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# Chapter I.

1.1.

BasLc ldeaa.

## One of the most lmportant ln partlcular

facta

Ln matheuatlcg that

X - 0.

nrnbers

a and b, we have

(6 - /6,12 o, ,
a- 26- +b> 0.

## ln the forn a*b

( 1 .1)
,t

2-

{ab

By replaclng

a by a- and b by b-,

we obtaln

an alternatlve

forn,

( 1 . 2)

}ab,

rhlch

elearly

holde

for

poselbly

negatlve

a md b ae rlell.

A releted

lnequallty

ls glven

in Exerclse 1.1:

( 1.3)

R lT'7.
Glven two poslttve nrnbera

-a*b
a and b, the number *+i 16 ls le called called the

ren

ue le that meaq.

the g.oretrr"

## thaa the arlthretlc it

inequall.tlee,

la alwaye lqortant

to know when, In

an lnequallty

-2 -

(1.1),

we have that

## tf and only lf poeltlve

and gemetrlc lf a - b.

means of two

Example l.

## Let e,b,c be real

numbers.

rt

follose

fron

(1.2)

that

,2*b2>2ab ( 1 .4) b2 + c2 > 2bc .2*"222ca, where ve obaenre that equallty i r an a ooly'lfa=b, holdt ln the three Btatementa tn (1.4) i. e . , a -b ' c . A d d ln g t h e e e

## three lnequalltlea ( 1 .5)

by 2 ytelda

"2*b2+c2 2 a b * b e + c a ,
wlth equaltty lf and o1y lf e b o c. (For other proofe, see

Exerclse L.2.)

Example 2.

Let ua rewrlte

(1.4)

in the forn

## a2 - .b + b2 >.ab b2-bc + c 2 > b c "2-""+a 2 > e " .

Now obeerve that the three (a + l)(a2 - ab * b2) - .3 * b3. Ttrus, if, rn ntrlttply

lnequalitLes

'.

-3 -

that

## rf we now add the lagt

three

( 1.6)

"3
equaHty

* b3 + c3 ) .o g+i
and only lf

* u" L{i*

g{i, ".

rlth

lf

a - b - c.

1.1.

Prorre (1.3) .

L.2,

of

(1.5)

by considerlng

inequalltlea

of the

of

(1.5)

by flrst

loee

## e > b > c and then applytng

to the

(a - b) and (b - c).

1.3.

"3

= \$d3lz

+ (ca)3/2 +

thlg

in another !ray?

L.4.

the rtght-hand

slde of

(1.5)

## ls at leaet by crarb orr

3abc. in order

(Elnr. and

the trLple

of lnequall.tlee a3 + b3 + , wirh

(1.4) "3

## Deduce that = 3/tE;

= 3.b"r

equlvalently, if a - b - c. a,b,c.

equatlty

1f and only

1.5.

Show that

## (a + b)(b + c)(e + a) 2 Sabc for poslrlve I *b c * c c +8 + -T-to' -' a

r.6.

Prove that

*b

4-

L. 7.

Pro v e th e

th a t

2.2 2'-) .22 a-b- + b-c- * c-a- > abc(a + b + c). of lnequal-lties ab bc ca+-2a*b*c. cab .3 * b3 r (a t u)3, orr more elegantly, (1.4) by appropriate

(Hint. quantities

tri p l e

1.8.

Show that

1.9.

show that

2'

1. 10.

Let

a rb rc rd

b e positlve

nunbers. c*d-

(a)

Show that

a*b*

tT
a *b *c *d r

ffi

(b)

4V

L.2.

## Further Basic Ideas.

We have seen in the prevl.ous sectLon how which cannot be negatlve let bl into a useful in-

## idea in another dlrection, ^L = ^2,

{ar,ar}, = b2.

{Ur,Ur} Then

be two increasing

## with equality we have

if

and only lf

a, = a2 or bl = b2.

Multiplying

this

out,

^ZbZ.

^Lbz

^ZbL

factor,

and divide

by 4, we

(1.7)

## 2-2 if and only if

,^r*

^,

.bt*bz
2 We sha1l see Ln the ex-

## r^rith equality exercises tensively.

a, = a, or b, = bZ.

## how (1.7) nay be generalized some of its consequences.

Note is

*We are using the t,erm ttsequencett for a pair {ar, ar}, of length 2, with a view towards later developments.

even though it

-5 -

that

{br,Ur}

a16o.

numbers.

Ttren {atrbm}

both increasing

## or both decreasing sequences, ac-

cording as a < b or a Z b.

## Ilence (1.7) applies:

(1. 8)
Note that equallty

0 s e < T/2,

let

"o"40

' l- "ot2*20 )

+ srn2+20l

## in order to use (1.8) with m = rt = 2.

Then

2{ "o"2*2e

"irr242e

]=,t'-+d]t
sin 0 = cos 0, i.e.,

## + sln2o =- I "o"20 2 2' |

Therefore

(1 .e )
with equality if

4^ 4^ 1 cos'O * s in ' O = . t
and on1-y if 0 = tt/4. in the and we

## aspect of our interest inequa].ity,

holds in a specific

## than or equal co L/2 for all 0 = n/4, it assumes its

+ sin40 is always "o"4e 0 in 0 < 0 s n/2 (indeed, for all 0). least value, Lf2; in other words,

sign prevaLls in
rii

-6 -

Lnequalltles for

or

deternlning

EXERCISES

1.11.

of (1.7),

prove that

for

## three posltlve tcrrcr},

(or decreaslng)

eequences tarraZI,

{Urrtr},

ttbt"t

I 2

tzbz"z

* t, , ", 2

bt * bz *._it . "t - - T . 2
condltion. be renoved? Cen

attentlon that

to the equallty

1.12.

not prove lt

here explicltly,

note that

the ln-

problen

## put ln a forn tlve lnteger

shon that

I [.o + b n );

t--T-J
1.13. For t ln the lntervel
, I t 2a ' l t' . ( ,t

-a*b -2

)" /ur-r

## the nlnLnnn value

,rrr^..r-]a ]La .,-i ..^

of

## t ; ; 7 1 + t ; ; ? l ( l t l " s ' csr cu la te th e va r u e o r

[t- .1 ]t * tr r . =l'. , [ [r
*.2J *.2J
1.14. For any pair shotr that of poel.tLve numbere a and b such th"t + 2n-, , where n is a poaltLve e3 + b2 - l, integer.

## .2o * b2o >

-7

1 .15 . 1.16 .
1.17.

S honthat 1*tan"0

RlA

>f

## s e c " 0 f o r 0 < e < t l|,

e x c e p t a t 0 -1t 1 4 .

## shor thar for posttlv e a a n d b , (a + b )(" 2 + u 2 )(" 3 + b 3 ) < 4 (. 5 + u 6 ) .

Uelng the methoda of thls fror the orlgla to the llne section, find. the shortest disiance

1.18.

## Uelng the athods of this frm the orlgtn

to the parabolic

arc G, + 5 in (1.7)

1.19.

shorr that

the lnequaltty

## seguences Lg increaeLng the equellty condit{on

the other

La decreaeLng,

unchanged.

1.3.

Chebyshevrs laequel!,ty.

oae poeaLble

gmerallzatLon

of (1.7).

## decreaslng) gequences {arrarrar}

Ttren ae ln the prevloua sectlon, (at (aZ (al ar) (b, - b2) > 0 ar)(b , - b 3 ) > 0 ar) (b, - br) > 0 ,

"lb1 "2b2

## ar b, + ar b, ^ZbZ, + .3b3= .2b3+"3b2

.3b3*.1b1 . . 3 b 1 * " 1 b 3 .
If ne now sln theec lnequalltles at and then add .1b1 * * arb,'to

^zb.

both

eldee, we arrlve

-8 -

( 1.10)
wlth equaltty lf

- "l
and only lf

'zt
JJ'

^3,

bl * bz * b3

cl.ses, {a1,

## the reader "r}r{br,

a, a3 or bl - b2 - b3. In the exer"2 is asked to generallze thle to two sequencea of n numbers "', bo} :

'. .,

## arb, * arb, t ( 1 .11)

nnn

. . . * a o b r,

a, * a, * ... * ao

b l+ b 2 +

## and then to more than tlro sequencea. Chebyshev r e lnequsllty.

Ttre lnequallty

(1.11)

le knorrn as

Exanple 5. order.

Glven three

real

ln lncreaaing

Then by (1.10),

.2 D

>bc*cafab,

glvlng lf

## us another proof of (1.5).

(Note that

equallty

holds lf

and only

a - b = c.) Exanple 5.

## Uelng (1.10) end (1.5) glves us 13*b3*o3 - - 3 - .* b 2 z "2

bctca*ab

( 1. 13)

+ c2

a*b*c

3 afb*c

3,("3 + b3 +

"3 )

> (b c + c a i a b )(a + b + c ) ,

-9 -

with

equaHty

if

and only if

a = b = c. notation.
To make another notation

Note on the summation and product more compact, we write is n tlf"t for

the sun a, f a, + . . .

* a_. n

T h u s (1 . U )

nlr"non
k=l

=i*.i,
"k] for the product ... ^L^2 8n. Thus n II k=n! k=1 and

Sinilarly,

we write

n IIa

## 1. n(1 + E/= I k=1 k=1

- 2L 2 3 .!.t_

,"*!,

= nf1.

EXERCISESFOR CHAPTERI (a) Use the methods of this from the origin (b) Sirnilarly, find

1.20.

chapter to find

the shortest

distance

## to the plane x + y + z - 5 = 0. the shortest distance frour the origin to the

su rfa ce G + 6 + E - 6 = 0.
L.zL, Find the mLnl-mum val-ue of the function = "irr4 (. 2t4' x + l-l-- Y--l lL - y,)

f (x,y)

## ( ^ r4 + I 'Y =l "o"4* \L + yt) " o " u *

of x and y yield the

0 < y < 1.

Wtrat values

L.22.

Let f(x)

## x<n/2. > 4/3,'and

Showthat explain

theuseof apparenr

rhis

with

wt.leh follows

fron

(1.9).

L.23.

Show that

the inequality

is reversed if

one sequence

-1 0 -

L.24.

L.25.

## shon that then

lf

n le a posttlve

lnteger

and arrdzr..rsn

are poeltl.ve,

F mrl
)and only

1rlr"t l; ,
[" with equaHty lf

-tt% ' n
lf n a, ^2 - 8o. Ttrle generallzes

Exercl.se 1.1?.

L.26.

(*t

+ yt)n

tf

numbers.

L.27 ,

xo - 1.

Show

1.28.

## Let xlr...rxn *nr,...r\obe

be posltLve

1, and let

a permutatLon of *1,...rxn.

(*t+.h l )...(xr
L.29. (a)

## * *po) > 2n.

posltl.ve xry whose sum x * y is conatant. :ry ls a maximum when x - y. :ry ls congtant. show

the product

(b)

(c)

If

product

1.30.

## Flnd the rnaxluun value o, *R

for

0 < x s 4.

1.31.

Flnd themlnimumvalue

of

ryz lf

x * 2y + 3z - 6, xryrz

) 0.

-11

L.32.

Arnongall edges is

rectangular

parallelepipeds

such that

1.33.

Arnongall area,

rectangul-ar

parallelepipeds

show that

## the cube has the maxlmumvolume.

1.34.

Find the maximum val-ue of G. + '6 + G it For n positive (at numbers r1r...

*2 + yz + z2 = L.

1.35.

## + . . . + at- )f'"1 * ... + - \$ fln = ,,2 .

numbers such that a * b = 1. Show that L 2'

1.36.

=)- + (b +

' l?

1,

)\

f,)',

t,

Show that

L.37.

## Let ^L,^2,"',a' n 1;2 j=1

x( 6,
J

.1

be p o s it L v e n u mb e rswit h . 1 . 8 . , = 1 . j= l J = 1(r,2 + L )2
n'

"j.

1.38.

For positive

a and b

the series

i n=l
1.39.

tf

1
(a

+ (b + 1b)" *1"

tl 3.

the series

1.40.

...

,3

be positive

and letp>0,9<

0.

Show that

nl_

"f*q

## =In i.rl [r ] "tj , wlth E tJ |.t

rlt ilr
a. n
.. .,g

equality

if

and onl-y if

'L= ^z =
1.41. Let arta2t ,,

be posLtive

Prove that

n .L -" ! l-=r

t -p+q
-[*

[t il ,i,"r],i,'

-L 2 -

L.42.

## Show that for posltLve bc b*c .

arbrc ab ,a+b*c af b2

ca c*a

1.43.

Prove that

for arbrc ) 0

a{t*c

"ab""
wlth equaLity lf

> (abc) 3
lf a = b = c.

and only

I.44.

Show that

for

a,b,c

) 0, we have

-t _ 3 -

Chapter II.

The Arithmetic,

Geonetric,

2.L

Means.

of those of

## between the extrenes. geonetric,

define and consider the arithnetic, power, and two symnetric The arithmetic tistics, sinply neans.

in sta-

the mean.

## by the number of them.

&,t Id n ,3 - , t"' , J' d n 1s

^L*'2+"'+an

,n = lI
n

.-. l-= I

a.

l-

progression,

mean of the

## preceding and inmediately

since three

consecutive terms can be written of the first and last being (a--d)

## in the form a - d, d, a + d, the nean

+la+d)

2
The geonetric &1, u2, "', 4r, it mean is s in ila r. is

-4.

Of n positive

numbers,

= 'r',' ('1,
of positive terms, each term is the geonetric

In a geometric progression

## nean of the two adjacent terms, since

-L 4

ff i = ^ .
The harnonic mean is defined as the reciprocal of the arithnetic nea! of neah of the reciprocals of the nunbers. Thus, the harnonig

## " r' ^z'

"'. -na

is

-l-* r
"l ^z

+ ...

I a n

-+ -

11 ^2

"l

* ... * -la
n

i-l

l1 ai

A .hamqrLc" progression is a Drogression such that the reciprocals of its terns form an arithrnetic progression. Thus, each tern in such

a progression ig the harnronic nean of the adjacent two. we should justify the use of the tenn rneanr', for a mean lies l{e shall seldon consider negative nunbers,

L z

est (it

a,(3,<a
I_

I_

a,(a^(a IZ-

*
a1
I-

+ ... ^2

^l

+ an :8n,

-lt

L L t -.

If we nrultiply,

I -an

< an

we have

## !t!t al -41 l>1>l al-^2-rn

!t! r !

e. -a rn n

-a

,l.dding, we get

n ,-!*l-*... "t-"1 ^2 or

+ 1 > tt % -" o

"rj

ll -+-+

4r

.oo

t
n

(4

^2

Thus, these are indeed means. All three neans appear in elenentary Euclidean geonetry. exanpLe, if AABC has a right foot of the perpendicular For

## frorn c to AF', and if

AT-, then cH is the geometric nean of AH and HB, and cM is the arithnetic mean of All and HB.

- t6-

cH= ffiffi,

ttl= ry

Also, given a trapezoid ABCD(see Figute 2.2), with IIB-parallel to 6-, if t{ and N are the mid-points of lT'and ET, and if such that FF is parallel X and Y are

points on Ab-and F

## to FB'through the internean of

section of the diagonals, Id and ffi-, then MN is the arithmetic AB and CD, while XY is their harnonic mean.

1 9 + CD MN= _-z

2 -= XY

- +-

11
CD

AB

Figure 2.2.

2.2.

Given

at least

## the geometric nean; in other

numbels, a and b,

( 2. 1)

+>6 ,

-L 7

if

and only if

a = b.

Indeed, this

## was shown in Chapter for any three

(1.1) .

In Problem I.24,

we saw'also that

nunbers, a, b, and c,

:
with equality true if and onlyi fa=b=c. for n positive
+ o ..

3,/ffi

,
ln fact, this relation is

in general

numbers:

uI

* ,2

* " r,

( 2 .2)

, v6-T

,
= rrr. This is known as the This inequality may

with equality

if

and only if

a, = d2 =

## theorem of the arithmetic

and geonetric

means.

be proved in nany ways, and we present first To prove (2.2), assertion: If the product of n positive we proceed by induction

## one of the simpLest proofs. to prove the following

nunbers is equal

to 1, then the sun cannot be less than n. Fron what we have done in chapter true for n = 2 since, if ara, = l, 1, we know that or ar= 1/a' the assertion we have ar+I/a, is true fot L, 2, is

2. ,k;

## we assurne that if "k*1

the assertion = l,

arar...akak+l

## then only when

t k + 1, with equality

We may assune that at least two of the numbers-"k*1. --we call them here a, .rd the property that a, < I and "k*l--have t 1, for if all the a. are less than 1, for example, their "k*1 product could not be 1:

## = ' ' ' =

- .18

(a,an*1) az"'

"k

= l.

If

we set z = 8,?,_.,,
I K+ I
1^

w have that

## the product of the k nunbers hypothesis, their

zr a.1r ,..,

&v is 1, so that,

by the induction

## cannot be less than k:

, * + ... ^2 * ak > k.

