radl.ua
wlth
equallty
2.28.
Let V be the volume of the cone, It lts of lts base. Then, ae in Problern 2.4,
I+h=r RH
and
 s34 
tj
' f,nr  h,
wlth
equalr.ty
when
3, or *  *, * 
H  3h.
The vol,ne
of
aolutlou.
Squarl.ng, we have
y2  (*2)t("2 *r)ro 
i&rrr(.2
 *2r2o,
Thuc,
,'=f,[ffi*"I,*,t#'#1" ,
".+* 2  ^ 2
tflthout
XrOfxr
wlth equallty
a ,_F
Y m.
/t+g
Second eolutloa.
squaring,
we have
,  44 
ctB t
to* 1 t 1 8 ( a x ) ln ( a * x ) n 
B 1 Wewloh to have ua  nB * n = 0 and x r 4o 1 E T T a ' o r I @ "^: ' v  fr12; ' so that ffi arrt
rm
, r
/;A
at x  fq=
/t+ s vm
we wlsh to maxlnlze
2.30.
I{fth
crgry,
 s35 
c B+ Y 1 0
*  6 f 1 " F + a  f f i a ,
or (2 ,
and (3)
2( y+t;
( c+ 11 Q ,r )
2(B1)(a+r)(gz).
o and B fron these three equatlons, re optaln t 3 g t 2 + g y 1 0 .
rf *e ellnlnate
 1, rhlch lfves c
B  3, eo that
* poLnt at trtrlch the product le greateat. Ttre other rootg i le a are Y ' (7 t 3rs) 12, both of uhtch are poar.tlve. rlowever, fron (2), a  ttl (Z  y), a n d, slnce c ) 0, \ < 2. B u t th e n u 8 ,2 > Thua,y  ( 7  3t5>l 1 . Ttr ua,r heonly
O and B  ( 1  8) lZ.O.
chord to the center be a, as tn the flgure. on the circle the rectangle. Ttre polnt is one corner If A is the wehave (xry) of
 s36 ,a ^
_ a), or
t2  4(r2  y z )(y  a )2  4 (= y )(r+ y )(y a )(y a ). Introduclng two undetermlned coefflcients, o and $, we have
$to ( r  y ) lt B ( r + y ) l( y  a ) ( y  a ) ,
 o+g*2 0
solutlon to
and a cmm
(o (rI )y a 1
I o ( r  ])  B( r + y) .
o f t h e a e i" l(o r + a )l(L + c ),
of the gecond ie
(2 )
  dTBr  E=' , Y o B
+ c) _
,
slnce O must be poaltlve. r ) 8r ^2 * gr2, ^2 /*
Aleo,
slnce
Fron (2), we have, therefore, sjnce r > y > a, rhle determlnea 0, we get half a
the rectangle.
aquare, aa we ahould.
 s37 22 + \tb a
If
on the elllpee,
A  2x(y d)  zau()Gfl,
where we have
Q t * ( f ) 2= r '
From part (a), the naxlmum of A qccure at
Yr
b4 , or
2.32.
,2 and let
a corner of the box on the sphere in the flrst ,, then V  (2x)(2y)(z  a) < 2(x' + y')(za) r + z)(z  a), wlth equaliry the , undeternined tf and only if c and B: x y.
2(r  z)(r
We lntroduce
coefflclerrts
vf r [ c( t  z)]tB( r + z) l( z  a ) ,
problem 2.31(a), where  c + B + 1  0, and, ae ln
occurs etzN.*
ffi1.
 s38 
(b) 'Trre nethod of solutlon is analogous to that ueed Ln probleu 2.31(b). Ler rh e e lt lp s o L d b e + . * + 4 at bz cz
l and the
z  d ) 0.
If
V is
v  4xy(z d)  aabc$)ffl *l ,
* afrt * (l)z  t, the naxinrm occure, by Part (a), at xla  ylb, and'z c 2.33. (a)
and,alnce tflt
+ J.,r t
r o r "  ta * /rc ).
Let the radlue of the cylinder be r, the helght z, and the gurfaceareaS . Then z+12 c a n d s I n t 2 * 2 rt z 
n 2rn(c + r  ,2,  Zrrr(t t z)  2nr(r,  r)(r  rZ), where tLtz o c, f,l * tZ o 1, and tL r t2. I,le lntroduce undeternined coeffieienta, c and B, wLth
0r, 1+ o
eo that
Br^ B 1'
(g + 1) r , JZ g+2
Br ^ B 1'
$r
' 2* \ / ' ?* r  , r r ,
rr
lz
6
 s39 
positlve,
ls'
xBr'
t r(r,
+ A )(2 t ,  t t  A )
fr
2 tz
lmrrA
r+ffi =____f
the last
t2, * (rt
rr)A
rr* r" f A 33
.4
1+A
;
the fact that A  V(rl + rr)'  3trtr' c 21.
and only lf
For fixed z, thls le maxLmlzed, ae ln Problen 2.32(a), wtren y we then want to naxlnlze S . 8x2 * gxz wlth z + x2  c.  x; , Ttrue S  8x(c + x  xa). By the solutlon to Part (a)t thta Le naxtunlzed at *  tr + frT3E). Note thst the box la lngcrlbed ln the cyllnder of part (a).
 s40 
2.34.