^ L*

rZ + ... * ak *

"k*I

z>

## >k+1*"k*l*"1 . = k + 1 * (*k*t - t )(f and this

z -L

=k+1

* "k*l

* tl

"l"k*l

- I

- a r), - 1 ) (l - a r ) > 0 .

## We renark that the ,.m

nit i= 1
a.
1

= ... = ^L= ^Z "k*1. As an innrediate corollary of the assertion above, we have that
,L*^2+...*"n

.l l r--

>

(a-a^-..a
LZ

## n with equality only if we have the identity = ,Z = ... =

^L

" rr.

F o r, if we s e t g = n E G ,

-r9 -

^r.
g

a.a^ a 4* 4 g I

+ ...

t t g -" ' n .

18,

## a = n , or, what is the same thing, ;

Let us give another proof of (2.2), which we feel gives a different insight into (2.2). By (2.1), if the sun of two numbersis given, their This nay suggest that, nore

product is greatest when they are equal. generally, Lema. P roof. their

That is,

## Then xy < (x * a)(y - a). T h u s a (x + a ) <ay, o r, if

we add xY - a(x + a) to both sides, xy < xy * ay - a (x + a ) = (x + a )(y - a ). l{e notice that, by the definition suchthat in (2.2), if not all the numbersare equal, then soy

## of nean, there exist two of them, a, and d1

whe re A = * i= , T t ru s , if we t e t a l = A , "1.A . ^ 2, " i. = ,L * a2 - A, we have * ,2 = * and, by the Lernnaabove, ^) "I ^l ^) , ala), ot ^L^2

-2 0

"ary^*,
Repeating this nunbers all

, ",Eg;.::"
we arrive at a set of n

## than the geonetric That is to say,

"'arn^,
unless = ^l ^2 - "'-an,

< A

^l*u2+"'+a
nt

## in which case we have equality.

Thus, (2.2)

is established. Note that given, their (2.2) implies that. when the producL of n numbers is equal., or, their what is the is a

sun is a minimum when they are all when the sum of n nunbers is given, equal. t)"

sane thing,

product

Exanple I.

equality

Exanple 2.

A sinple

consequence of

(2.1)

is that

(2.3)

u **|>2,/ffi, x-

_2I

## with equality to ninimize

if

and

O nI Yl. aX =- / - . .\l t

ID

t-f-

'

## where ?, b, c are constants.

To use (2.3),

let

us substitute

Y=c+x.

Then
(a - c + y)(b - c + y) f(x) =

c)(b : c ) +y+(a+b-2c) - (a :

(x) with equallty if and only Lf y = lrG-llTG:-T. That is, f (x) has - ffi)z.

## its minirnun 4t X = yC)-6

- cI - c, where f = Gffi

If this value of x is complex, then, since equality in (x) can never occur, f has no rnininum in the real donain.
Example 5. Heronrs fornula Given a triangle with sides of lengtls K, as ar b and c,

## gives the area of the triangle,

K = f fi,
wtreres, the serni-perineter, equals *F Let us use this and

(2.2) to find the triangle of given perimeter which has the mst area.
l{e have

- 22'

## K 2 = s(s - a )(s - b )(s - c )

(g

.s-4+s-b+s
rT

: c,) 3 = s (----5--J s -3 -5 s - 2

,4 =T' with equality if and only if s - a = s - b - s - c, or a = b = c. has the nost area, namely

## Thus, the equilat'eral triangle IT

* ={ b=f ^' .
The inequality just derived also showsthat the equilateral triangles triangle has the least perimeter anong all E xanple 4. (a+b*")2= of a given area.

Let us ex p a n d (a + b * c )Z a n d u s e (2 . 1 ):

(^ 2 *b 2*.21

## * (2ab+26s+Zca) + [ ("2* b2) , (b2 * .2) * ("2 * ,2)l

(r2 rb 2*"21

3 (a 2 * bz * .21 ,
t-

( 2 .4)

T_.^/
and only if

a+b+c-

/^'*b2*.2

,
a = b = c.

## with equality if E xanple 5.

Maximizy = * 2 7 t - Z * 1 .

If we consider y as a product of two factors., x2 arrd (1 - 2x), their sun is not constant, lo that (2.2) cannot be used. sider y as the product of three factors, sum, x + x + I - 2x = l,
'I

If,

however, we con-

## x,x and (l - 2x), then their be a maxinnrn,

is constant.

Hence, y will

na m ely (l/3)",

whenx=x=

| - 2 x , o rx = L / 3 .

T h is a p p lie s o n ly t o

-. 2 3 -

x ) 0, since (2.2) is applicable only to positive n u mb e rs . A t x = l/ 3 , therefore, ily we have a relative, or local, rnaximum, taking on arbitrary

## large values on x <0. Exanple 6.

Maxinize )r = x {G.

## The maxirnrn of y occurs at the naxirmrn of yZ = *2( r - *21, r hat i s , w he n*2=L-*2

1

,orx=*rsince {z

'=t. ,':ft'-'-,.']
-Thus, the naxinun is at (*,

b
Exercises

r,.)

2.I.

## Given n positive numbers ,Z ^1,

^'*^' a t, n. aI -

, tn.

prove that

+ ...

^z ^s
2.2.

## P rove the generaliza t io n o f (2 . 4 ), n a n e ly

(2.s )
with equality right

*r!, ",tffir4
= = The terrn on the ^Z "rr. is known as the quadratic nean, or root mean square, of the if and only if a, =

## an&e is the sun

of two opposite angles, Bretschneiderts fornrula gives the area, K, as K2 = (s - a) (s - b) (s - c) (s - d) - abcd "or2 f, where s is the

- 24-

6.\
2 .4.

olmlperlneter. teral

Aseunlng thts

foruula,

prove that

of glven perlneter

## Flnd the dlnenslons volume lngerlbed and radiug

of the right

clreular cme

cyllnder havlng

of nsxlnun altltude II

ln a rlght

elrcular

of baae R;

2.5.

(a)

circular

cone of largest

(b)

Find'the right

## can be inscribed 2 .6.

in a sphere of radius a.
< a, whefe

## lfhere does the rnaxinnrnoccur of (a + x )3 (a - x )4 , a is a constant?

2 . 7.

Prove that

5
(Hint:

r_sry
Cube, expand , a n d n s e (2 . 2 ). )

s/Tm

..,j}

:i:-;

-2 5 -

2 .8.

Prove that

## . 2"2 . 4%]ro :-3"s I ^f1^1^1 1-r

(o

2 .9.

(a) (b)

l,trxinize l,bxinize

(1 - x) s( r + x) ( t + (x.

z*) 2 .

s121sx- 7) ( r 1 -x )g (x + 1 ), x )0 .

2.L0.

Prove tfuat
a+b+c --..3-. \ a + b)(b + c)(c + a

2 nr.unbers , *2 , *1 ., on bI n

.sffi
the n

2 . 11.

Given n positive

ol=*l**2

**n

L
1 =I

xi,

62=

*r*2 *r*s *

## xn- r n = x.x.. .x r. li<j

O=

x-x^ ..'x
LZ

+ '

[ i l < i 2:....i n

* ., x! 'L '2

...x. l n-

o = x-x^ ...x n Lz n

n lx .
i=l

## 0n are call.ed the elenentary Show that

slmetrie

* r'

*n')

1+

n n . I o1 =.'I I (1 ilr i= l

+ * i)

1r + ?[)n

by showing that

- 26'

o, I tll o|/" ,

m=l,2,"',D.

(Notice that this gives an alternative .n 2.12. when o_ = l.) (a) Prove that, their (b) 6ive if

solution of Probl.emL.22

## / the product of two positive nunbers is given,

sun is less, the closer they are. another proof of (2.2), sinilar text, to the first proof

given in.the

## constant while valYing the sun.

2.'I3. Prove (2.2) by the third by backward induction. method of solution of Problem 2.2, i.e.,

2.L4.

(a)

of a rectangle

is glven,

show that

the

(b)

to slt against

2.L5.

(a)

## Given the volume of a box. ls a minimun when it is

Prove that

lts

surface

area

a cube.

(b)

Given the surf ace area of a box wlthout Lts volune a maxLmum?

a top.

I'lhen ls

. :7. '.:i.

- 27-

. \--l

2.L6.

Construct

wlth

a reetangular

box of

lnto

three

2.L7.

(a)

## mean of the aguares of the first n ) 1.

, than (n + L)-l4r

(b)

?

2.18.

l".

for

any positive

integer

k,

meaa of than

t

n lntegers

(n+1)*/2*,n>1.

z.Lg.

of a sector

of a circle

be gl-ven.

Find lts

t

(x+ y)- + (y

- 28

## L e t s b e t h e s e mip e rime t e r , through its vertices, Given that K = rs and and

K the area, R the radius of the circle r the radius of the inscribed circle,
^ R= abC

ff,

2.22.

## P rove that, for an y real nunbers

^L'

.. , gn,

. "3, (1
Give conditions for equality.

,-"+.
the

2.23.

Let a andb

be positlve

constants. 1b ;;

## mlnimum value of eax *

2.3.

Mean. Figure 2.2 sugges\$that the hannonic mean The ffrarrnonic nean. This is true, in fact,

## is less than or equal to the arithmetic and, noreover, it

is not greater than the geonetric rnean. This is quite follows directly l{e have
nr fr .L .

## from the theoren of arithnetic

1 = I1 \

;:

[,], , +J
1-ln
n

or ( 2 . 6)
n \$1 < (n )1 / n III a.l [ i= 1 t )

I a.1 1

t\

{
c

-2 9

wh erea.>0for
1

all

## i and equality holds if

and only if

a, = 8^ = ...
LZn

= a .

Exanple 7.

(2.6) inp L ie s t h a t

ii ["']#.
Let us expand the left side, getting

2 n.

to Exemple 4.

n I
1=l

1 " .1 a .1

## (4. t1 l-+ la. 'l

where the index on the second sumation over all i,j frorn I to n such that i < j.

il=3

i, j=|,2 13

## [+.+] ,1, = e.;le.;l) e.}). .

ai a'

, then

o f c o u rse ,a .',|=r
= ,j.

and

.
J1

^i

## Theqecondsurmration has Cll =

n(n-- r)

(there are n choices for i_and n - I for j, because of the requirenent that i < j, ( i ,j) ) . there

2=n2,

- 30

Example8.

## Mininize y = i . 11fu;, rm= *-=*.

ll-1

0 ( * t

lte have a n d o n ly

r 1 l-

2.24 .

## ( 1 * * ) ( 1 *7 1 t+ f,) > 6 4 . z.zs. Mininizey=l=.*-# o n lxl ' t.

rnmbcrs, given their

2.26,

Prov6 that the hsrnonic neen of two positive sum, is greater th closer theY are.

1ft;

on -i t * t t'

2.28.

## Find th rlght abqrt a rlght baec r.

cLrcular clrcular

## cqre of nlnlnun volrnc cyllnder

clrctcrcrlbcd of

t.

-3 1

2,4. tion

Undeternined Coefficients.

## When we are to maximize a funcstands, whence of

such as y - x(l

- 2x), we cannot apply (2.2) as the function observation that y = +t(2x) (1 - 2x)], The point

to the quantity

inside

## ttte Uraltets. x is that

the coefficient

of 2 to the factor

Exanple 9.

of a rectangle

## Nornan window of fixed adrnitting I ight . If the greatest

h is the altitude

of the

## rectangle senicircle, window is

and r the radius of the then the area of the Figure 2.3.

(x)

A = 2rh * t

TT

T.

1lrrc

+ 4hJ,

## which is proportional to the anount of light (xx)

where C is a constant. by some positive (x) is constant. have
ly + ' l t' t + 2h = C ,

The perimeter

is

We desire

to multiply so that

the first

factor

in

(x) in We

it o.

the coefficient

- 32

A =*

and, fron

we desire,

## s1' + tTr + 4h = 4r + 2nl + 4h(= 291'

Thisgives0,=4+nand

## this naxinun value if

and only if

(4 + n)r = Tr + 4hr

## of the nethod of undeterd\$ed

a nethod which is useful in nany areas of nathernatics' more factors, however, there afe nore consider-

## when there arethreeor a ti ons.

y = *(a2 - *2) , Example 1.0. One way to naximize the function (2'2): where a is constant, is to square and use

## y2 = *z (r2 - *2)2 = le*21le2 - *2) (^2 - *2) I haz'f

)? ? .a = with equality at Zxo = a' - x- ' or x n'

il

## We can use the nethod of unde.

.)/ .

_33-

(r)

+ x], / = x(a - x)(a + x) = i= [ a x ] [ B (a - x )] [ a l{e desire that the strmof the facof x in

## where o and B are to be deterrnined.

tors in (r) be constant, or, looking at just the coefficient the sun, (xx) o - I + I = 0.

Wemrusthave, also, that we can Solve for x, since we have three fsctors which nust be equal for somevalue of x, if these si^m.rltaneous equations have a solution and B, namely, that the solution we are to apply (2.2). That on a

## for x found by equating any pair always solutions to the equations

be ttre same. Thus, we mrst have identical , ox = o t x r B (a-x) = a + x the solution of the first being
a * =m

## (xxr) and of the second

x = f f8-1= 6 - la z i?
where we have substituted

t
That is to say'

#= o f u a
o2 - z o - z = o
OT

o= 1 + 6 ,

-3 4

## since cr must be positive. Using (xxx), this gives

The coefficient

B = o+1

is also positive.

a x= -l -, r/3

## in agleement with the first Note that cient for in (x), it

solution. would have been useless to put in one coeffithe sum of the factors

each factor.

## we had three undeterrnined coone, s&L leaving two

by the last

undeteflnined and one equal to unity. The reason why we must solve two equations in two variables, reduces to solving in y. a quadratic, is that there are three different of the function which factors

In the calculus,

to be

equation.

## Here, we have a to sol-ve.

glves us a quadratLc

Exercises

2.2g.

2.30.

## Maxiniz" *1^2 - *2)(2a

- x),

where a is constant

2.31.

(a)

inscribe

',,

t'i

- 35-

(b)

2.32.

(a)

(b)

## =C) 2 .33 . 'Given the paraboloid , * * 2 * y z

0, lnscribe,

above the

x-Y Plane, (a) the cYlinder and (b) the box of naxinun surface area. 2.34. Inscribe the rectangle of greatest area under each of the curves Y =I/*,P =1,2,3, to the right of x = a > 0. (That is'

( ",#) ' )

-3 6 -

## Exercises for ChaPter II

2 .35 .

Minimize the surface area of a right volume aird the shaPe of its

## Prism, given its

(polYgonal') base.

2.36.

Given the area and one angle of a triangle, (a) (b) (c) the sum of the two including the opposite side; the perineter.

minimize

sides;

2 .57 .

2 .38 .
\--l

0.

2.39.

## mean of the arithrnetic

and harmonic

tneans of two nunbers is not less than the geonetric mean of those nunbers. 2.40. Prove that for any positive nunbers, a, 'b, c, such that a + b + c = l,

( ; - 1 ) ( i - tl( i- t) > s.
2.4I. Prove that a3 * b3 * 93 + lSabc < 2(a + b + c ) (^ 2 * b 2 , c2a)(aa2 * bc2 *

111

" 2 ).

2.42.

Prove that

(a2b * b2c ,

t g^282.2. ""21

- 37

2.43.

from (4,-2,I)

to the Plane

2 .44 .

## P rove that if then n

l*,=tt,' t '

) A , )r, q B , i
- l .-

= lr

"'r

llr

x/r-3
1
inside it.

(B - A ).

2 .45.

Pass a line

through the

the triangle

of mininun area.

-3 8

Chapter III.

3.1.

In this

chapter we shall

investigate

## of the quadratic ') ax-+bx+c=0. vertex

Y =^*2+bx+c observation

## of the parabola y=ax2+bx+c

( 3 . 1)
is equivalent to finding

the naxinum or the mininum of the function have a nininun or a maxinun according as

(5.1); a is

Exanple 1.

## Exanine the function

y=3x 2
for a possible

-1 2 v + 1 7
As in the case of analytic the coordinates of the vertex geometry, of the

naximun or minimun.

## where we complete squares to find parabola, we have

v
.or The vertex coefficient upward. that point

=S(x2

-4x+4)

+17-L2,

=g(x-2)2*5.

(2,5),

i, positive,

## Since the vertex is the lowest point

the function x = 2.

at the

-3 9

## of the problem in Exanple 1 from a

of view, which can then be extended to a wider range By completing squares, we have transformed the which is the sum
a

of applicability. function

) ^-) 3x' - l2x + 17 to the form 5 + 3(x - 2)-, 5, and a non-negative variable 5 + 3(x - 42 will

hence,

least possible

the function

possible

the following

principle,

of a parabola:

## F(x) be a non-negative A + F(x) will be a ninimum A F (x)

whenever F(x) is a minimun, and the function will be a maximum whenever F (x) 15 a ml nl num.

Exanple 2.