If
tangle,
A(xa)y!1xa) xy
'fr<t u,
 ,*#,nt1frtn1<r _i)
t) = c.#lnt[o  c*m
LPJ
1  (APl 'n "
(x,y)
* (t  il n
#j5;
Let the aurface area be s, the volnme v, elde of the base s. be a'and lte perlneter
. te
= te , "p2h2'4)Ll3 + v2)Ll3
and where .equallty holds lf and only if
wtrich la glven,
3/pY 3h6ay 2as2 *nn"  G*,? uz>rlio, " 3@^ {E ,"V T P 2 ffi
Let K be the area of the tr{angle, a be the opposl.te slde, and ret
let
eLdee.
Wehave K + bc eln c.
 s41 
(b)
By (2.1) and the 1aw of coaines, + c2  2bc cos o "2 b2 > 2bc(1  coa ol $]@ wLth equallty lf and onlY if b  c. when the trtangle LB
(c)
leoecelee, 3o ls theLr errm, the perlmeter. 2.37. On the domaln glven, at mst by (2.2), + ?v + 11  3x v + 2x  v + 1]3   [x  64 one factor Ln z ls negatLve. ThuSt
"=i
wlth equallty orxr
2.38.
lf
and ooly lf
x * 2y'
11  3x  !  2x  I * 1'
2r:yL.
In the graph on the rl'ght' the elgaa Lndlcate of z in that aleo posltlve regLon. tlve tors dmaln. the sign z Le
reglon,
ln z ag wrltten
are ia
posltlve
maxLmumof z.
A11 relatlVe
octant a8
are therefore
 s42 
* 2y  1 0 ) lt B ( 2 3 x  3 y ) ] ( 2 e 2 x  y ) , z ft[a(x
rhere we $aat the aun of the factors and y, or c  Z  gTtrug bo be lndependent of x
" =*[sr*sJ3
wlth equallty
225,
ff aid only tf 5(x + 2y  10)  3(23  x  3y) y, or x I 3, Y  26  2x  5, wtrich e n the shaded reg1on. Then, by (2.1),
2.39.
2.4O.
FLrat aolution.
From (2,6),
we have that
i .***=
e or
ylelde
(1  a)(1  b )(1  c ) l 8 a b c , or
'
e,
 s43 
(1  a)(1  b )(1  c ) > S a b c . slnce 1  a o b + c' Ec.' thla follows fron Problem 1.5. Equallty 2.4L , holde lf and only lf . a  b i  +
=',
(a + b +
")(2.2
18ebc
* b3 + c3 + 1 5 e b c s 2 (a + b
+ c )(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ),
equaHty lf
.Flrgt 8olutlon.
[4 ("u2
or
with
*4
bc2
 s44 tt,
By (2.2),
Multlplleation
to any poing
(xryrz),
d*l v4+ 9+ 36
=lW2*stt+j'*rffi
 1,
tf
1
' +
+,or
x I 2617,   +, v
ls the polnt on Ehe plane cloeest to ThuB, q, ;, ? "  +. (4, 2, L); lts dlstence frm the plane le l. Reo4rk.
x  4, y  2t plane:
would be slnpler
forn
to substltute
of the
the nornal
of the equatlon
2x3v + 6 2 ' L 3
toobtainul
2 .44 . Fron (1.1), we have
lt.
@,iFr*rA+Byr)
Er(r*r Eyr) rr+@  A),  ofi"  A)+
wLth equallty *i*ItAiB. tf and only lf x*  A' B  yl (1 ' 1,
 s45 
2.45.
x ' Y)
i * * = t.
Ttre area of the triangle, (2.6) , K, is gtven by Fb sin 0, and thue,
'T
lrlrh polnt equallty (x,y)
t 5; ; l
i= +
]2
=2xYsrn e,
= 2, or a =
2xrb=
lf andonly if
2y.
The
of that
 s46 
3.1.
ar
fCA
* ztil
o r* *
rrt T $ + 2 )z (x
la achlevedntrea d5t{12 vy
1 ).
 o,
?.2..
file rrlte
*." x+4+5
+1
rhe targecr
ie a nlnlnun
expreeelon
y '  z y+ 2,
{e
1 Z * ?  z  w _ u fi l + z E'
1  __,  _
$ rQ)2 o 0 ,
3.4,
the
wtrenwe nlnlnlze
+ sln4x.
 s47 
we know that the mlnlmun of cos4* + sln4x le 1/2, and mlnlunrn Ls achleved rdren x n nlL. Bence the maxfioun
we
' x * y  1,
t2, t . i,#2 2 L7
eo that 7 xy < 7 =L4
x 2+v 2+7+4* 4  . { . * 7 2 2
3L'
Itrus the naxLnum te L4l3L and ls achieved when x y  LlL. 3.6. For the flrst factor of the denonlnator we have
2+ (x +r)(+l
ulth equallty have
= z + 2 + *.i
> 2 +2 + 2 6,
For tbe gecond factor we
when y/x  1, or x  y.
f +.ffi +
wlth equaltty when lffit
> 1 + Z  i. ,
ffi
: 1.  1 or x * y Ttre two equallty
 s48 
3.7.
given ln the hl.nt ls easy to show, and we onlt the by S the quantlty tan A + tan B * tan C,
If we denote first
tan A 
of the given
3.8.
If
& te
ln normal form, x cos td + y sln to  p = 0, where fr5 tcoa o,  al/at * bt, sln o = 6l/at i b', then, when (xry) ls replaced by (xorlo), the expresslon xocos t * yo eln o  p ls the In par
(slgned) dlstance fron the potnt (xorlo) to the lfue J. ticular, the dlstance d, of the polnt (xrrlr) slno lles  p. We re ma rk f irs t to [.
t h a t ic o a
on {.
flrst
of the sYsten'
 s49 
IlN F ' .F .
.lottt 11
l_tr(x l 11^
c o a u J* y , s in o  p )
f*
rB
(x 3r l 3 r z 3 ) ,
4 *2 
4 2x fx. +
11 4
1=1 I 4
fx
+ 4v2 2y Iy r +
Ll
i=1
Iv l
I{e have here the strm of three lndependent quadratlc expreseLons of the form (3.1), and lf we conplete the equares, we see that
,, _yr+
yr+ yr+ y4
"L*
,2*
zr * zo
Let ax + by + cz * d  0 be the equatlon of the plane, normal form x coa o * y cos g * z cos y  p  0
Weremark flrsr
the equatlon
rnat (frl7)
nusr
t+.
 s50 
T cos a +y
cos B *7
cos Y  p  0.
A e L n P ro b le m 3 . 8 r. t h e
dlstaoce d, of (xr,yr,zr)
to II ts glven by flrst
xl cos a + yl cog B * z, cos Y  p, so that the total Doment ls nn f t.dr a  f n*(x.a cos c + yr cos B * z, cos Y  p) 1 1 a a flt l:t
r$
.r P
rt
,J"o"''[ir'J
3.11.
Ttre total lf
second mdtrent, or moaent of Lnertfa, ls the sum = re2 + PB2 + Pcz + PDz PB2 + Pc2 + PD2, Slnce / Paeses through BCD, pg2 + pc2+po?
of trlangle
cr * c2  t,t
Second solutlon.
replace 1 by
. c, the relatlon
and
 s51 
If
we nultlply
we obtal.n
( x+ y + z ) a * .+ * ) . s 3 W;l JXltz
e;
for
ulth
equallty
for x y' 
ln both lnequalltlea
and geogetrlc
Ttre ldea ig the aane aa ln the eolutlon of problem 3.L2. the flret rnethod of solutlon we have
For
"'*r**{J
r'[tr
wlth equallty
Deang, we have
(*1 r { *
... wLth equallty for x. IN 3.14 . rf wewrltelcos have xn2
a rn 2 f
a n d l* c o g
x 2 " o "2f
z ,,"
1 +;+ #'"""2;.2"""2f
whlch le eseentially ln Exanple 8. Ttrus, by the CeuchySchwarzLnequallty,
 s52 
2x
2x
z c s c T+v gec
t=
IExEx vz cBcz ltz Bec z or rhenever 2 arc ,"ffi x, .x.T co8Z. sanZ
3.15.. By the CauclrySchrnrz lnequallty, we have
y * ,rG
i'frfr7
t
'
the functlon
is 3 cog 0 + 4 eln 0 = 5 cos(0  0o),'where go  arc a"o * . Itre naxlmum value of 5 coa (0  e ) le 5 and occurs when o cog(0  0 )  1or wh e n 0 ' 0 ^ the o  a rc t ' a n 4 1 3 , rit rlc h I ' s
*r"
3.16.