## Determine whether the function If

(x + 3)(x + 5) x+6

has the

## - 3')-(z - l), becones Q

z2-4"*3

+:--4 a

= z- 2/7

*!- q
z

+ z {5

b E - ?) ' . 28
This last

- 4.

expression is of the forn A + F(z), where A=28-4and The expression for F(z) will assume its

F(z) is non-negative.

t"l

-4 0

## rnininun when /l the original x = B - 6. E xalple 3. x> 0.

- /7//Z

= 0 or when z - ,8, and the minimun value of be 2/3 - 4, which is achieved when

expression will

## In E xercis e L . 3 2 , we t re a t e d t h e f u n c t io n x + l/ x f o r = (/ it / / -x )2 * 2 , l/ G )2 t h e n , b y t h e p rin c ip le , =0, o rwh e n x = 1. the

If wewrite*.f,

m i nimunvalue A =Z

occurswh e n (t -

we pose next a geonetrical problem which can be solved by ninirnizing a quadratic function, and which has many applications. ExanPle 4.
vertices that A, B, C.

## Given a triangle with

Find the Point P such

## tances frorn P to A, B, C Let the coordinates

of A, B, C be

( x r , r r),
tively,

(*2 ,Y 2 ), (xa ,rr)' r esPecand let the coordinates of x and y so that the expresslon

P be (x,y).
--J ----3

---3

S=PA'+PB-+PC-=

(3.2)

## (x - xr)2 * (v - vr)2 * 1x - xr)2 + ( y - y2) 2 * ( x - xr ) 2 * (v - v ) 2

Now S may be written as the sum of two quadratic expres-

is a ninirmrn.

sions in x and Y:

( 3.3)

= A rx2 * 81* * C1

A ry 2 * B ry + C, ,

## where At Bt A 2= 3 _2(xL **2 2 22 *1 ** 2*x s

xr)

'

Bz

_z(y *Y2* t
22 2 11 * Y2*Y3

y3)

'

ct

cz

-4 L -

Since A1 = A2 = 3, and since x and y are independent, S will its mininun when the two quadratic

achieve a

mininun. of A'

## Thus, by cornpleting squares, which requires Br, we have

B, and A'

\$=

T I
lx i-.
T I 22 lv

2. 3(*r **z*
.
5

-s
-2t

l* t *

,2 x2 + x 3 )

+3

t_

( v r* v 2 +v 3 ),.!# l *sl2

..,

I
J

(t '

* Yz * Ys)2

t.
Hence S will whenever

* r* * 2*

_l

r[ ".':.'7
(* 1 * * 2 * * 3 )2
1 (Y t * Y 2 + Y 3 ) 3
?

+C r+C r-

I
J

achieve its

rnininun value,

cr*c2-|,*,

**z

*r ) ' - *,r ,

## *y2 *vr ) z> 0 ,

*1 **2 **s
(3 .4)

Y = --T-is called

yl+y2+y3

The point

(x,y)

given in

(3.4)

## of view, for the expression of a system of unit

(3.2)

is nothing more A, B, C

## when P is the centroid. feeling

to have an intuitive

## for nany of the inequalities

-4 2 -

which we deal,

it

is worthwhile

to define precisely

the physical

con-

cepts associated with sone of the inequalities. Thr Moments oL a Point-Mass .System. Let Pl, of n points in the (x,y)-plane, there having coordinates P2, "', (x'Yr), (i P' be a set (x2,Y2),
= I r 2 r " 'r i l )

(x,y)-plane,

and let

The sum

( 3 .s)

*1d1 *

^Zd2

* trd'

first

## moment of the point-nass for a positive integer

systen with

More generally,

k, the sum

(3. 6)

rrul * nra\*

*rdk nn

he to alk k- th nonen I .o f the systen with resPect to L. otal is defined to be th ek= For the ca se on (3 6) is called 2, he expr S S io eex re ,t the noment of inertia

pect t en wi of the sys ten witth re sp ctt to L ar I di ke wo erpe nd Let u st take tw pe pend cu1a li ines in the plane, al first c nsi ert he the y-axis ,aand con de the t o ta fi wo ines respect to these tw 1i ES : the x-axis and

( 3.7)

{ Mt 1I M^ lt.z

tr*1 + t1r1 +

^2*2 ^2Y2

...

nx nn
n' n

+. . .

+ ny

( 3 .8)

such that,

if

## the entire first

nass of

the systen were located at P, the total and M. are the sane?
L-

nonents Mt

.:

_ 43_

exists ^Z *

for,

## since the total

mass of the

(nt *^ 2 (mt *^ 2*
by (3. 7) ,

=Mr
=Mzt

so that,

*1*1 *
t1

^ 2*2
* t2

+mx nn
* tn

+ ...

i=1 n
1=I

m.x.
11

I m .1

( 5 .s)
n

tlrl

*
tl * t2 *

^zYz

+ ny +n n

n' n

i= 1
n

m. y.

l _- 1

It.
1=I

## The point gravity

P with coordinates

given by (3.9) If

is called

the center of

is not difficult

first

Exanple 5.

L in the plane.

the moment

of inertia--is

## We proceed in the following center of gravity

We letl.be

the line

through the of

of the system and express the mornentof inertia line f para11e1 to the given line about Lo. Let L

- 44-

and l-;

if

I, = nrdf ,
o

{ it

(3.rr)

L=

## tr(d t * s) ' 2 * nr ( d, * o) 2 + "'

+ nr ( dr , * o) z

If we expand the squares 1n (3 . 1 1 ), we h a v e ^n Ig = fo+ 2c L Drd, , gt I rn, , ]. 11 1 =I i= 1 where the first sumnation is the total first tnonent with respect to Since n

L,'and the second surnation is the total o Lo passes through the center of gravity, relat ion ( 3.12) Thus the line parallel of the systen will inertia. I/ = I l * o ' 2M . o

## mininize the total

Exercises 3 .1. 3 .2. Find the ninimm vaLue of Find the naximrn value of
(5x + 2)(x + l) 2x+1 7 x-+4x+5

fo r xr - lz

3 .3.

x+5 xo+4x+5 -.

-4 5

3 .4 .

## Find the rnaxinun value of

,3 5*.os4**sirr4*

3.5.

For positive

x and y, find if

## the maxinun value of x and y are constrained by x + y = 1.

+y

+ -11 r +-2

*- Z

xy
3 .6.
For positive x and y, find 18 the maximun value of

Y/ L
3 .7 .
If

,/x+yl
flnd the snallest using the

ArBrC are the angles of an acute triangle, tarr2A + tan2B + tan2c. prove first

(Hint:

the identity

3. 8.

following

Equations (3.9),

namely, that

if

P is zero.

3 . 9.

## the sun of the squares fron P to the vertices

D is a ninimum.

3.10.

Given a 3-dimensional point-mass system consisting located at points Pr(x, ,yi,zi), i = 1, 2, ..., the total n. first

## of n nasses m. Given a plane noment of the

II: ax + by + cz + d = 0, we define

-4 6

## where d. is the signed distance will be taken positive The question if

fron p. to II (for

example, d. p. lies

P. lies (3.8)

## above II and negative if fornulated

below II).

is easily

in three planes, we

dimensions, and, with respect to the three coordinate are 1ed to the coordinates n of the center of gravity n n
y.m.
-11

of the system

I
x-ilr

*.t. 11
M

t-

i=1

i=1

z . m.
11

M is the total first mass of the system. moment of the systen with respect is zero.

where

n M =.I- n. i=l 1

show that

the total

to any plane passing through the center of gravity 3.11. For the point-nass

the quantity

## **raj* ' n raf

where d. is the distan cetoa
l-

*r'di,
given line f
of

in space, is cal1ed
rL. Given A, B,

16

o\

## ABCD and unit nasses at the vertices

C,D(thatis,m.=1,i=1, line

2 , 3 , 4 ); f in d

if L is t h e
BCD.

3.2.

-Schwarz. (3.1).

## We wish to show another we are given .., b, ; in

nethod of using the quadratic two sets of real numbers this section we lift ^1,

3n

and

the condition

bk be positive.

## For any value of the real nurnber x, the expression

- 47-

y = (.1*
cannot be negative, i.e.

+ (anx - Orr)t

(3. 13)

Y=

Ir("k* ft:

bk)- > o

.2

## l{e observe first

that equalitY in (3.13) can hold only if each of the )') (.r,* b rr)- is z e ro ' that is, only if terns (atx - bl)-, "',
b^ b, -l ._ = - 2 = ...
a4 aa LZn

( 5. 1 4 )

b_ = -n .
a_

y=

{
a=

(i,'i):o

which is'of

## the foqn (3. 1) with

I 1 tk2 k=
n
-2

( 3 .1 s )

I
I

b=

t
n c= \

k=1

tkbk

k=1

I al

Notice that we have inposed on (3.1) the additional condition (5'13)' nanely, that y cannot be negative. The value of a in (3.15) indicates

y cannot that the parabola (3.1) nust open upwards, and the condition that be negative neans that the parabola cannot closs the x-axis at two distinct points. Consequently, the discriminant b2 ' 4ac of the quadratic

-4 8 -

\ o ( u i ,tn'ni

ln

OT

( 3. 16)

## (-I, : (-i, "-,-)' 'il(-!,

,\ b.- |
K/

This is the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, equality useful holds is given by (S.I4). by taking

under which

Another forn of

may be obtained

## the square roots of the terms in

( 3.17)

I n L I _\ k=1 "nonl k = f
F

(.t-, "i)'''
suggestive, is 2 or S. since each The fo11owmeaning.

The right-hand

side of

(3. r 7 )
asa

the geometrical

Exanple 6.

in a

## S-dimensional space. the origin distance (0,0,0). formula:

Find the angle between OA and 6T-, where O denotes The three sides of triangle 0AB nay be found by the

I (* (3. 18)

loB
iAB-_

2 1

.b? = l3
-or)' *
(a2

L/2

\ui,'i)
^r-br)2

irt'". t

= -on)" (-i, I
(at , \ 7 /2

-4 9

(at

br)2 * (az

- 2OA.OBcos cl,.

J

If

cellations,

* ,Zb2 * .SbS ,

( 3. 1e )

cos0=

"1b1 "1 *

*^2bZ*^Sbs

*^3

The formula

(3.19) for

## 3, the neaning of the cauchy-schwarz inequality an angle lies zero. between -l

(s .L7):

and +1, and can be I only when the angle is arithnetical proof of (S.17) allows spaces;

The fact

## us to introduce indeed, this

of an angle into

higher-dinensional

is precisely . spaces .

## how one may set up an analytr.c

geometry ln

higher-dimensional

Exanple 7.

to find
T

the minimun

We have

-5 0

## A crc2x t B sec2x = 1A csc2x + B ,u"2*) (sin2x *

"or2*)

> (fi- csc x sin x + r,/6-sec x cos x)z , or A csc2x * B sec'x > 6A + JE)' , with equalitY if and only lf ,r/[csc x sin x tan2x = 6secx cos x
''--)

,o T

4 lA . x = a rc f , a n q / 9 .

value of the firnction 8. Find the mininnrm Exampl,e 2 4' ' L ( 16 + x +y )(T 6 -*i .L . 4l . This expressionis essentially the rightyI b2= hand si d e o f (3 .1 6 ) w i th a , = 4, d2= x, 83 = y2 and b, = l, Ir
b3=

+ v

## Hence (16+ *' * ,o)(# .

r, tr.
xy

> (1 + I + 1)2 = 9,

with equafity

if

4x -=-= L /4

rl x

x = 4,

y = 2.

t/yz
solution involving the

## In exarnplesof this t)rpe, there is an alternative inequality we have

?-

between arithrnetic

factor

L6*x2+

-5 1

lll

re*a*v xy
If we nultiply

,tm
we obtain
I

(16

t *2 , r4lr\$

.*.*, xy

zs:m

9,

## of cauchy and schratz nay be generatized in nany

'uays, end several of these crtcnsions sre interchangeable intheirapplication to eloentary o a classical geonetry. fle wish to introduce here a simple forrn be treated at length in Chapter 4; Let {^r,^r,rr} and

inequality

rhich will

r'l

tbt,bZ,bSl

be two triples

( 3.20 )

## ,l'' ,i)"' ,r)"' (.! . br) , (,.!, . (,.!,

,(k
^s q' E =E = ^z tl

## with equality occurring only if

(3 .2 r)

The proofs of (3.20) and (3.21) are obvious on the basis of our discussions in Exanple 6 abovez rf re fom the parallelogran of which two sides are C(a, + b'

be the point be

-5 2

,r,r1.J

,/

(^., * b.,)'

* ("2 * br)'

* ("3 * br)' .

In the triangle

## the point A lies on 0c.

AC = OB , (3.20) and (3.21) f o llo w a t o n c e . ' I n o t h e r wo rd s , (3 . 2 0 ) asserts that the sun of two sidles of a triangle si de . Exanpl.e 9. From the point C(O , c ) a n a n ru n s t o a p o in t P (x , 0 ), O{* ( l, a n d t h e n t o t h e p o in t F in d t he " nust exceed the third

CP+PD=

|.,,, 4Grd)o*

(x*l-x)'=

least value

or

x =

;J!-

l-x

c+d

## elegant geometrical solution to this problern, in the form (s ,za),

which brings out the fact that Minkowskirs inequality, sa)'s essentially

that the shortest distance from one point to another segrnentbetween the two points. Reflect the point D

is the straight-line

a;

-5 3

in the x-axis

into

the point

## Df (f,-d). p(x,0) also To ninion the C to then to

Then the choice of the point ninimize nininize the sun CP'+ pD will the sun CP + pDt.

(1 , 0 )
nize the latter straight-line Dr.

## sun, p must lie segnent drawn fron geonetry, it

By elenentary that

follows

the minimrn is

(c * d)2 *

## occurs when = x "fu

and1 - x = #=
we shall

The additive property of the sunmation sign in (s.13) suggests that we may exploit even further the quadratic function (i.l).

assumesomeknowledgeof the elenentary integral calculus, even though, with the exception of the Lenna below, the following developmentsare co n ceptually identical to t h e d e riv a t io n o f (s . rg ), above.
Suppose that we have two functions f(x) and g(x) which are both the

(3 . rs ), a n d (3 . 1 6)

continuous on the closed interval expression [f(x)t a < x < b only if of f(x). - g(x)]z

a < x < b.

## cannot be negative, that is, only if

x in

g(x) = f(x)t,

is a real nultiple

Consequently, we have

( 3 .22)

## y = [^b [f (x )t - g (* )] 2 d x > o tta

real values of t; this is t h e a n a lo g u e o f (3 . 1 S ). in

for all

T h e c o n d it i o n s

prevails

-5 4

The inequality

## n b .., y =.1 ([f(x)l' t"

ua

- 2t f( x) g( x) + [g( x) J2) a* , o

or ( s.23)

## , =Vorr(x),'0.),2 - z(/or,,.,s(x)d,.) ,rqx;rzaxo. , .f >

quadratic function / = ar t2 * bft + cl

## Here we have again a non-negative of the forrn (3.1),

where we have used t in place of x, since x is re_ in the integral; the coefficients of the

(s.2 4)

I
I
I

ug

cannot

## so that the discrininant

b ,2 - 4rrc' cannot

OT

( 3 .2 s)

## u, (.f'r,.,sr*ra*)2 : (/'rr(x),, (f,r(*)r2.,.),

-5 5 -

which is called Schwarzts inequality lfe now take up the question of when equality can occur in (3.2S), and this is equivalent to equality inPortant in nany contexts, is essential. in (3 .?2). The following Lenna is

## and we enphasize the fact that the condition

of continuity

LEIri{A. Let F(x) be continuous and non-negative on the interval r'b a <x<b. Ttl F(x)dx = 0 , t h e n F (x ) is identically zero.
-ta

Proof.

ze"ro.

## Let us denote the value Because

F(xo) by A; we nnrst have that A > 0 since F(x) is non-negative. F(x) is continuous, there cxists an intenral l* - *ol . 6, o"

*o - d ( a < *o * d, such that F(x) > A/z for every x in this (rf xo should be one of the end-points, I or b, it will half of the stipulated interval, suing argunent will tive, we have

^interval.

be enough to take

## , o =.fr(x)dx a .J_;.or(x)dx +u,. di.o

A do*6 2 * d- d d x= + ( 2 6 ) = Ad > 0 ,
o

## and fron the contradiction caLly zero.

(nanely, that 0 > 0), we have that F(x) lg idettlstep in the A6.)

## (rf xo had been one of a and b, then our last

chain of inequalities

## above would have yielded A6/2, rather than

-5 6

To conplete the discussion of Schwarzfs inequalitlr non-negative quadratic function arising distinct reaL roots.

## However, equality nay occur in (s.z.z), and there-

fore in (3.25), if, the quadratic function (s.22) possesses one real r oo t, say to. The function Then for this re a l ro o t t o , we h a v e { o t t t * la o [f(x)to - g(x)]2 i, - e (x )lz dx = 0.

## role of F(x) in the Lemna.- Hence [f(x)to

so that, for all x in a < x < b , g (x ) = t o f (x ). Exanple 10. va lu e 1/S . we have Let us consider the integral .t x . x 3 , a n d if * u ' l* " *o dx, which has the

## lfe nay write *4. ,

f (x ) = x a n d g (x ) = x 3 ,

= (I'

. .fu, ur'(r

\Jo
= x2 and

I In this

case, we have

E=

t.s obvious that

## *.t /.r=|.*= (d'

the equality occurs because S. (This is a how the after

## einee Lt ls not at ell.obvloue but tt lllustretea, I{e have

i.nequallty le related to Schwarzrs lnequality, the fact, how the lnequallty uay be applled.)

'57-

(x - t1 2 = ({'..)'

## =({.*nu,)'.:.1 .a, (f (.{'

= (t o g

*) r| t*'

- , )),

rh e n c e

2(; - tl'
x t-l

< log x,

ot

2 { * , -, t ) x+l

< ro g x .

## Set x = e, and we have 36"g .1r i in this inequality,

1I <

( l, or e < S.

If we set x = e L t 3

va obtain

TT

2(e" " _ t)

.Iroe"=|,

or

" .4 =

2.744.

l'e renark thet this resurt rs useful in the nodern calculus course, where log x is defined ,tf.* dt/t, ard where the inequality of Schwarz rl is easily proved at the tine that the definite integral is introduced. of course' the inequarity Taylor-series of Exanple ll nay be obtained fron the

expansion, but this concept usually appears nuch later calculus course. bound for e nray be obtained by analogotrs nethods.

## t = ( / . "i "-1 . ({. o.)' "'u.) "-..1 (,{.

= (u * - l) (-e -x * l) = e x

**-r,
e

we have

and, if for

"

r 3 *- 6

## # 2.62. r f we set x- L13,

exanple,

-5 8 -

Exercises for Chapter III -,1 S howthat [x + y * z )(i S hswthat (x,+r^* 'LZ
tl , ..., X

3.12 . 3 .13 .

rr * i *;) ,\rl L

:9

f o r p o s it iv e x , y , z .

* *r,)(+ .

) r,2fot positive

3.L4.

For positive

AB I - cosr

I + cosx

0 < x < 2. 5.16.

in the intenral

## Find the largest and:snallest values of l2x + Sy + 4z if

the

point (x,y,z) is constrained by the relation x2 * y2 * z2 = l. 3.17. 3.18 . Find the nininun value of S howthat g sec6x * 3csc6x for 0 < x < n/2.

+,t.?: T ,+ .?
#. # - # ls lz f o r p o s it iv e x , y , z .
wit h a > 0 a n d b > 0 .

2- 22

3 .1 9 . S how that
3 '2 0 .

## with an elementary geonetrical 3.21 . 3 '2 2 ' S howthat * yz + z x l <*,

l*,

"2. a 3 ), (b r b z , bg ) ,

jr'ti

-5 9 -

. 4 c2,

## , * t"1 "l *'!l cul a!* ollr"l ,

3.23.

"!rtaf* a l , ulr.

) 4x" - " '' ^ For x in the range 0 < x < tt/2, show that -' -" -" -" -- -+- + s in 2 x < "anx 2x (Hint. S tart with t h e id e n t it y * = 4 * x . a re re a l, 2 ' 2 n - < n ( *i**r + - "' 2 **i) ,' sectcostdt.)

3.24.

## S howthat, if xrr .. . , (x, + x- * .:. 'I

+ x )z

and conpare the regult wlth (2.5). 3.25. Let alra2r...r8n be poaltive ntders a re re a l, t h e n euch thet
E

tit"f

. 1.

Shon

thst lf *lr*2r...rx'

(.a*r.*

^Z*2+

## ... + aoxo)z iu.'ll.l+ arxl+ ... + a x 2). s n

(Coupare the resulr wlth problens 3.18 and 3.24.) 3.26. Find the largest and smallest values of arx, * ,Z*Z * for a, , ?2, ..., 8n p o s it iv e if x+ax nn

222 *1 *2

i*i+...*+ bi b;
3.27.

b;

- l.
on the interval < b; a q x ( b, prove that r \

---12

\%

/\r" I
The

## function p(x) is called a weight function for this form

of Schwarzrs inequality.

- 60-

3.28.

Given two sets of real nunbers trr, Prove the Cauchy-Schwarzinequality sun nn j=l k = l is non-negative.

"r ,1

a n d { o r , ..., bJ
that the double

II

("jo* - anal2

3.29.

## sequencesof real nunbers,

C) a n d t br , bz, . . ., bn, " ' J , such that

ot@

## the series infinite

3.30.

X a1 and X b; are convergent. Show that k=l K k=l n series f, a. b. is absolutely convergent.
k=l KK

the

suppose that

f(x)

and ft(x)

## rhar rhe inregrals rl

wtth f (x) ttre lntegral

trt"ll2ax and rl
of f r(x).

f (x) = 0.

-61

Chapter

IV.

The Inequalltlee

of Hiilder

and !,llnkwekl

## 4.L. be the real

A l,ecna. ntober

Lt p be a real deflned by

nunber greater

(4.1)

l*!Pq

I :

lt

follose

at once that

q > 1.

Our prlnclpal

tool

ln thls chapter

(4.2)

4 -qt= :2 p
only

xy,
real nun-

wlth bers.

eqtrallty

## (4 . 1 ) f a satlefled md (4.2) becmea

|+t , n,
an Lneqnallty ehotr that resulte (4.2) relatlng the arl.thetfc and gemetrle for ratlo,nal means. I{e ehall the

p and q frm

of chapter for

## trlo sets of poeltlve bo},

(4.3)

.1 b 1 +a rb r+ " '+.o b o

nlth

eqtrallty

lf

and only

lf

(
I

-6 2 -

( 4 .4)

## "l "t " o l =4 =

(4.3) is called in what fo11ows.

ap =-. n bq n

Hiilder,s

inequality,

is an inportant

## extension of the inequality that

of cauchy and schwarz. when p and q are rational, "elementary methods", processes). can-

We wish to enphasize.here the fact we ate able to deduce (4.2) that is,

(or infinite

the functions

## process (for *analytic the

example, *P ."n be defined as eP(log x)r, nethodsn are necessary. sane results renarked, it Certain analytic

so that

so-called

methods will

also yield

in the case that p and q are rational, is one of our objects directly to show that

but,

as we have of

the inequalities

## fron the inequatities

relating

neans whenever p and q are rational. x and y and for rational the posltive integers p = n/n > 1

To prove (4.2)

for positive

m and n:

mm
-+

xp p

yq q

,,*il *.

-(.r n

- ,,)y*-n

## cl=t -l=[ +a), 'qpm

and geometric rneans, is

## which, by the inequality not less than

between arithnetic

(*tyt)r/m

= xy , Hence

with equality

only for

xP = yq.

ii, ,:

-6 3

*P*r9, pq
with equality if and onty if

xI'

## xP = y9, which is (4.2). (a.r). As we nentioned

Now (4.2) holds for real p and q satisfying above, when p, andthereforeq, is irrational,

## or both sides of a strict

(<), one must realize that the symbol can degenerate into the 'fless-than- o r - e qual" case (5), e.S . 0 < t / n , b u t 0 I llg (f f " l. cases involving lirnits of inequalities, inequality He n c e , in t h e

- +!- -

for rationar

## for sone x and y with xp I yq, xP pq vq

X/.r

and let

(4.5)

xy-

,+. t

=d>0.

We shall show that there exist rational ( 4 .1) such that ( 4.6 )

x v -,# .*,
*,; it

-6 4 -

## diffcrs d/2; this

from the exprcssion on the left-hand and the fact that the expression

(4.5),

## (4.2) holds for

p and q.

be approximated arbitrarily

by rationals,

*P = *Po + e, and yQ = yQo + e2 for po and Qo sufficiently and q, respectively, (4.1), wherd e, and ez are arbitrarily but this relationship offers

close to p

## sma1l; because of no difficulty.

e, depends on ry

We have that

xv-,*.f+ t #. *] } = ,
=n *to D

_*P .*._ p qo

## * =*oo,* tt - ?. rn",{- ro) 7

on the left-hand side of this

TJ

q

## x'olp - D I ' - ---;e_-- ' o '

"o

v'o

lq' - o I
'ot

+ _+

l. r-l

I I

ll

lezl
q

. * P o lp

* y q o lq - e o l * lr ll
Since this last expression tends to zero ,, this that

po tends to p, we can choose expression is less than d/2, Hence (4.2) holds for xP = yq. 5 will

last

we seek. if

## any p and q satisfying I{e remark that obviate

with equality

and only if

the powerful--and

urifying--resul-ts

in chapter

and irratlonal

-6 5 -

4;2.

## Hiilder's Inequa lit y .

Wit h t h e e s t a b lis h n e n t o f (4 . 2 ), v e

are now in a position to prove Hiilder's inequality in the form (4.3). ..., arr} and { b r, b 2 , . . . , b rr} b e t wo s e t s o f p o s it iv e n u n ^ 2, bers, and let p and q be real nunbers satisfying (4.f). Let us set L e t {^ L, A p=
... ., 4P n

"?r * "\ *

(4.7)
B q-

ol.ol.

...

.r 59 n

## so that 1nP1l/n 1na;l/c = AB. we also set

a, = A cr, bl = Ml , &2 = h c 2 t bZ = B d Z , ...,
a =Ac nn

=Bd

np= np"f *
so that ( 4.8)

lP c! + . . r +

tl . "! + "'

*cP=1 n

Si m i l arly,

(4 .e )

dl . d 2 . " '

*dQ=1 n

## By the use of (4.2) we have

- 66-

( 4 . 10 )

I I

"tbt

= A B (c rd r). < A B

## r{. ull q,) Ip

ull |,"l.qJ l.p

^ ZbZ=

A B (c rd r). < A B

ab nn

=AB(cd) -nn'

<AB

[\$ .\$ i
we obtaln the reault

If

## we add the n inequalities

of (4.10),

a rb r'+ a rb , + .,. *

otl "r r bn :

cP n

af.

. a;tl
-)'

and, by (4.8)

## and (4.9)1 we have

"lbl*^ZbZ*

+anb6 I

(i. AB +) = A B ,
(4 . 3 ). E q u a lit y h o ld s in (4 . 3)

## equality holds in each inequality of (4.10), whlch ylelds

the conditions (4.4). Renark. The inequality (3.f6) of Cauchy and Schwarz given in Chap-

ter 3 is a special case of Ht ild e rt s in e q u a lit y (4 . 3 ), wh e re p = 2 , e = 2 . Also, since our proof of Hiilderrs inequality above rlas based on the inequality between the arithmetic Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and geonetric neans, it follows that the between

## the arithsretic and geonetric means.

-6 7 -

4.5.

Minkowskits Inequ-ality.

## t b*)']"'i [-!,"i]r /2 . [*!,,*

which, in the case of triples {ar, ar, proved by neans ofanalyti"g"ot"tty. of this an d {by inequality b2,...,

[i q ) " '
\ k=l a, ,

and {b, , b2, br}, was easily ^j} l{e wish to prove a generalization "n} The

( 4 .11)

tr
i- =- l=

r /K = 5n . _
n a

t/K

and onty if

t4,L2)

bt

bz

^z

## the proof of (4.11) is a sinple application we se tP =K andq=K f=

o f Hd ld e r' s in e q u a t it y (4 . S ) ;
I

FT
that

, so that I *

= t.

T h u s , it

f o llo ws

* bi )^ = ,1,

vn

ar(a, +

## [,i, "*[,!,t" ""]

"* [,i,'r-] [,1,t"

-6 8 -

we have

,!r("t

* bi)K'

1

+ D.l L ')

..KI

\ - K -1 K
|

* o r ) *]

K -1 K

={[,], ',*]'/*.

[,!,

o.* I r)

## t' -)[ rl r,' ,

* b i )* ]t- i ,

or

t"' [ ,1, *
which is (4.11). directly

(n

t'* bi)* ]

## from (4.4) if we have simultaneously that .K "1 (* - l)1 t -(rl * or) ,K ol

= ... =

iI
I

l
I
I

ffi -n

a n

n.K D
n

I I

ry

ffi
bt

or,

since (K - 1)Kf = K,

and

"r *bl

b n ;-+ T-nn

E=
;!

"l

-6 9

real

consequence.

4.4.

( 4 . 13)

## r /q .,0, [ { )"o[ r ,1, ,1, ,g, ] 'l

by the equation 1l +

## where p and q are related

pq
If we setl/p=cand

= I.

1

.l1

and

na

( 4.14)

## o?'i o,]" ,1, 1 [,g, [,!,,,]u

for equality in (4.L4) now takes the form A .A ^ A
LZn LZn

The condition

(4.ls)

B ,B ^ B

= ... = _

suppose now that we are given three n-tuples of positive {Ar , "', A rr}, {t,,-..t B n } a n d t c r, -. . ,

numbers

i.:1

-7 0 -

expresslon

i= l

['t'*]'-o=

(Di)r-',

1= I

I l? nl-o 11

Az
A =- n D n

At

= = ... Dr Dz

8y

after observing

Yl -0

l,

## .r]-, I 1 i =l ']-c'r-c [,i,'r,|-[,i,

so that

| n

,= B . n

r=Y

l ii=l \
with equality only if

rn

B
Bl-0 i

## a, Jt- " .1 n t*-

r3r n

' \Y

rrl,tiJtr!,ttJ '

Bt

q
This inrplies, finally,
that

=, z n r=

B^B

=q'

-7 L -

(+. ro)

## ol'l .l I [,],o, [,g, ]u[,i,.,]' , ]" ,, ,1,

..., o r, ), { B r, ..., Bn}, {c, , Cn } a re sets. This form of Hiilderts inequality numbers{ x lm, nay be generalized X 2 m, " ' , * n ), re a l n u n b e r s

## to any number of n-tuples of positive

N, for any -s e t { o l, o , , a N} o f p o s it iv e ^=,r ,,,..., such that o1 * o2 + ... * = l, namely, t{ n ( 4 .L7) i=l

## ... r .li ,.13,.lil [r!,.,,J"'[rl, *rr]o'... .rn]h. [,i,

and the method of deriving (4.16) fron (4.14)

## The proof is by induction, nay be used.

we nay change (4.16) to a forn sinirar to (4.s) for certain applications. "r , t h a t , i f l /s = p , L /B = q , l/\ = r , *e haveA. = with S ta rti n g w i th (4 .16) , letusset Ol = ti = b, and CT = c i' "1, B, = bg, C, = r
so

"i-'

l. i *I ='.
firen (4.16) becones n f .arb,c. i!1 rrr ( 4.18)

## n 1 [,i,"lJ"n 'l ] llqr [,1, [,i, "i]

the n-tuples { af,

L/t

,t]l.

## ...,.l],{rl, .-. uf,], ana ,

change nay be effected
:i

...,

";l w i th (4.17).

are proportio n a l s e t s .

A sinilar

- 72-

Examp_le 1. Showthat

## Given nine positive

nunbers with

"lbl"r

tsbg"s ^zbz"z* =

l.

. " "i 1"1 "?t "3)3 . ul. ulltf . .l * "9., 1ui |.-3-ij |.#J [---#-J :1'
(4.18), have,since From we + " +* * = r,

## . c"i . ,l * "ltrtz (bi. a1, rltt/t r"i . .f . "ltt/6

.3 with equatityif andonly ir af , uf : .l = = t ,, V3, lo g "?, "l "l = x : y : t , s o r , e h e r e r /zyL ls " i. ( = s. Ra isin g * x both "! "!l of this inequality to the sixth power and dividing the desired inequality. l{e nay also generalize Minkowskifs inequality Let us take inequality (n (4.11), even nore easily.

, t " 36 = sides

by 56, we amive at

\i= I

II
if

(*i *

## urrr]l/r [ri,"f]t'*, [rl,,\$"* , :

a. ,i is constant)

with equality

and only if

to

. [ri, x)r/x
c. I
L)

II l \ i=

1n

(a . * b . *

t'*, *J "r,

rtr

- 73-

inequality

if

and only if

I 1.1

(4.le)

## r)l f p a.r /x + fl I ur))l l/ K * I t | [i=-t L) l1]1 ii

a.

(! lI tilr

t/*
r); "fl b. and f c.
I

, II (a. \ i= I
-1

(n

+ b.

*] t'u, "r,

## with equality if i sto sayal,blicl"a2

and only"if

I.

E: ]tbz

1S

constant

is constant, which

tz=

=a

nn

:b

cn.

This is

II I (xil \i=

* *i2 * ...

* *iN) *]t' * a

+ ...