""
ti.
rr""t 8olutlon.
we have that
x  L2lL3, !  31L3, z  4113, whlle the arnalLest value, 13, occura ntren x  L2lL3, y  3 l1lt z  4ll.l3.
 s53 
?.L7.
It
then nulttply
+ csc6x and
+ cec6x , {1"""2x + cac2x)3 wlth equalLty for sec x = csc x, "..6* 2' ot 8. r 1t14. Now, by the CauehySchwarzlnequall.ty, we have
$"""2*
I
tt
ln the flrst
A
rs i[(aec x co a x * csc x
. rrtth equallty
z = r!*!* '3
L \ L lz l*  * I l_ *L l  ' 6) 6' 3 [2
2t1.l2
2
,
wlth equalltY for x I y = z. 3.19. l{e nay wrlte the glven functlon as
 (x*y+z) [+
**.+]
3  3.
than i
1t
. 3  3, so that
 s54 
. Ttre rnlnlmum of AP * PB occurs when we have equallty or when trlcel * = 1{;  ;, or when x  y = ;:5. to the geonetrlcal .
Exanple 7.1f *e obsctve that the perpendlcular llnes froo A and B to the (xry)plane foin a plane.
s( *2+
l*y + yz + zxl s x2 + y2 + rz .
Equallty oceurg whenever x3,22. y  z. to the expresalon
 s55 
3.23.
8y (3.25) we have
,i,r* * elnz*r)Ltz
when." 4*2 ( tan x (2x * sln 2x), fron r,rtrlch the deelred lnequallty follona.
3;24.
g o r o**fl
to the rlghthand
rn
r2
(n
r2
rn
r2
1
 s 56
I I
3.26.
rf rrc rrlte
I I
.i
xi.
x,
r .. .
&
 tfr
. Ttrentntnun
E .. "lultl/2,
i I I
'l
3 . 2 7 . Conglder the quedrgtlc f,unctLonof't:
,l
I I
rhtch ls nonnegetfve and can therefore aot have tro dletlnet real roote. Ife have y  A"2 + Bt + C, nhere
I I
[f ^  { l tB
P2 (x)l"p(x)dx
I l
B  z I r1x1g1x)p(x)dx tgl
pl
c[ s ( x) ]2p ( x) d x. l"
Ttre fact thar t2  4Ac < 0 inplles rhar
pl
:l
ii'l
'l
ll i ,l
 s57 
rhe quadratlc y can venlsh for one value of t, caae we have equallty. t6(il f(x)to
 /tGlg(x)lz
le nonnegarive, g(r)
 to f(x),
ao
t.:t.
r{errrlte o =
,i, nlra"ioi
2arbrfub. .bi). *
rr weaum riret
1a thle etro
'reuenberlng
o=
rlrr"lcuf
o s (" i + a zr+... +.3r*i *al* ooo {oll  2(arb, * arb, { roo + a bn) +
t
us the lnequallty.
To deternine
when equallty
holds,
ln the
"Jb*a*br0
for all J and k. Thle neans that 3 = 3 for all J and k, eo Lhat oJ ok "1 "z "o ..''q'
E"qf
 s58 
3.29.
Crl.ao*l
ls ccvergenr. Let So
.
n), By
eufflcea
to ehow that
the CauchySchwarz
inequallty,
so = l"rl lurl + ... + larrl = t l.r[' { orrr l.ol2l}ttorlt ... + lbofri,, + lbol
tlow the aerlee of p o s lrlv e t e ru s , i, l* 1 2 . t . r:  A ls c o n 
Hence s ALlzBLlz, so
nlrlaaull
M and N, thet
]"lB
s' exlete.
inequality
By schnarzte
any poel.tlve
rN
^ f lz
[/tt' ( x) ]
Ll2 tu"l
a Sequence
We know that
there
must exlst
s6
such that
il*tf(1l?
= 0, for, orhencl.se
tf(x) )2 , a for the
Ife
a poeltlve
would corntradict
for all
M and N greater
N,
/ tr<*l l'd* . e ,
lf ' (x )ld x
< e ,
S 58a 
s o th a t,
fo r
all
x > Mo and * t
t Mo, w e have
lf ' (x )l2 d x
K
'x.
= 0.
 s59 
Solutlons
to Chapter IV
4 .1.
By wrltLng F(x)  [f(x)]P a n d G(x) ' g(x).  tc(x)lB, where a  1/p andBmay recast (4.22) Ln the forn
* y  1.
Itren B'+ Y
 o, ftom whtch
*+1fr'r.
If we wrlte rb  c 6.Yd* _ tgn J a
.rr 'at/
1 B
fralrra hl*l
J11'a
dx,
rhen
se tp  *,
o ' fr
t' f,
uake ana
the
 s60 
4.3.
to the identl.ty
3  1+ r + 1  !+,^
t6
tri, #+r*
3ra * L_L<G
= cxyz" xyz. l r l z 1 l* * * 5 1 /3 ( xs + y5 + l* * * *
where rhe indtces a =
raise both sides
"t) ' 1 6 ,
f , B  +,
y =
to the slxth
poner,
wlthequalltytfx=y=2. (Note that and that thle problen is analogous to problena is posslble: 3.12
an alternatlve
solutlon
1* 1 * ! t
x
so that
z ' Y x y z , "E
( * .+*)t =3sv/#.
Aleo
*5 +y5 +15r tr @,
so that the nultipLlcatLon of the problen of the last two inequalltles aleo ylelds
on the Lnequality
4.4.
If
we wrlte
3l +1 +1 we have
!
'rJIT;m
1,
 ; iBr
1, y2l3f TF I 
3 . (l *i * Llttt(ll.
 s61 
B  i, +,
t  *. ' 3
the result,
eolutlon
4.5.
ltrlte wlth
lntegers between
Slnce I * x > 0, we nay appl"y the lnequali.ty and geometrlc means to the expreeslon
arithmetlc
(t + x)a to obtaln
(1 + x)o 
(1 + x)m/n = t(t
+ 11n 1nnrl/n
+ 1l ox
1*
1 t x = 1, or x = 0.
4.6.
SLnce o > 1,( l we have l. ' (1 + cx)r* rlth equality o'nly for
1l n
t,
s 1*;
. ctx = 1*
x, to the
x = 0.
Ralse thls
last lnequality
power 0,
and we have
r+cu( <( t+ x) 0.
4.7. In the lnequallty that Yo > 1 +0(Y' wLth eguallty nultlpLy this only for last y 1) = L  o f oYr yo  ay > 1  c. :i If we now of Problem 4.6, let us substltute y for 1 f x' ao
 1, so that
lnequallty
by Ao, we have
 s62 
(ly)o  oaol(ly)
> (r  a)eo.
",
1
A (l.e.r I = l). 0
4.8.
that
1 * ox > 0. < 1.
Choose a posltive
integer
N large
0 < {/N
we have
( r +x) a /N= t $ *,
or
1+frx
:,_=* TZ
NO
L+ 'r*c F * '
If
we ral.se this
last
lnequallty
to the Power
(1 r x )0 > (1 + f t r n = 1 * F x
We observe that tf 1 + cx Ls negative, trivially valid.
= L + c llc .
the lnequallty 1n the state
4.g.
 s 63 
(1 +x)0=
lirn
r+(l n
(1 +x)n<
 1*
crx,
the conditions
Suppose now that x t O and 0 < o < 1; we must show that is strictly less than 1 + ox. To this end, let
r be a rational
and since
(1 + x )o / r < 1+9x:
so that
r'
(t+x)0 <
(t *
* ")''
If
(1+9x)r<1 +
and thls
rc lx r
a strict
which equality
is to be considered,
inequality
in those
inequality
is possible.)
4.10.
x0 wlth
1 + y = *.
Ttren (1 +y)0>1+aywith
*o  a* rather
 s64 
x = Az.
But if'we
multiply
by
)o
ir
(1a)Ao=(1
"))o1,
4.11.
L+sln 2 x . 1
SF
t . t"0.
4.!2. Agaln, we have 1.= cos2* . 1 + slo2* . 2131.3 . 1
1cos3* + sln3x)
+ 13)
("o"3* + sln3x)2,
whlch ls
equival.ent
to the eolutlon.
(po"2*)312
I
,3
ot
x=1114.
13
I "o"2* + sln2x, whlch ls not greater
4.13.
wlth
rhe ldentity
c2
zx)alz *
["'"
 s65 
whence
a.2
1 < (cosox + slngx)zlo(2,
0
wtrence 2'l
"o"o*
+ sl#x,
wlth
equallty
for
"o"o*
sin0x =  r ,
x = r1 4 .
4.L4.
tet.Llp
 c and Llq
3, so that o+
{ttt*l
4.15. .
Set p have
ny H6lderrs l"nequallty, we
axfb
+ < (a P * 6n11/n1*o
and therefore
"o
lrlth
equallty,
_C
ap n x
 f fbP i'
c x
or whea
xt
ca
ilf ',
n rl/ n '
)
l il^.f ilr l D ta
 s66 
4 .16 .
t. 
lJ e c o n s id e r
ln Problen 4.10.
Ttrus
*P:(py)x>(1p)y9,
so that
"P
+ (O  l)yq
> p x yr or
1P * ( o : r ) y e > x y , pp'
frm wtrich (+.2) follows.