.,*]"*' ['!,
xnl : xn2 :
: xnN'

## with equality if and only if xr, : x12 : ... r *lN

4.5. integral

The Int,egral Inequ-alities of Hiilder and lr{inkowski. We obrain analogues of the Hiitder and Minkowski inequalities in rnuchthe

## l{e follow rather closely the nethod of proof

o f th e inequality (4.3) in S e c t io n 4 . 1 a b o v e . Let f(x) and g(x) be continuous and non-negative on sone interval (4.1); we as-

a ( x < b, and let p and q be positive nunbers satisfying sune that neither of f(x) and g(x) is identicalty avoid proving a trivial result. Let us set

zero in order to

-7 4

J trc*llPa*= Ap
rb

rb

( 4.20)

JIer * llea*= B Q,

where neither of A and B is zero; the functions q [f(x)JP and [g (x) ] are continuous since f(x).and g(x) are. Let us set

( 4 .2L)

= F(x)+
G(x)=9;

## again, F(x) and G(x) are obviously = a rb a ,b^ J At[r(x)]Pd*,

.h

continuous. rb

Since

A P = J " I f ( x ) ] P d* =
a Sinilarly,

it

follows

that

t. J te C*llPd x=

J t c C *)l q d x= 1 .

Now

rb ;b x J f(*)g (x)d x = J A B F ( x ) c ( x ) d= A B J F (x )G (x )d x ,
fb

a

|.

Hence

## 1/n qnel 1/e, J f (x)e (x)d x < AB= qnPl

so that,

by the definitions

of A and B,

-7 5 -

(4,22,

## : , Uo,ro,,o]t' J'r,*,r(x)dx [{orro,rno.]t'n

[f(x)]P ir a nrultiple of [g(x)]q. t{e renark that (5.25) if

## to the Cauchy-Schrarz inequality

For three (or lnore) non-negative continuous functions f(x), h(x) on a < x < b, and for three positive o + B + y = l, it

g(x),

## numbers c, B, y such that

is an easy rnodification of the proof bf (4.16) to in its integral forrn rnay be written as

rb

( 4.23)

Jro gB nY a*

## sd ,.][{ " u *],

for the exercises (see Problern4.1).

## and we leave this nodi.fication three positive

For

numbers p, g, r with

t p
we also have the alternatlve for:m

G.24)

[I'

## lfe conclude this chapter with an integral inequalitri inequality. interval

as in the case of (4.11), the proof dependsupon Hiilder's Let f(x) and g(x) be continuous and non-negative on the We

## a ( x < b, and let K be a real nunber greater than 1.

-7 6 -

consider

the integral

1b J If( x) + g ( x ) l* u * ,

and write it
.h

in the forrn

I f(x)[f(x)
a

+ g (x) I K -t d*

. Ior(x)[r(x) + g (x ) l t -t
a

d*

## (K-r)*'o*]l/K' + s(x)] * Ijotr,.,]Ka*Jt'[Jo,r,*,

)1 . [j're(x),*]" +e( x) l ( X- 1) K'o*,,|/ x ' ' Ij0,r,,.,
where K' =
v

Ri-

so that

i.#=t.

If

we subsfitute

r-T

for

## Kr in this last expres-sion, we have

J tr ( * l + g 1 x)l K a x :

rb

so that

( 4 . 2 5)

I/K

## ' Iiot",.)]Ka* ]t",

-7 7 -

which is t he form of Minkowski ts inequality holds only if of (4. 25 ) that f(x) = ag(x). Note also that

## Equal ity consequence

rf b (4 .2 6) l j lf(x) + g(x) \a

+ h( x ) r * u, . j

L/x

## fo r three positive function s f (x ), f( x) = ag(x) = th(x),

g (x ), h (x ), wit h e q u a t it y if

fo r c o n s t a n t s o a n d B .

## P rove the inequality (4 . 2 4 ). Use Hiilderf s inequality to showt h a t , f o r p o s it iv e x , y , z ,

36

-'x

. r!*!*y

)t

(* 5 * y 5 *

" 5 ).

4 .4.

Showthat,

for positiv e X , L

z,

27

. : (1

- +- l

4.5.

## S uppose that, for x t -1, o is a rational Showthat

(t+x)a<l with equality
+ 0,xr

## nunbet s u c h t h a t 0 < c < 1 .

only for x = Q.

-7 8 -

4.6.

For x , -1, let a be a rational nunber greater than l, Show that (1+x )a > l+ c x , with equality for x = 0. a ) 0,

a > l.

4.7. '

use the result of Problen 4.6 to show that if 'c x ) 0, the nininun of the function *o assumedwhenx= (1)l-o . -ct-

s > l, and

=l_

"*

is (r - n) (3)"-1 and is

4.8,

For x t -1, lt a be a negative rational nunber. (l+x)a > l+ c D(, with equality only for x = 0.

Showthat

4.9.

Extend Problem 4.5 (and therefore problens 4.6 and 4.g) to the case that a is irrational numbers {rrr} such that ll1 rr n# by the use of a sequence of rational tr, = r.

4.10. For real nunbers x, d, c such that x ) 0, 4 > 0, o > I find the nininum value of the expressior *o 4.11. Use the identity
, l.t

"*.

"or2* showthatrfor0sxsnl},

## * sin5x > l/4,

for x = n/4.

-7 9

4 .L2 . llsing the ideas of Pro b le m4 . ll , s h o wt h a t r f o r 0 < x i t t lT , 3" cos -x + s in " x > L / n
with equality for x ' fi/4,

any real

number u > 2

## 0c find the ninimun value of cosx+stnx.

4.14. Let 0(x) be continuous and positive on a < x _1b, and let f(x) and g(x)be continuous and positive on a < x < b. prove the fol-

## t'o < Io.,*,g(x)g(x)dx jotrtr,]p o(x)axl [ [

where p aad q ar two positive 4.f5 . For a, b, c, positive, where n > 1.

0(x)a*]t'0, "lo,r(xrq

## numbers such tLat | * | = l. pq

f in d t h e ma x irn u n a lu e o f a x + b v

4-L6. Use the result of Problem 4.10 to prove the fundamental inequality (4.2) for real p and q s a t is f y in g 4.L7. Let p, g, r be rational x, y, z be positive.
xP Pqr

(4 . 1 ).

## lll nunbers such that -+-+-=

pqr

1, and let

prove that
yq ,'

- + 4 +-

xyz

with equality if

xP = yq = zT.

-8 0 -

4.18. Prove the following analogue of problem 4.14 for suns: .i {bl, (i = L, 2, ..., "', n ) b e p o s it iv e , a n d le t { a rr . . . ,

Let

a rr} a n d

a.b.c.
I 1 I

1=l

ap = -. n bq n

## with equality only if

_4=
uf
4 .1 9. s how that (x + 2y + 4 z ) + .
4 .2O . S howthat, for xr, .. . ,

?. h

2 4 9 , f o r x , r . z p o s it iv e .

x n p o s it iv e , 2
I
>

(xt

2x, + ..:

* 2n -1 x r, ) l,-L + +-

-xr

*2

&\ "tr+ -l

- D2

## s=r+?-. n+;. riT. r+=.

4 .22 . If a2 * b2 * c2 = l, s h o wt h a t

L+*C b
4.23 .' lf

o'
c+a

t2 ,
a+ b

>

" 2 -P ; 9

- 8t-

4.24.

Let f(x)

and g(x) be

functLons

Llp + l/q

show that

there

a eonstant

a \a /\a

## b rb 1 r / n 1 , b o . ll/ q I t edx < kf / rPa*; It s -oxl

4 . 2 5 . S u p p o e th a t f(x) a n d.f' ( x) ar e c' ontlnuous 05 x < eod thrr e for the tntegrars (x) lPdx and f lf {-lt'(x) lqax are flnlre, wherep
and q are poel.tive lntegral numbers nith f'(x), t/p + l/q - 1. t*g If f(x) f(x) ie the g. (See

of Lts derlvative

show rhar

4.26.

Let xrr

xrr

xn be poslttve

nu6ers.

zn

+ g) x'

: o 2 (o + 1 )2

4,27.

Ler xl,

',,t

*t

be posltive

nunbers.

Show that

rn

, nu(n r)6. +

-8 2 -

Chapter V.

Convexlty

## 5.1. lnterval two points I:

Convex Functlone.

be a functlsr

deflned

## has the property

thar,

( s . 1)
Ttten we shall that f(x) say that

uf-{--t1 . -1. 2 J:
f(x) is

r(xr) + r(xr)
2-.
t{e shall only that asaume throughout there are ftmctLone

## ts contLnuoug on r, pathologLcal tlhat (5.r)

of a rather satlsfy

nature

## on I and whlch tems is that,

(5.1).

saya in Lntuitlve

and geonetrlcal

between x, end xrr the graph of f(x) cannot lle above the chord Jolning the

a*1

nldpolnt

f(x,

If

## the Lneqtrality in (5.1) ls reversed, we shall call

Exanple 1. We have Co,nslder the functlon f(x)

## the functLo,n f(x) concave.

I:

= *2 on the intenral

--(s(o.

,[+] _[rr:n],,
", Chapter I that and for .lt and x, in I,

f( xr ) + f( xr ) 22

22 *1t*2

Lr ls an elementary

congequence of

(1 . 3 ) ln

-8 3 -

|.*r
so that (5.1) is fulfllIed,

* *z)2

t--T-J

22 a*t**, 2',
*2 is convex on I.

The function

f(x)

## = x is convex on the entire However, because equality x-axls.

x-axis

because tn (5.f),

for every x.

prevalls

## the function,tr It wllL

ls eleo conceve on the entire rrot be necessary to discuss observatl-on that, if f(x)

concave functlons is

aeparately is

because

of the sinple It

ls possibLe for

intenrals

x-axis

sLderations,

Example 3.

Ttre functLon I:

f(x)

that

0 < x S fi. x,

sLn x, * sln
t

. = sr-n

*1 **2 Z

that

## xI _x2 cos -]-

< I

sin x, * sl-n x,

2
*.t * *l

<sin ry,

- sin

z-

t-

/.6.ln

x, + sln

2l
-sin x satlsfies equivalently

-8 4 -

It every

is

clear

th a t

if

w e h / ere to

devi se

a method of

veri fyi ng of

(5.1)

fo r

given

function,

we should

be confronted

r4rith a variety

formidable

## each tailored of that

to a specific function

function

properties

to determine

the convexity

to establish

## The sirnplicity elementary notions

of our first

condition,

lead us to a plan of development for from the plans of the earlier the Lnequalities inequalitles give first independently

this

chapters.

## could be applied a sirnple crirerion

as well

as to sums.

be satisfled

(Theorern 5.1),

then proceed with a development of Jensenrs inequaLLty based on (5.1). THEOREM 5.1.
a non- neg a ti v e is convex on I.

Let f(x)

## be defined on rhe intervql

f" (x) everyrrrhere

I:

## a < x < b and have

s e c o n d d e ri v a ti v e

on a < x < b.

Then f(x)

P r oo f. B y T ay lor fs

## For any two points

th e o re m,

x, and x, in I,

rhe poinr

](x,

+ xr)

ts in I.

we have

f ( xr ) = r [+J *
w h e r e*r . L. i (" ,

["'-

_r.:l,,l 2
) - l2

.l[", +]",,,o,,,
+]2r,,{*r)

+ xr), a nd

r ( x r)=r[+]

*[*'-

* t * * r J * , [ 1t _2. }, L T * Tlz j- [ 2 2 )

-8 5 -

where f(xr)

|(x,

+ xr) .V 2.

*2.

and

## and dlvide by 2, we have

f(x,)+f(x^)
LL

2
Noll the negatLve second gLnce

= t[+J

## * St*, - *r)2[r"(:ir) + r"Gz)].

side of this so that last equatLon cannot

## term on the rlght-hand f"(x) > o by hypotheels,

'F#l u
whlch ls (5.1), so that Iile note, on I, aa a corollary ls then -f(x) 0f all convex, or, the crLteria I,

f(t)

+ f(xr)

the theoren is proved. to Ttreorem 5.1, equlvalently, that f(x) Lf f"(x) is ls never posl.tLve

## givl.ng sufffcient theoren 5.1 wl-ll

conditlona turn'out

## a second derlvatlve terested.

in whlch we shall

Ilowever, we gr.ve some er(ampleg to show the type of exceptlonal (5.r) but not possessing even a first f(x) = derlvative.

case satLsfying

Exanple 4.

The function

lxl

tffustrared

to

## at x = 0, yet hae the

any chord JotnLng two points on the graph cannot ao that the function

and xrrY2)

ll.e below the graph, satlsfles intultive Fig. 5.3 (5.1). feature

pro\re useful

ln the eequel:

For each x

-86-

in I, is,

## the graph of a convex function line which intersects

on I possesses a line

of support,

that

a straight

the graph of the funct.ion in one or of the graph lies below the line x, the for x # 0 of

no point

## rn the event that will be the line At the point

the graph has a tangent at the point of support, as in the case of line l"l

tangent line

## in Figure 5.3. origin will

x = Or any straight

y = mx through tire

be a line

I
I

that (5.1) ls

l,
tl l' tl ll tl

function.

It

is clear
f(x)

I
tr

sati sfi ed

and that

t r a*l*2"3*4b

.f

## possesses a line pointxinl:a(x<b.

of support at every

## Fig. 5.2. quite notion

5.4 The ideas behlnd Jensenrs inequality far-reaching, f(x), and are based solely

Jensenfs Inequality.

are

on the

( s.2 )
for

## f(ox, + (1 - o)xr) < o f (x r) + (1 - o )f (x r)

x,,x, on I and for any real number cr with O < o ( 1r must no w

any pair

be shovrn to follow

from (5.1) whenever f (x) is continuous. if ..., f(x) x' sarisfies in I, (5.1) in an interval I,

## We begin by showing rhat, then, for any n points *1 *2r

-8 7 -

(s . 3)
the lnequallty directly (5.3) Ls a useful tf forn of Jeneelts lnequallty, Zk. and folLons if

frorn (5.1)
2

n ls e power of 2, say n -

For exanple,

n = 4 = 2-, we have

tirf
we now proceed, by a forn holde for any positlve let

## (xr) + r(xr) + r(xl) + r(xo)1.

prLnclple*,

of the iaductlon n.

to ahow thet

(j.3) poelof 2,

iategcr

## Suppose nor that lnteger such that

n le aa arbLtrary n * u ls e porer

tLve lnteger;

## n be a pouitlve firen, for

say, n + n - 2J.

any polnt 1

xo ln Ir

'I
If

xtf

:"*xrr*nn^1

n +m -J
*(*,
g o r.

sfrir ( x t )

+ . . . + f (x rr) + n f (x o )).
lles in I, whence

xo =

* x, *

...

* xo f

* (* ,

...

+ xrr)

m*n

* Ttre foru

of the prlnclple

that

ne uae for

to as ploof

## by backlrard tnduciio,n, Pr, ls true for

the proof , soretluee ref erred proceeds by ehowing flrst thet a sequence many lndlces We obeerve that n and then that we have already the es-

of proposltlons truth

lnflnltely of Po-1.

tabltshed

for

inflnltely

## nany valuee of n, namely, the

powera of 2.

-8 8 -

shlch reduces to (5.3). Now (5.2) lndeed, lf follows easily for any ratlonaL value of a Ln 0 < c < 1; integers wlth r s e, then

d = r/s,

.l

## _ .__1' r(v 'r +

(s - r) s

,r*") _. cf(xr) z- I.

+ (1 - c)f(xr).

## l{e renark be en arlltrary polnte Ln r.

that real

we have not yet used the contlnuity nunber wl.rh 0 s a S L, and let

of f(x).

Now let

## a pal'r of nr.urbers xlrxo

in r such that

1.e.,

( s.4 )

f(cox, + (1 - cro)xr) t oof(xr) + (t - ao) f.(xr). there must exist an lnterval J about the point

By continulty \

(s.5 )

## f(x) > aof(xr) + (1 - a o )f (x r).

between the two sLdes of (5.4),

## Let d > 0 be the dtfference

1..,

(s.6 )

f(cox, + (1 - co)xr) - o o f (* f )
xl as close to xl as ne please, to cto as we please,

(1 - c ro )f (x r) = d > 0 .
xj as eLose to x2 as lre pl-ease, so that

## IJe nay find and rat,lonal

ct as close

-8 9 -

!'*
whence f (X')

c'*i * (1 - o ' ) *i

oo*1 * ( 1 - oo) x2 = \
of inplies

,
thar

= f (4).

## Now (5.25 wtrh rational

(s .7)
and (5.4) lnplfes

## f (I') S o'f ( x i) + ( t - o ' ) f ( x i)

that

-f(Io ) I -oof( *r )
whence

tt - oo) f( xr ) ,

lr(x') - r(4)l = lo'r("i) + (r - o')r(xi) - oof(*r) (r - oo)r(xz)l s a'lrr*i) - r(xr)l * tr - a')le<xi) r(xz)l * lo'- ool(lr(xr)l* lr(xr)l) s lrtxi) - r(*r)l+ lr(xl) - t(xz) lo,- ooll[rrxr)l+ lr(xr)l). l+
Each of the three ter:ns ln the Last llne of thls *L, laet inequalLty this can be nade

cholces of xl,

and ot;

## are l-n contradLction,

so that

(5.2)

hotds for

aln0<c<1. Let us say brlefly lty does not lnclude of the function what we have shorm. Ttre definitlon (5.f) of convexthe

value

## x, and x2 cannot x, and xr.

exceed the average of the values Ihe property (xrrf(xr)) lf (5.2), on the other lte

## and (x1f(xr)) asrsumesall

above the graph of the curve between x, and x, rn thls latter case, is

a in (5.2)

(5.1)

of f(x)

## also an elementary consequence.

However, without

of f(x),

-9 0 -

lre can prove no more than (5.2) this result. Let us proceed dlrectly

for ratlonal

c;

(5.3)

Ls a speclal

caee of

to the prlncLpal

lnequality

of thle

chapter.