Frm Problen 4.10 lt follorls tliat the
or nrhen
*P
yP l ,
*P = y9,
1n (4.2).
4 . L 7 . W ese t p *
(n >n ),9
= f, fr t s) , and]
r  * i.
Then
 *6 ,oi
= zt.
r(1 
* ;
z ,tyz,
 s67 
4.18.
ln the forn
= , where At ,i;l'n'1,0[,!,rJ"o[,i,,,1"0
Then
I.rrr", "11t
rl/o
",
= [(rrcr)l/ntar"r)l/e
"i"t
tl"
"
..
tP" nn
.q DC '
4.19.
Fl.rst eolutlo,n.
I{e have
L +2 +4 
r1 Y ,*'.8
L+6
z+G #.
4,
or
7<(x.l+y
wlth
equality
for
z.
If
we
the deeLred
meane relation
we
xt2 y+4 2 7m
Tz
txyz
V.*
 s68 
x = y = z.
Also,
i. 3 + !
7 wlth ities, equallty only if
z ix
7 /l z v z y
If
x  y  z.
we nultiply
result,
of equalLty:
that
ry.3 @ =3 @
r.
x
2.4
y 3 z L >3/ t xyz' 
that
(x t 2y * tr:')(! * ! + !'1 , g 3G4 'xyz' two lnequallties being x = 2y = 42, the conditlon =
have dlfferLng
a n d t h e s e c o n d l= ; = t ,
x=y=2.
whlch therefore
cannot yteld
4 .20 .
rt.
Itren .!rc,
t:1
.Bzi  zntL z. we
L/2
2t*1'2=l.i=
T
so that,
on squarlng, n
1=1
and, on dlvldlng equallty only lf ,{,
1
lz'
.,] , [,i,+,J
with
*1 =*2
"'
= x . n
 s59 
Another
soluti.on
parallels
of Problen
4 .r9.
4.2L. Let us use Problem 4.18 agaln wlth p n q2. We have
a * b * c * d < ["+. #
la(eH)
< 
c u'
wlth
equallty
o,n1y lf
c * d = d * a.= a * b  b + c, or a b c  d. therefore S .
ml.n
Ttre value
of the mlnl.mum ie
2.
4.22.
We shall
and wlth
poq2.
Weheve
L12+b2+cz
.2
' c{e,
2
.r' c a*b
ctaa+b,
orab
c.
Thus r
 s70 
w hen  b  c , S 2 +, a
6a"
and S = {, 6b"
s 2 +, 6c
lnequalitles,
we have
"3),
I
wh e n c es 2
z( a3+t3+c3)
wh e n c es > f 3 1 2 .
wlth
equallty
R,
4.23.
(4.1).
we havc
L  a 2 + b 2 + .2  ( *, ^. ^2**.r .u2
+!.
". "2)
= .+
(aP
or
.,,2p + b2p *
lf a = b  c.
4.24. Ttre case that asatrne that l/p l/p + L/q = 1is < 1. Hdlderrs ineguallty, so that lre may
+ l/q
;= tFa
ie greater Pr gr fr than 1, go that, by Problen 4.17 extended to arbl.trary we have
1.11
d*d*{,
Pqr
r*.
By (4.24) we have b rb
I rer ax< l/ a \a
=(b
rea*j''' [i "
_ alLtt[orn
t'n[io"u*]t"
dx
]"'[1''u*J"n,
 s7t_
wlth
equeltty
'
only if
f(x)
1t
Ttre constanr k
turrrs out to be (b  a) " ^ . 4.25. fire aolutlon lnequallty that, for paral1els lnstead that
of Schwarzrs inequallty.
any M and N,
of thc eolutloa
of Problem 3.30,
4.26.
.t
\'
1 ztxZfr+
...
nrrx
t#o
.F'
"i
 i,
"1
= q.
and b, = 11fi,
we have, for p  4 2 ,
+ 2x
+ z + ...+ n x o )(i t.
... E X
...
T" n
n\
for
*1
=  *2
4.27.
the
t,
o f P ro b le m 4 . 1 8 .
J.; d,!
 s 71 
Solutions
for
Chapter V
5.1.
If
f(x)
= 1og x,
then f '(x)
= l/x f(x)
and f"(x)
(5.3).
locl
1t 1= los . * * t"r x, = ) ,r=, *J Z ,1, *r"gx.=1og 1og J1*t/t=loq,,ffix ,F..n ,]r"1'" ) *l (5.18). slnce 1og x is not linear x, = ... = xn. over any intervar, equallty
*r)
whlch is holds lt
(5.18) only if
5.2.
B y (5 . 8) ,
of inequality
=x
n o, * cx,,= l.