## THEOREM 5.2. deflaed for

(Jensenf 6 Inequallty) r:

## Let f (x) be a conrl.nqogs fqnctlon f(x) sartdfy (5.1) i-rr r. on Then,

ln the lntewaL *2

any tl,

r xr,ln

(5.A)

t' Irlrot*t.;
(5.g) E \ -

'\ I

1-1

at f(*r)

'

*z

"'

- x_r aE if ;

Proof. f(x)

(5.9)

## Ln the case that f(x) ts llnear be-

ts lLnear

or nore precleely,

anil largeet

rndeed, for

## ( 5 . g ) g ( X crxr) -A (E crxr) +B - A( Xor xr ) + B( Ial) - Xor ( A:r t+ B)

wtrich sholrs that functlon g(x). ln the case that f(x) ls not a llnear functlon, equality prevails i. (5.g) whenever f(x)

- f,cr r g ( x r ) ,

Ls the llnear

lre prok,

## (5.8) holds for n - L,2r..., \, *k+t

...,

on r and k + I posltlve

numbers orr

## * ok * ok+1 - l. "we have

-9 1

k+L
L- l^I

.l -orf(x r)=(1

-% * r )

1-1
frmr the lnductlon

Sl'nce

(s.10)

,1,Ffr

o,

ot

'

(5.11)

## *rj * or*r r(*t*r)

' tlrlr"t*tJ'
SLnce (5.8) holdg for, n (5.8) - 1 and n - 2, the x, are equal, then equallty (5.8), clearly then, lf holds now follows ln (5.8). for rf, all n. If all

1k+1

.r

## hand, equal.Lty holds tn have equaLitl x, ...

we retrace

our induction

= *n rrp to (5.10).

wtrence lt

follows

that

*i

= ...

- xk - *k+t.

## Conne glven by (S.8) allows

. ue another unlfLed

of the preeeding

ctrapters.

the lnequallty

-9 2 -

to derlve

## nany of the prlnclpal lt

lnequalLties.

Ae we mentl,oned Ln the

## rntroductlon, matheftrtl"cal lnsight,

ls not wLse to abandon the many approaches to a glven for one then loses both lntuLtion LnequalltLes treated and in this

problem or concept,

## inequalltles. in the forn of exereLses, how

show, nostly

Jensenrs inequality

## nay be used. = l*|

ExanpLe 6. I: -6 ( x ( -, -

f(x)

r"

0 ( x <

## and y = -x for -@< xS0. fotm (5.3), shows thar

Jensenrs lnequallty

the sinplest

t,lr'rl*il' lrlr"r*rl
ln

n 1=1

## l I* ., rL=l Equallty for holds only lf all

l"i I
are the sane, or, all the xi lie and this shows the need of

the xi lf

the condLtlon

of lLnearlty,

## the two linear

pleces

of the graph of

l"l.
=*Pfo.0<x(-r ls p )0, wemust

ExaTple 7. distlnguish

## For the functionf(x)

two cases, p > 1 where f(x) is concave (lf The slnple forn

## 0 < p < 1 where f(x) nothing that to prove).

p = 1, f(x) (5.3)

of Jensenfe lnequaltty

- 93-

( 5.12 ) and

P>l-'

(s.1 3 )

r
only lf
t.....-t

1+

... + x \ D o l'
)... = *oi

*[.i.
thls

..

..

{],

o<P<1,

rtlth

equallty

x, -

ls a stronger

result

than that

( 5. 1 4 )

rx- t I r

* x rD nl'

I
only if

n
x, a ...

)a xn.

*["]

"'

**:],

P<0t

with

equaltty

For p

- -1r

## (5.14) glvee us the

lnequalLty Sectlon 3.

## between the ar{thnetlc If we apply the firll

and harmonle means dLecuesed ln Ghapter 2, force of Jengenrs lnequality three Lnequalitles (5.8), for we have a,

posltive

( s .ls )

[,i,"*J' ,lr"'*l
[,if,.J' ,lro'*l
n n

p>0,

xl. : o;

(s.16)

0<p<

1,

*i t

( s.1 7 )

[rlr'*']'
only tf x, a ...

,lrot*l
r x. n

p<0,

*i t ot

wlth equallty

\;

-9 4 -

Exercises

5.1.

the funetl.on

f(x)

aa nod{fled

## between the arlthmetlc

( 5 .18 )

(xrx, . r. -*o)t/o.*1

**2*"'**o

5.2.

## If a1r ...r *1, "', ylelds

I, and if. rlrcl x, are poeitlve nunbere, show ttiat (5.g), apprled to log x,

## oo are poeLtlve numberssueh ttrat

( s.t 9 )
(lhts

ala2 *L *2 lnequallty

'"

## % xn S o 1 * 1 * o 2 * Z + . . . o o " o . calred the raaighted forn of the and geometrlc meane.)

p and q are poeltlve tn problem 5.2 lnplies

Ls frequenrly

lnequallty 5 .3.

and lf (5.19)

nuders

such that

(4 .2) of Chap-

## ter 4, namely, ( 5 .20 )

__p __q **., < + Y' r ^'=p'o tool ln the proof of [iilderrs laequaltty.

5,4.

## of Problen 5.3 to the case of n poeltLve

nunbers
nl

* 1 , ...r so that

pn such that

* i, i-

t,

(s.2 1 )

-P r

< -3 -+ s +

*it . *;'
Po

.n

Pn
n

-9 5 -

5.5.

show that,

for

5.6.

of the precedlng

problen pr,

Let numbers

numbers, let

...,

such that

(s.2 2)

## (nt*t + . . . * orr*,r)p1"1r'''*p"1"s *P1*1 ...

a > 1 and B > 1, show that

5.7.

If

oG sGs te'-#)
5.8. Ict xrr xrr ".r xn be posltlve . numbers lees than ?r. (x- + '.. Show that

sln x, stn x,

f x r

5.9.

resuLt.

Let

## a < x < b, and Iet

*D be n polnts

f (xr)f (xr)
or, what Ls the sane thl.ng, f( x r), ... r f(xo)

f ( xr r ) S
that

[f

ill",
value of the arithextended? be further

"
mean of the values

the gemetric

does not exceed the functlonal ..., xn. Can thls inequality

-96-

## s . 1 0 . For p > 1 and q > L wlth l/p + Llq=

lnverse funetLon of f(x) - *P-1 for

## 1, show rhat g(y) x > 0, y > 0. If

yq-l

ie the

A1 ie the area

between the graph of the curve and the x-axl.e between 0 < x a a, aqd Lf Az ls the area between the graph of the curve and the y-a:d.a be-

tweeo0<y<brshowthat

ab< Ar-*o, =
wlth equallty tf aad only if

rP

t- ,
Note that thls glves another

bq

aP - b9.

proof of (4.2)

tn Chapter 4.

5.11 .

Develop the Ldea of Problen 5.10 in the foLlolrlng f(0) f(xr) - 0, be a contl.nuous increaslng < f(xo) for x., ( x,,, so that function f(x)

way.

Ler y

f(x), Ls,

of x for

x _z 0, that

Lz LZ

## hae an Lnveree functiqr

\-,

x - g(y), g(0) a 0, deflned on eone interval 0 < y < Ior where yo *y be :to. Define A, and A, as or f(x)dx, Az g(y)dy, and prove - {" f that

## S Ar * A2 - J f(x)dx + J g(y)dy, "5 oo

rl.th equaltty only lf b - f(a). The result is often called youagfe

:lb

inequallty.

5. L2.

S ho d th a t,

fo r

## 0 S x < 1, ?T ;X < XS 1n z_1

**R
*5** oa xi0. Evaluate

5.13.

Let x-

rhe lnres:*.t

f,z 8(r)dy.

.:

-9 7 -

5.L4.

## Use the fact for positive

that

f(x)

= log(1 + x) is concave on x > 0 to show t hat, dZ, "', dn, + ar) .ir (r + an)' .. ^2r " "rr.
s hor , r

numbers al,

## mean of the numbers arr

5. 15.

Us e th e t h a t, fo r

fa c t

th a t

f(x )

= 1og(1 + .I)

is ...,

convex 4n,

on -co ( x ( 6 to

p o s i ti v e

n u mbers al , & 2,

(1 + ar) (1 + a r)
wh e re g is th e g e o me tri c mean of the

(1 + a rr) > (1 + g )t ,
numbers a1r "', ^2,

" r,.

5.16.

"',

ao and br,

"',

numbers.

k=lK

k= l K k= I

5,L7.

ao and brr

"',

numbers, and

## B" be the geometric mean of ar, "', bo. Show that

r rn (9" *, Bb)'^ .

of br,

(.t

+ br)(a,

+ b)

(ar, * brr).

5.18.

f(0)

furtction

of x for of

inverse

function

## 0 < y < yo.

p(x,y),

and q(x,y)

be non-negative Show

functions that, if

6p = pdx + qdy.

= 0 and.t*, ,a1b

p (a ,b ) s

oo

-98-

5.1-9.

Ict

y = f(x),

f(0)

function

of x for

## x = g(y) be the inverse Rotate thecurvey= of rotatLon

of f(x),

as deeerrbed 0andxa

betweenx=

a solld

## 0 and y = b to obtaln fe y. Show that

of rotation

of volune V- whose

centrotd

## I"'o ' . iu* * f v y *

5.4. Inequall'tles for a triangle. One of the most Lntereeting the derLvation of certaln

ele-

If

xr,

t2, x, f

co'ncave for

## 0 < x < Tr, so that

xrfxr*

"1"I
if x, = *2 = xr, 1.e.,

3l

]t"in

## x, * sin x, * sin xr).

* x^t1^1

l l e n c e ,sl n xa * sl ,n x, * si n *3.3

"t"F

#)'

trlangre. But

## *1 f *2 * *3 - r' 3 sin Tt/3 - 36

so that 12.

case of a rnaxlmun--givee

the value

-9 9 -

rf ry2. expresslon

*1,

*2,

Problem 5.9,

## stn x, sin x, eln x, <

with equallty, and therefore

"t "1o3

* *f * *1

klnd,

lt

Lnvolved;

rf

*1,

*2'

ao that,

to restrlct

the trlangle

we have

1 < j(tan

wlth equallty

onl,y for

only for

the equllateral

trlangle,

36.

-1 0 0 -

Exercl,eee

n'

## mlnlmrm of the expreesLon glven, and lndlcate

osy be neceasary. (a) (b) (c) (d) coa xl + cos x, * cos xr. coe xl tan xl sec xl cos x2 cos x3. tan x2 ten x3. * sec x, f edb xr.

(e)

## tan xr/2 + tatr xrlz + tar. xrl2.

5.5. propertLeg

Ftrrther

DgvaloF@te. cdrvex

Wc wlch functLon8

to point ntrlch

out sme

geoetrlcel

of contlnuous

relnforce

our fntultl.on

ftre requlte

we obtatn,

ag well

## of the way ln wtrlch real

fuuctlons

treated. we returrr three polnts to the georetry of Flgure 5.1 and let If xl, *2, *3 be any

of I euch that
x a -x l

x, . *2 . *3.
xt-xr

## we uae the ldentlty

;^ - #*z x3-xl
where o1 * o2. functlon f(x)

1*

x3 -x l

x^ J

## 1, then Jensenfs inegualtty ylelds

r(x2) "ffit(1).ffir(xg)
or, after nultlplylag by x3 - *1,

-1 0 1 -

( 5.23 )

## (x3 - xr)f(xr) < (x3 - *2) f (xr) + (x 2 - * t )f (x r).

If we subtract (x

I - *t)f(xr)

## (xl - *r)(f(xz) - f (x r)) or

f(xr) - f( xr ) *2 - *1
If noy we subtract

f (x r)

- f (x r) * 3 -* L

(x3

xr)f(xr)

(x:

## xr)(f(xr) - f( x3) ) < (x 2 - * t )(f (x f )

f(x r) - f ( x r ) s f ( x r ) - f ( x r )
*3-o 1
and 1f re conbLne the two lnequalLtles

*3- *2
involvLng

'
guotlents, we heve

(5.24)

f(xr) _ t(ltl
x24

f(xr) - f(*r)
* 3 -* 1

*1

f(xr) - f(xe)

If

we lnterpret

(5.24)

geometrlthat

cally,

I
I I
I

(5.24)

statetEat

xt

i-r!
t'zJ

ta

I I
xl x^

held ftxed,

-L 0 2 -

that

increasing

function

must tend to

Let us write as

## x, and Ax = x, - x, > 0; then (5.24) rnay be

f( xr ) - f( xr ) *3- *1
where ing s ide. the left-hand of side is, is as we have remarked bounded by the flxed

a monotonically quantity

increas-

functlon Hence

Ax which

on the right-hand

f(x)

- !(x Ax

- Ax)

is

the so-called

f (x) at x.

fashion

the linrlt

## ,. Ax+o exi-sts at the point f(x) at x. x; this

f(x+Ax)-f(x) ax

(Ax > 0)

is

the so-called

righr-hand result.

derivative

fl(x)

of

THEOREM 5.3.
I: a <x<b at

## A continuous conyex function

deri vati ve f' (x)

f(x)

in an interval
deri vati ve

h a s a l e ft-h a n d

and a ri ght-hand

r l (x)
T

each point

of a < x < b.

Furthermore_, f t(x)
a ( x ( br = ff(x) .

< ff(x).

i f,

at

## a poi nt f ' (x)

x in

ft(x)

= f](x),

then

f(x)

at x , w i th

= f ' (x)

Our observation
suggests t hen ( 5. 24) f or that

concerning

## the slopes of the chords in Figure from (5.24).

5.5 *Zi

we may obtain

Let *L.

s u ffi c l e n tl v

snall

## Ax > 0 we have x, * Ax < x, - Ax, so that

frorn

we have

-1 0 3 -

f(xr+A x)-f(x r) Ax
I n' t he limit a s Ax -+ 0 w e th en have

f (x r)

- f (x 2 - A x ) Ax

r l( x r ) < f ' ( x r ) ,
and, since f'(xr) shows that
The right-hand non-decreasing is tru e of th e

< fl(xr)n

we have fl(xr)

< ff(xr)

whenever *1.

*2, which

derivative
fu n cti on l e ft -hand th e facts of

f I (x) is a monotonically T
x i n -a (

## x < b; the same f r(x) .

in the di scrrssi on above i n t he

## deri vati ve obtai ned

We s u m m a ri z e s o m e o f form of a th e o re m.

THEOREM 5.4.
l_n I: a- line L.

## the graph of a continuous funcrion

f(x)

satisfying xo in I;

(5.1) is,

tha!

below

for

coi.ncide with

whenever that

derivative

Exercises

.2L.

condition

that

## for any three points that x, < x, ( xrr

in the intervall:a(x<bsuch

-1 0 4 -

*r. f (xr)
*2 *3

t 1 I > 0.

t(xr) f(xr)

5.22.

the rlght-hand

and left-harrd

fi(x)

ls continuous

and that

5.23.

Show that

# fi(x)

ie denumerable.

## ln nany contexta. of the theory generalizatlon

of convex--and

concave--functlone

can lead to a

## of Jeneenfs theorem. and non-negatlve for a 1i x < b. Then

Let f(x)

be contlnuous

( s.2 5 )

b-a

Iororf(x )d x < lo s [ - * a
for f (x) constant. l-t frm

, f ,,.,u-]
I,Ie reproduce the slnple claesl-cal of. convex - n, of vLew of the theory and then rrlte

with proof

equallty

only

Ln order

to analyze

functlons.
t

FLrst,

g(x) - f(x)

so that

{"

S(x) = O.

b-a

## tb 1 J 1og f(x)d x = b -"

I -- b-a

1b J lo g (n + g (x ))d x
a

-1 0 5 -

If

we apply

## to the 1a8t term the lnequality

( s.2 6 )
with equallty only for t

log (1 + t )< r,
0, we have

rfb . lfb tP ." < b - a l-t"t r(x)dx los' + #; lIt P ) - los n - loe{5ft- J r(x)axJ,
h

slnce

{-

e(x)dx'

O.

Equallty

holds only if

g(x)

0, that

ie,

only if

f(x)

ls the constent m. ltre analysla we observe that tloo y of the proof (5.26, turns on the alnple than the fact inequelity that (5.2d), ead

le nothing

rore

1og(1 + t)

has a line

of support -

## log(1 + t) tangent tlon that

hae derivatlve y - r,

1 at t

0, the line

ltne

and t\e

Lnequaltty + t) lles

1og(1 + t)

< t ls elnply

the aaeery - t.

of eupport

lr

Lern=

slnce F(y)

vtll M guch

## have a llue thet, for

that '

La, there

1111 exlat

a nuder

y deecrLbed above,

( 5 :27 )

r(y) < F( n) + u( y - n) .
(5.27, and dlvlde by b - a, we have

If

we lotegrate

-1 0 6 -

F(u) +

vP fr

J 8(x)ax- F(n).
theoren, Ln the

## I{e state forq

our reaultr

wtllch lc an lntegral

form of Jelrcente

of a ttreorcn.

Let f(x)

## be eonrtnuous gg e < x ( br aad let such that F(f(x)) la deflpd

F b-e a

concave functloa,

oo a < x < b.

(s.28) r+
If F 1g convcx,

fr.r.*r)dx< r[*
a thcn

. Jor<*lu*J

(s.zs, r*
Equallty

## > . f.,r,o)dx r[+= fr,.,u.J

f(x) is coostant.

holde onLv lf

f-n

be coatlnuoue

and poeLtlve

in the dlee

strow that

II

## t" r(x'v)dxdv <lost# r(x'v)'r'dv] ' 11

- s - lSOLUTIONS Chapter I

1.1.

If

we dl.vlde both sides of (L.Z) by 2 and add ("2 + Az)lt, to both we obtaLn * b2 , * b2 * ab "2 ra.1 !)2

sldee,

^2 T.T

-T=

l- - ) ,

yields

(1.3).

## sLnce equaltty true in (1.3).

a = br the same is

L.2.

(a)

I,le have (
I

## (2a - b - c)2 > o

(2b-c -a )2 ro
(2c-a-b)'20r holdlng a +b, everynrtrere if and only If tf 2a b * c,

t,
t

wl.th equallty

2b n e * a, 2clnequalltles,

or a - b - c.

## we expand these of the forn

we obtaln

three inequallttes

4"2 * b2 + c2 2 4ab r 4ca - 2bc. Then addlng the three by 6 glves (1.5). inequalltles thus obtalned and d1vldlng

(b)

We have

^2 -2 ^.+.2

= ( a- r .l2>( T) 2 = 1( a - b) + ( b - c) f '2
-ab+bc-ac -b2,

> G - b) ( b - c )

tr t

a'+b'+c'2abfbc+ca,

## - s- 2 lrlth eque[ty or a - b - c. L.3. B y (1.6) ana (1.1), w e h a v e

\-/:

if

and only if

a : e = 0 and a _ ! c b _ c,

"3

* b3 + c3 >

"b

+ ca6

""(gji)

## 312+ + @a) 312, - ( 6s7312 ( ca)

with equaUty lf and onLy if a - b - c. tng ,312, b312, .312 fo, a,b,c

Alternatlvely, ln if (1.5)

and onry if

1.4.

## The proof onlylfa-b-c.

ls stralghtfomard

1.5.

If

we nultlply

the three

inequalltles

arb
whtch cme frm

> zffi,
(1.1),

b r c > z{fr,
we obtaln

c *a > 2fi:a,
Equallty holda

## the deslred result.

lfandonlylfa-brc.

1.5.

Flrgt

Fron Bxerciee

1.4,

we have

## rb + + uc1-2-Jc1 r ^^ f9l_e1 + ca(-fJ by Zlabe glves

> 3abc.
reeult, wlrh equallty

ltulttplytng

thls

the deelred

lfandonlylfa-b-c.

Second eolutlon.

Notice

that

by (1.1),

for

all

x >. 0,

x+ l> 2,

-s-3-

nlth

equaUty

if

and only if

x = 1.

Therefore

## +*+*gFwlth equallty if Third Solutlon.

(i.fl * L!*os)("L+oe) + 2 6,
and only Lf 3 - : - * - 1, or a - b - c. and then the inequall.ty We have We shall_ use (1.1)

"l"b

## :' rZ6+2lfi-rcn)6 C -tT

t,-6-

>z.4\$s..F'l]-t3- 6.
L ,7. Multiply the fr.rst rnequarlty tn (r.4) by c2, the eecond by by b2. upon addltlon of thege new lnequarltlee end the third "2, and

dlvisLon by 2, the deetred reeult r.c obtalned. andonlylfa-b.e. 1.9. Flrst solutlon.

Equality holde lf

in probla

1.7

## gLves thls lnequality.

seco'nd solutlon. have SL * !" (see the second solutr.on of problen

r.6).

we

;-;* T

. c8

## wlth equaHty lf 1.9.

and only lf

a - b - c.

As we sau ln gxanpre 2, a3 + b3 > ab(a t b), wrth equalr.ty tf and only lf a ' b. rf we n'rtlply thle by 3 and add a3 * b3, we obtain
.. ? ? 4(a' + b-) Renark.

dB deelred.

## I{e have shown that

a3 +u3 = (. t u ) 3 ( + ) , -

G * b ) > a b ( a+ b ) ,

-s-4-

using (1.1).

etronger

## than the one we began wlth.

1.10. (a) By (1.1), we have

( 1)

f f i' r G + c )(b + d )
holdlng if and otrly if

,
a f c-bid.
at Ifwe the deel.red

wLth equellty

## take the squere root and dlvlde by 2, ne arrlve lnequallty. (b)

rn (1) above, tre grouped a * b * c * d as (a + c) + (b + d). If we lnetead group it and use elmilar lnequalltles
?t

## as (a + b) + (c * d) or (a + d) + (b + c) then additlon of theee three

lnequalltlce,

gives
> 2(ab f bc * cd f da f ac f bd), lf a * c - b + d, a + b - c * d,, Now dlvldlng ineguallty. by 12 and

f,(a ltlth

+ b t c + d)tf

equaUty

and only

## r b and a + d - b f c, or a - c - d. taklng square roota glvee the deelred

1.11.

suppoee that the sequeneesare r.ncreaer.ng. then {brcrrbrcr} aleo increasing; note that positlvlty generally. Ttrus (1.7) glves

te

Applylng

(1.7)

that

+ lf

we get

## the deelred b1"1 - b2.2, ls true lf

lnequallty. and b,

holde It

a1 r a2 or thle

- b, ot "l all

- "2.

eeen that

and only lf

## {u rru r}, {c'cr}

i s consr ant.

I
_s_5_

1.12.

The generallzatlon

I I

## a11e2r"'anl a*arr"'ao, I --l-T)tT-J , ['{u1 2

elth stant equaltty tf and only tf all (see Exerclse

ftt
'l

## ..}3]... ...t-t-J r."{5al. .

I I

I
but one of the Bequencea Lg couproof, in fact, of a more general 1.24 for a full

-l

tnequallty). have

Therefore, if

arbrxlr"'rro

are po'ltrvc

cumbere, we

I I I

a-r'-'ts n+bFl

It*"'fU-

## ..f"\*] -t--J ."'t--J

lrrl

l-

I I
: il
il

L e t t ln g I , - r - . . . rU' n - 1 an d

rl I l i

I I iI

a f&-b"lr/o,'T'* b

f-7-l

rl

bv a and laplt

## bv b. rrrenbv the pre-

'l iI

.6* b 6={ t . * u) 6- #, J 3
2'
wlth equauty lf and only lf a - b. rn 0 s t s 1, thls 1g equlva-

I I

I
tl

rl

## leattoL-t2-2t,ortrfr-t 1.14. It follorr frm probleu 1.12 that

il

| I

iI

T .t_ _ _ z _ J
with equaHty lf and mly if

a - b.

- i ,.

:I I

ll
ll

l
ll
I

I I

;l ;l

rl 'I

'l I

-s-6-

1.15.

## UeLug problenr L;L2, we have

1 + tan80 = 14 + (t"rr20)4 t except wlrere 1 - tan20, or 0 - nl4 1.15. rn the second ineqtiality

*<t 2'

+ tan2e)4

- \$ "."80,

## of the eolutlon to Exercrse 1.12. ret

n - 3 and U, - 1, !2. - 2, lr3 - 3. Ttre deal.red reEult folloss {mnediately. I{e have equallty lf and only lf a - b.
1.17. Let d //x'+ yt be the dlstance frm the orr.gfn to a polnt on

th llne.

Ttrenby (1.3),

d >#r-*,
trfth equaltty !t:( y - 3lz. That is, the nr.nlnr.n dlgtance ls 3ltz.

AzfrzF

at x - y - al4.

ln the text

"L - "2or

## b, - b2. proceedlng wlth the ergument

wlth the oppoelte lnequality slgn.

ehons that

we get (1.7)

L .20 ,

(a)

rf d - /*2 * f;7
on the plane,

## is the dlgrance frm

we have

the orlgrn

ro a polnt

thea by (1.12)

u 2 r(x+v+ z) 2- 25
rrlth equallty at -'7, y x z - Slj. The nlnlnun dletance Ls

therefore

516.

-s-7-

(b)

twlce:

## ,2, (x + I + z)2= <G* E* G>a__ 4

The nlnimum dLetance ie thue a136, L.zL. the lnequaltty (1.12) y1elda achleved at x - y - z clg.

r(x,y)\$["r"2* = . [#]'
- t' ' 1'

"o,r*.[j?J' .o"rl
'"o.r* - (-2r")'"o"r* LtY'

ft" roz"+cos2x)'-t,

wl.th equallty ri md only 1f eln2x tf=41 orel n* '* , c o' * - f tvrr- y n-\.*'{5 L.22. If we apply (1..12), roe obtaln \ f (x) >
1 7 rn

itr '

+ c o s ' x + s in a x )a

## However, 413 te not the mLnlnumvalue of f(x)

. sln x, whlch le inpoeslble. requl.re 1 - coe x Tttl's exmple should aerve to forewarn the reader that in looklng for extrema by uslng fnequallties, lty L.23. ls actually attalned. '.., bo} be two increaelag sequenceg one must be Bure that equal-

Let {ar,

"',

## t < J, - bJ) > 0,

" l b i r" JbJ=tr o,*"Jb, If ne sun all such inequalLtles and then add n a,b, to both sldee E
l rl rr

of the reeultlng

lnequalltyr

rre obtaln

-s-8-

I tro, = L -l .f,qrb,,f. J -l t- r1
2
clearly

nn

## [,!, [,1,"J 'J

Convereely, lf equality In (1) for alL l < J. Therefore "1 - "r, one of the

## then equality holds for

equality

i = 1 and J - n.

or b, = b_, but slnce each sequence ls monotontc, Jngequences rnust be constant. If stlll the ttro Bequencee lrere both decreaeing, Bo that (1.11) ls valld. If

hoId,

## the othepLe so that

decreaslng, ls valld

(1.11)

L.24,

{arr,

...,

## creaslng) sequencesof posltive numbersfor 1. 1, ..., (1)

n a .1 I irrl, r,.I,..J It -l
lf and only lf

rn m nmm.n
IF

> II r I n o
,-r t=l

rl Jlt "tJ

trlr"*ljr_l

=

(2 )

J'l

if; 1-1

ttj

P -l

lf r

fP-l

In

trlr"rrir-,

or t"o,)|-,

r" consretrt.
i" llr"n:

## [* ]i."J[* = *,1,.,,) ,i, ,i,r,]t:rl F,i,r,]

_ II + tr.*. , n a: 1-1
Jlr wlth equallty 1 - 1, ...r lf and only tf all are conctant. bur oae of the Bequenccs t.rr)|-r, Conblning thla wlth (2) ylelds coodltlon. p - l,
prtl

(1), together wl.th ih. ptop"r equality L.25, t{lthout lose of generalltrr (othernlse, s)tmetrlc). rye sinply

## ! aay aasrse that ths

relaber

= = ... s 8n "L "2 errd note that the reeurt Le of Chebyshevfs lnequaltty

## glven ln Exerclee L.24,

where r*e have let all followg. Eenark. L.26. Flrst solutlon.

## ttrus the reault

Thre reeurt w111 be generalrzed in chapter 5. Let x > y and z < (1 + ,o)t,
n

ylx.

that (1 + ,t)t

o"

nlrtl'

"*.Aq, "*

- s-10 -

slde contaln

on the left.

Second eolutloa.

(t)n

(IJt

t.

Then slnce

## x,y ) 0, werravelfyn . (rJo . t, ttlt . <"J" . 1, and

ttoJt* t?'t".
uulttplylnB L.27.

## 1t + xr)... (1 + xo) ,z JfL)..

* 1 -...rx o t1 .

. (2Fn)

1.28.

By the

aame method

as ln

the

precedlng

problem

we have

## (*1 + *p1)... * *oo)> (2/6F;).'..12ffiJ (*o

Equallty holds for x, t ... = xo - 1.

- 2n.

L ,29 .

(a)

(b)

Let xy' x - y.

## Thue the nLnlmun value of x + y ls achleved when

x - y (- lf).
(e)

The proof ls the aame aa ln part (a), exeept Ehat ne uae the Lnequallty Oitg of (1.1). = 3tffi of Exerclge 1.4 ln place

s-11 -

Remark.

Parts

## (a) and (b) are referred (c).

to as dual properties.

## 1.30. To maxlnlr" *ffi

Regardlng *2(to constant, - *2)

,t

to naximlze a product

lts

square, *2(t6

- *2).

of two factors

whose sum ls

## the maxlmum occurs,

by Exercise L.29(a),

## ,nhao *2 = lb - *2 or. * = ZfZ. then 8.

Alternatlvely, we could

## The maxlmum value

or * R

have u s e d (1 . 1 ) d ire c t ly :

x{L6 - x' =

t-

= *2 t( tg - *2 ) - r . -2
the same solutLon, ae Ln the By

1.31.

only one.

## = Ktlz ft*trrylti)l = *(=Ilgit

wlth equaHty tf and only lf x = 2y - J2(= 2),

= L, ,
or * = 2, I - l,

z = 213.
1.3i. Let x,yrz tex. be the lengths of the edges emanatlng from a flxed By ver-

1.33.

rf

xryrz

problen, zx).

## and the surface whlch naxlmize

area Ls 2(xy + yz *

v also maxlmize v2 (xy) (yz'l kx). tn v2 being a constant, - zxt whlch ls equlvalent y2 will

to x = y = z.

- s-12 -

1.34.

By Froblen

1.25 ylth

k - 4, we have

## [*2 *" 2 * r 2) Ll4

t-, or G,+ /f l + rlE s 3314, with

tG+ G+ G
, equaHty lf and only lf x - y z - Ll6. } 8o. Problen

1.35.

I{lthout

loaa of gerteralltlr

!r may assum" rl

= ^2a..

= * s ... Henee * al d2

## L.23, we have a.f...+a

I nln

1 *... a.

1!

1 * ... + a a- . I " ln ro

1 -1 ,

## ( a+ r J ' * G + f r z =* (. * * * o * * )' - i t * * * i l ' ,

wlth equailty 1f and only lf a *!
or a - b. By the prevtoue exerclse,

- u +f

, ot (a - b)(1 - #-

O,

1 *l
a

b-a*b

r - J-

=4. ''
a - b i
1
I

rLth equalLty,

again, lf

and only lf

Therefore

## ', 1. l _t 25 (. *?-' + (b +=b)- i(r + 4)-' 7 . =

!. (" *
1t

Though by (r.1) + (b +
1t

we have a * * t 2 and b + + 2 2, ot aD -

?-

i)'

## = 8, the value 8 cannot be achleved alnce thie Recall Exerclse L.22.

1.25 rtlth k 2, we have

wanld requlre a - b - 1.
L.37. Ualng the inequaltty

of Problen

- s-L3 -

:lr

n L

n .-2 + I gl .JJ

jlr

wlth

equaHty

if

and only

tr- = "'

= a

nn

=- 1 .

= a + 1 . na n

## t +>-n-- =rr2, Jlr"J \$_ Lo1

j=l ' = ro = 1/o. Ilence the result with equallty agaln at al = ...

n-z

follows.

1-.38.

/ =

(a +

f,)^' +

lr

(b +* , "

;ht'*
lf

o* * * h " -

-n 2tt-1 '

## as Ln Exerclse 1.36, wt t h equallty Therefore

andonlylfa=b=L12.

n=1

<"+]1"+1u+f)n

=i , # =+.
are positl.ve. Uslng the

1.39.

!-1.

n-1 2rl

- s-14 -

1Fr one. holds

## 1" a decreaslng sequence whlIe {.1}l=,

the result a, ' followa " ' = a from Exerclse

ls an lncreasing
and equality

Therefore lf

1.23,

and only'Ln lf

1.41,

r Qr ll

= ro.

men {al}l-f

*d

## are both lncteaslng seguerices' so that by (1.11),

the re-

eult follqrs.
Renark. fhe aame lnequalLty holde for p;q > 0.

L,42.

## Fron (1.1) we have

bc b*c-b+c / ca 'c*a-cta ab 'a*bgivee -a*b

4 inequallty.

the deslred

## a - b - c. a < b < c. Then

1.43.

t{lthout

lose of generalltlr

## tr may asaume thet

1og a < 1og b < log c, so that by (1.10) (1og a + log b * log c),

a log a tb

log b r c 1og

"

log(.tbb"c)
whlch gtves a-b-c. Req4!&. the desired

> tog(aue)
result.

a{btc 3

Equallty

holds

lf

and only

lf

The lnequallty

clearly

generall.zes

to n numbers.