5.3.
let
us set n = 2, dL=
L/p, aZ = L/q,
so that
S olAt
only if
(5.20) with
equality
5.4.
iltoi
= 1.
If
equality
*l
Pr
= *2
Pz
=x
Pn n
5.5.
For any o, > 0, g > 0, we have immediately f(x) = x log x (verify that f'r(x)
of
ls positive
 s72 
"#
@
whence t#l equallty ' . holds only
5.6.
that
aesurea ua thet,
lf
1, Pi > o,
(ot*t + "'
S Pl*l
f p xo)Joe(nrx, "' +
lo8 x, + "'
* po*o)
* po*r, log xo
Pr*r . = rosf [1
whlch le (5.22r. Equallty
Pr,*ol *o ),
= ... = "r. x > 1. Equallty
5.7.
the functlon c = B.
6
5.8.
If
we play a blt
nith
we have, slnce
e{n x, > 0r
that
 log sln x.
verifyLng
Lo9 sln x ls
the steps *1 .
requLred lnequaltty.
 s 73 
5.9.
If
f(x)
ls twice dlfferentLable,
is concave on
'[+] =roq'[+]
2. l"s
f f(x'
) + f (xrF1
TJ
+*t"r f(xr)
(f ts eoncave)
(1og x Ls concave)
f rosr(x r )
* I r<*r) *
Thus, if xrr
r(*r)'
* z'
*1
1og f
+. .. * x r nl
"J
, ! tog f(xr)
+ or. r*
tot
f(xo),
. t f ( x r )t ( x r ) . . . f( xr r ) Jr ln t[:#
as desLred. Equallty holds only for *1 = ... thls would imply
bl
= *rr, for lf that f(x)
were linear
is exponenf(x)
convex, contradicting
for
numbers 0rr
0n with
rogr[rlr,rrJt
rlro,
rogr(xr),
 s74 
or
5.10.
functlon
g(y),
calculate
whlch ie an increasing
vanlehea at y * 9.
Now
fa pr.<tx=f a P ^ r l*^ ^1 o
and the flgure below ehows that
= o, = I)rotu, f ,
o
wlth
sLdee a hords
and b cannot exceed the sum of the areaa A, and Ar. only lf b f(a)  "P1, or, what Ls the same thlng,
Equality lf aP 
bQ.
(e (b) ,b)
(a, f (a) )
(a, f (a) )
Flg.
 s 75 
5.11.
An lntultlve
geometrlcal
proof
ls
clear
if
the solutLon
glven
to Problem 5.10 and use the flgures a solutlon case that that ls applicable f(x)
in that
the functlons
the solutlon
1( crB) ,
I (0,0) wlth the upper llmtt
to be deternlned.
and
g(b) ) ar we have
A r* A r=
I (0 ,0) t (0 ,0)
(s ( b ) , b )
ydx*xdy
(a, f(a) )
ydx 1(s(u),u)
1 (e ( b ) ,u )
Ydx*xdY
( 0,0)
b
d(:ry) 1(s(t),t)
Ilere,
before meetlng
Ls not llJustrated,
but in thls
caee we have
A rfA r=
(o'o )
1(a, f (a )) d (x y )J 1(a,f (a ) )
(e(b) 'b)
1(a , f (a )) *dy J
(0,0) z ab,
 s76 
shown in Figure
5.L2.
of the precedlng
problem, we have
.* . J""rn t dt + fsrolt
oo
at
ustng the reeult of Problen 5.11, we have, slnce f(x) 8(y) are lncreaaing,
 x5 + x and
= a5 + a.
= 1; this a + a  2, or e
L.2 Itt*t *
o
x)dx *
g(y)dy,
B (r)dy  4 / 3 .
5.14.
for
conceve functlone
(with
equer.lty reveraed),
f; !.:i
 s77 
"t)
5.15.
ls
fron x.
the fact
that
= .*(1
is posltlve follows n
any n real
numbere xr,
xn) it
(5.3)
t1*e
*1*"' +:(
] "t  lr [ t * "* n] ,
['
...
[".t
"*]""]"
k1 (
*.\ ft,t
l
or ak  exk,
n < ,II_11 + an), k1 holds "o. of Problen 5.15 nay be only lf x, '"
Equallty
al = " ' =
5.16.
dieplayed as
lnequallty
ln the solutton
t. + (ara,...
"o)t'" = Jrar
* 1)1/o.
 s 78 
If,
in thls
inequalityr
rr replace
"k
by a,/b1,
we have
We remark that
is quite
k=lK by applytng
the orlginaln
k=l
5.L7.
power, the
In accordance with
(s.+8b+g")t
K =I
numbers crr
...,
cn.
5.18.
If
we set,
n(*,f(x))dx
rhen we nay
integrals
A .,*A r=
1(s(b),b ) p (x , y )d x f J (0,0)
q (x , y )d y 
1 (e (b ), b ) j p (x , y )d x (a , f (a ) )
A .,*A r=
1(a,f (a ) ) p (x , y )d x + q (x , y )d y I (0,0)
1 (a , f (a ) ) q (x , y )d y , J (e (b ), b )
 s79 
\.,
or (g(b)rb) startlng
as we traverse and
slnce p(xry)
A r +A ? Z
) (0,0)
r(e(b) b ) ' p (x , y )d x + q (x , y )d y
A l +A 2 >
;(a ,f
(a ) )
J (0,0)
F(xry)
p (x , y )d x + q (x , y )d y
(a, f (a) )
(0,0)
 F(a,f(a))
5.19.
rf
we rotete
solid
of rotation  {t
given by fron
and F v* trold
n*y2d*,
(0,0)
to the cen
of the solld
stnllarly,
of problen
5.1g, we have
Equaltty
 s80 
xv
(a) The function restrict triangle
t'"=i
'fl
^ 2 lt (^ ))2 .
so that rile must so that the
5.2O.
cos x is
the angles x1r *2, *3 to be less than rl2, is acute. By (5.3) we have
cos xr)
"r
+_*z+ *:
3
= L/2,
* eos x, * trlangJ_e.
*1 = *2 = *,
Hence cos xl
the equilateral
ourselves
to an
acute angle because cos x is concave only over 0 < x < rT/2. By Problem 5.9 we have
"o"3taa.pJ3]
aBain for
= L/8,
and hence the maximum value of the expression, x, = *2 = xy the equilateral triangle.
occurring
where both cot x and 1og cot x are convex (tnis verified; use Theorern 5.1). We have, by (5.3),
fact that
log cot x, * 1og cot xZ * 1og cot x, S 3 log cot or or wLth equality log(cot cot xl for xl cot xZ cot *3) . 3 1_ogcotgr cot x2 cot x3 < (cot *L = *Z = *3. 3 =
*1**2**3
3)
L/36
the maximum of the given expression tan xl tan xz tan x3 assumes its
occurs minimum,
 s81 
b y (5 . 3 ) ,
whence sec xl * sec x, * sec *3 , 3 sec n/3 wlth equallty for tie equrtateral triangle;  6, the mlnLnun value
t""[#J
or
xr
xt
ta n f+
go that trLangle.
ta n f+
r an Ttl6 31 6 ,
ln the ease of the equllateral
the ml.nLmtrn 3  6
5.2L .
r f we set yl = f(xr),
lz=
f (x r),
y 3 = f (x 3 ), a n d re c a ll f ro n a n a lyt l c
^+
wlLl be posltlve to (xrrl3), lf, (xr,y2) othenslse, precleely A w111 be negatlve. the dlettnction
*1 vl tl *z v2 tl
Y3 1l
the edges fron (,xrrY1) to
*3
of the triangle
 s82 
algebralcally,
note
that
the condltLon
*rY l 1
0<
*2*1 *3*L
tztt ItIt
0 0
and to
yLyZ Yz t3yz
0 I0 gLvee
and that these two Lnequau.ttee gLve us (5.24>, whLch in turr us (5 23). The ateps precedr.ng (5.23) are reverslble,
so that the
"
eeen that
ri(x)sW
for Ax > 0. lncreaeingr slnce f(x) is conrinuous and ri(x) of this
is nonotonlcally aa x * *o,
lnequallty
x ) xor to obtaln
<
f (xo +/lx)
 f (x)
Thus, as Ax + 0, Ax > O, we have tin fl(x) ? x*,r *r*o o But we know already that <
ff (xo).
fi(xo)
S fi(x)
for xo ( x, wtrence
 s83 
> fi(xo).
two LnequalitLes
show that
lln fi(x)
x+:( *t*o o
 ff (xo),
that
5.23.
Let J*  ff(x)
 f](x); x.
lf If
Jx  0 for
x, and if
and J1t > 0, the two lntervals for both f'(x) each lntenral and ff(x) J contatns x
of x.
there le,
Jx than there
are ratLonal
the eet
x such that
Jx > 0 Ls denumerable. ueee the faet that ri(x) aad ft(x) are
the proof lt
Actually,
poeeeaelng rlghthand
derivatinee
at all polnte
except
 s84 
5.24. t{e set r r<*,yldxdy and call g = f  rnr so rhat // g a*ay = + {/ "r rlto
r Let us use L Z (5.26) ln the foLlowing calculatl.on:
lo g n .# //lo e ( r + t) a xa y
r
1. = m, // + D. fi a"ay 1og nr
(loe'*
which proves the result. lf f ts constant,