L.44.

If

## we add 2(ab * bc f ca) to Lnequallty

t

(1.5),

we obtaln

(a + b * c)-

> 3(ab * bc i

ca),

a *b *cr 3
wlth equal{ty lf and only

- { r ,,|ffijg3
lf a - b - c.

'
Now applylng Exerclge

1.4, we obtain

.{3 with

@=ffi-36 ;" ,
lf and only lf ab 'bc . b - ca, or a - c.

equallty

- s-16 -

CIIAPTERII:

SOLUTIONS

2.1.

Flrst

solutioa.

Froa (2.2),

we have

## ! f'l n tt'q'" 'rirJ't", -^, -.. . +!

wtti.ch glvee .ar a6 ff J-J3 us the deslred ... a--3tl t.

## = (4. ", "3

lnequalLty. gay. Equallty a, j

til

a rl/ a

- 1'
lf aad only ao . -r

holde ...

Then tn-

^z
llence,

"3

"z
- 8o. \ ls clearly

. "2 -. t3

1.

"1

(1)

Ttte lnequallty

ttue for n

## l and n - 2. loss of By the

ls true for n - k.

## that rk+I 1" the enallegt of the arrarr...rak+l. asarrnptlm,

a*2+. . . + % > k. t3
"z
"1

## I{e also have that

(at
or

"r.*r)t1

- octl) > o,

(2,

tk+l

" k * fu + r_ a = r.
"1 "1
!.nequallgy. clearly also true: nE1 Then rlr 6i 1. Let t ",

The followtng

- s-17 -

2,2.

Flrst shev's

Ttre slnplest

method of proof

is

## ln the form (L.11) Ttrue

of Chapter I wlth

L = 1r2r...

,.r2 a i + a l r ... r a L z

j>

( ^t+ "Zt
(.,, lf

... + ar r 12

wLth equalLty

and only lf

"L - ^Z

=a

Second aolutlon.

## rh a t 2 a b = .2 * u 2 ("e. ( 1.2) , chapter r ) :

^ ' rlr"i*'rlr"r", [rlr"*J ( n r2 n

non^

tz

L=1

Fz
{f and only if

i-1

follows = 8n.

lmedlately,

with

equallty

The following

proof,

## wtrlch frequently where (2.5)

appearg

on probabtltty

and statLstics

ls eupecially polnt.

## Let A - * B-a,and - y'ni'l a A!7r. ni=l1

rhen

- s-18 -

nA

os

1-1

I("r-A )' r

r t ( . ? - 2 A e, + t2 )
1- 1^r , lln^

tra

- oQ' - zll
c

1-1 ^ fi

a, + L t'
i-l I E

- oQ' - 2A"[i

,lr.r,|

+ nA4

r,,

equaldty

ff

and only-1 if

a, - A for

every i,

lf

- !o.

## occur at the sinultaneoue maxlnum of

tc

(e - a)(s - b)(e - c)(e - a) and nlntnun of abcd cos'!, guchexl.gtg. Ihefltgt occura at e - a'"g -! "ti-t, - 6 - c-B

tf -d,

or a r b - c o dr wtrlle the second occurs only ln the case of a equare. Renark. eaally uslng The followl.ng geonetrlc nore general

Both occur

nethods: ls

area rrlth

glven perlmeter

the regular

## Let V be the volume of the

( o,H)
eylLnder, r the radlus altltude. From the flgure forn of of lta

( r ,h)
bace, and h lts Ttren V n.2h.

r lr

r and h

are related by

E,

1. E -

- s-19 -

= 4nn2n

t----j

'
ot r -+,
4/9 the volume

h i
H

## Ttrug the volune

le at nost

of the cone.

2.5.

(a)

In the flgure, ls

-tt t

## baee le Va' - x', to see that for

It

x must be positive

## but thls proof. Ls

The volune

u- \$ t.2 _ *2 ) ( a + x)

-T,ti=,,#,(a - x).
Since the aun of the factors
z

Ls conetatl-t,

x E 8 - x,

,^ or x - al3.

## Let V be the voluue der. Then, fron

of the cylln(xry)

the flgure,

v - 2nx2y
and

22 *2 '+ y -8.

- s-20 -

Ttrus

[+J',
wlth equallty when L-yz-\.,
.J

2^2

or x r a

Reqark.

2r*2ffi

## AB ln the precedLng problem, we aee that we can

solve thLe problem wlthout squerLng when we u8e the latter foru, V - 2ny(a - y )(a + y ). / 2,6. Ttre maxLmn of (a + x)3(a - x)4 occura at the naxlnum of
,8 (-)f x .3 ,a -x .4

-,

## ntrlch 1" (f)'

.?a-7

, by (2.2),

occurrlng

whcre

alx

a-x

-'-Z:'orx--alr'. Ttrls technl.que of lntroducing Iggg. to nake e conatant It ls generalized eum or other quantlty

## the proper ls wldely

coefficlents

appllcable. aE ln

of lnequalitles,

Sectlon 5.2.

2.7.

ehos that

.i

## *'l"3oi .l.lrlr + cululal * +ulrl"f r|l.lr + r'i"lo3

, 3"l"l"lbrbzbg + *laful.1a2a3
It eufflces to ahow that the flret quantlty ln parentheses on

- s-21 -

and stnLfrom

and only if

## blbZ.3 = brbra, wtltten,

ararb, = ararb, and "1.2b3 Dlvldlng these sets of equalLt{.es as i = Lr2r3, rre get *3*1

and lettlng

arlbr,

*1*2
*3

*2*3
*1

*2'

* 1 " * 2 -* 3 .
al a' a" 1g,6=*-:" is lnplied by the sets of equalltl.ee. Fur1D2o3 thermore, thla eet aleo Lnplles the orLglnal two. Ttrue, they are that equivalent, and our lnequallty becmeg an equality lf and only lf

the arg and the brs are proportlonal. Note. lnequalLty This lnequalLty (4.15). ls a special case of ltiilderts

## (2.2), Lffi= 2.8. Fron

frm whlch the deslred and o,nly if In thls inequallty follors "4. in the mean. imedlately. Equallty = .3 =

holde if

^L - ^2

Remark. geometrlc

lnequalltyr

## mean goLng over to coeffLcl.ents

ln the arlthnetlc

1 8 ) L ',

,,

lrith (2,2)

equaHty

lf

lf

2x, or x - 0. If

ls appllcable

are posltive.

- s-22 -

exactly

## two of then muet be negative "od

for

a But

maxlmun to occur.

(1 + x).

ie c@-

the eolutLon

to

(b)

Note that

solutlon A.

1',ro

_ ,38 -

## The naxlmun Ls thus 238 nay be negatlve.

x - 3. on x ) 0, only ure factor "t Ilence, (2.2) ls appllcable for ftndtng the

## uaxlnurnl and the solutl.on la conplete. 2 .10 . B y (2.2) fot n - 3 a n d n - 2

a+ E +c - - W .+ r!3 m 3

-tffi
In each caae, equallty holda lf

Jm-3ffi.
and only lf a o b o c.
n- 1

## 2.LL. :fre (l) terna of oo contaln eaeh x, exactly (;_i) , b I (2 .2 ),

tlnes.

Eence,

- s-23 1

o,
(l)

,n-1

] =[ ;_<l-it1<ltII *T/o -

ntr

[- r-t '

1-14

o1/o , n

(*)-ffi since
and only lf x, n *Z ...

=
= *r1. nn'

## * ' <l : lt.

Equalltv holds 1r
of orr

## Now by expanalon and deflnltlon

n II (1 + xr) l--1

- 1+ . Il--Ior > t + .
n

I - t f iloi' "
mBl

by the blnonlal
tt xrr'

nlq'n'-

theorem.

2.L2.

(e)

Flrat x < y.

golutlon.

tet

Aesune that

## If e ls Such that I < a ..I

cloger than x and y ln the sense that lax fl we are requlred to show that .1 ax + ; y < x+y.

## are "oa ]V . f - *. Ttrua,

Fron the condltlons on a, we obtain * . ot |1, ! " )r, o . t;lt < x + I r a B d e el r e d . (a - l)x. + |r - (1 "* Seiond solutLon. Let xy - rs be euch that r and s are closer
Then x ( r, and, Lf we uultlY - rr we obtain

## by the posltlve ot *y + 12 < (x*

quantlty y)r,

xy - xr < yr - t2, f I, - r

or x+

y t t **-

es deslred.

- s-24 -

(b)

If

not all

(2.2)

are equal,

## then there muer be ^2, where

two of then,

such that

,1 a G ,

G ' (rlr"1)^":
a) arc closer ai. * ^).

. 1la

## rf we let al - G and a) - ararlG, then al and

than a, and a, are, art or and therefore, by part (a),

a, i

Repeatlng

tLnee,

we arrlve

at a get

## = ... of nuubere alf - al LZn

al - G euch that

* i" '* [";io- [F,J"". ttrus, (2.2) r.B true and equallty holde if tl '' 2.13. rt w111 be ehorynthat (2.2) is true for n = 28, where r Ls any Loteger, and that tt n'k - 1. (2.2) ts true for tr - k, then it Ls true for and only lf

## I'[e shall therr be able to conclude that (2.2) is true l

2L, eo that

for all n.

We have seed Ln (2.1) t h a t (2 . 2 ) ls true for n lre may assrae thet (2.2\) ls true for n 2t, or that
-

(1)

iJr"=
"L^2r '..

,2t

## ( ,' lr' [rlr"1 '

numbera, and where equality Conelder any set of 2r*1 By (1) and (2.1), holds - 2.2t 82t.

where .1r.. lf

## . ra2t are any posltlve -

and only tf

nnmbere, 81,e''1a2tt

dpt+Lr...,a2rtL.

we have

."4

r\$

- s-25 -

F'l"J:F,-i',"'] j;,,tr

or 1 1 ,r*L
rlth

,1*t

Pt+t lF

.!,"t'[r1r"J
lf and only if a,

'
- "Z ... a,t,

equal.lty

holdlng

thet le'
lf

' "'

' ar - *r ,
a,

and ar ar ..."Z"
* ... (2.2) r

and only lf

## - "2r *L"Zr *2...a 2r*Lt

Ihue by the prlnall n 2t, r*rere

- "Z lnductlon,

that is,

large r.

(2' ',

*i",' [,],',J"o'
tet

k-1
1

tlrtt'

Ttren by ( 2)
i\

## "n'fo(k-l)a +an) * rfr.*' [r!r.Jt'*,

or

- s-26 -

{ = ,1r", [tlt'r]'n'
r,.r" .f;-l >
k-1

.k

f "t'

ot
k-l

rlr",

[I1",]*,
(2,2) holdg fot all n.

... ntrere equallty holds lf and ont-y lf - a_t - t = "l - "2 r k-l = tr, w?rlc hle t o 8 a y , a l : t h u s (2 .2 ) 1-T - ^ Z -. . . t_f. i holds forn=k1 lf lt h o ld e f o rn -k , . T h e re f o re , b y t h e prlnclple 2,L4. of backrard lnductlon,

Ttre oaly ualn steps that need be added are those that prove the equallty eondltfon. { Along wlth aesumlng {nductlvely r ... - Gn Lnplles a,
- Gn and A - G (alao,

that {*,

re easuoe that
lmpllee thet \

- "k.
\

Then
- A).

Gk, - Gk+l {

thar

Thla tnpllea

.l . ... -

- 1

and

%+1

{*f

, or fu+t
for

Ttrerefore,
equallty. It le

also clearly

2.L5.

For.n

1, (2.2)

true.

for n

k.

If

## we uae the notatlon th* A+t,

a mean of arr ... r8k, ie not greater each of 81r...r "2 ... r ap. A+f . Ttrus b 2 0. Now

whl.ch ls at leaet lf

Furthermore,

b - 0, then a, *

F
_i"t*"t*r + r ' 3 - ] l a r - '- - 8
Thue

k{ + { ,*b 1-'\

- s- 27 -

## (\*r)o*t- (\ *gfrin*t - ^l*t + (k+ r)({)k(r+) * qp&(nlk-l<ni ,-r2 *

1 + "' * (#-r)n*t

## + (k + l)(\)k(t+) ' d*t

-d*t*rd
t" r At

Lr.r

r-

"t*f

> (arar..;1)aOr1 ,
\ theorem. for n Equaltty * l. - k holde tf holds if and

where r,e have ueed the binmlal ' only lf then, b - 0. Ttlue (2.2) for all .

tg true

(2.2)

ie true is,

n and equalrty

6

"1 - "Z-

## I{e have uged, and proved,

the lnequallty

(1 + h)- > 1 + nh, wtrere h > 0 and n le a poer.tlve integer, equaLlty holdlng tf and only lf lnequallty, n > 1. known as Bernoulllfs h o 0 or n - 1. inequalfty,la rn fact,

wlth

thls

## If 0 s n S 1r the sLgn of the lnequallty

See problen 4. 2.L6. For n - 1, (2,2) ig vacuously satr.afted. rf rc > 1, then *k,
la each ceee lf

## Assume(z.z) for n - k. x k ) l, wlt h e q u a lit y

we get

* k -1 , * k l * k -2 , . . . ,
Lf x - 1.
f

and only

oor * 1),

k*k

> (* k-1

* * k-2

or
k T (x - 1 ) > (x k -l + . . .

+ 1 )(x - 1 ) - *k - 1.

- s-28 -

Rearranged,

thls

le

(1)

## wlth equaHty lf xk s xk-l, ...,

*k i 1 , wh lc h g lv e s k x k < (x k -t + . . .

## k+1 (k + rycr..."k- 1 < ot"f*t..."f; k+l I+ 1 )1 /k ." 1 * t* ..* " f

by the inductlve hypotheals. bri... Lettlng c, -.br/bk+l, wtrere

## ol*t * rl*t * ... + olil = (k + 1)b1b2...bk+1,

efter addtng 1 to both eldee and nultlplying Thue, lettlng nf*t - al. 8r.ves (z.z). through by blll.

## lf x - I and - ... "1 "k, ". #

"1 ' 2.L7 . "' - L. B y (2.2) rye have (nr1l/n (1 . 2 . . . n )L ln . -

...

-#

- 1, or

## Ttrue, by inducti.on, (2,2) ls proved.

1 f 2 * ... * n n

## ' * ' ft" * 1 )-\$ .,

whence

n! < lAJ\$n.
Equallty caanot hold for any value of n > 1 because no two of

the fectorg

Ln n! are equal.

- s-29 -

2.18.

(a)

## Ttrls problen le elnply the dual of Problen 1.30'

box whlch mintmlzes same es that nanely, uhich the surface naxlnlzes

Tttus, the

## the volume in Problem 1.30'

the cube. the box ln the plane of the mlsslng reflectl.on forn a box poeare

(b)

Flret face.

solutlon.

Refleet

sessing twlce

## The volume of thle

new box le

maximlzed when lt

## Ttris naxlmum oceura at the be half a

naxlmum of the origlnal cube, whose blggest Second golutlon. and c the other voltse.

face ls

## the nLselng face.

Let arb be the edgea of the mLeeing face edge. Let S be the aurface area and V the

ltren S - ab t

## 2ae * 2bc and V - abc, 8o that

= i(gtt , v2 - f,t"u)(2ac)(2bc)
wlth half equaltty at ab = Zac - 2bc, or I - b - 2c' solution. Thle la a eube, ae ln the flret

2.L9.

Let r be the radiue of the clrcle g the angle of the seetor. perlmeter If

and

P le the

## then P - 2t * r0 and s'

Thus, rhe mortm'maree ie p2!L6, where < - |tzr)(ro) f;enlz. 0 -2 ra d l a n sa a d r=P 14.

_ s_30_

2 .20 ,

## Uslng (2.21 wlth n = 3 a n d (2 . 4 ), we h a v e

4tEW=46/@-fa*
l.7 t.t

+y+z)2

-i [(x
Equallty

+ y) + U + z) + ( z + *) Jt s ( * + y) z + ( y + z) 2 + ( z + x ) 2,
holdg tf and only if x = y - z.

2.2L.

## I{e begla irtth

the lnequality

\$ + z)(z + x) ( x + y) 2 Br yz,
r*rtch la ptoved eaetly holde lf y and only if by ualng z. \ (2.1) (eee problen 1. x). Equallty

X-y=

I - 8r

## r I - c (note that xryrz - I - b, z - c),

We obtaln - c) - &(,2

## or sabc E gs(e - a)(s - b)(s

aF=;'

o r 2 r s R,
and only lf lt a = b = c, the equilateral is sho\$n that trlengle.

wlth

equality Regark.

lf

ro geonetry,

The centers

the equi_

trlangle,

of course.

2.22.

Froo (1.2),

we have that

ei;q.+(t,rt

## +It - "rll .\$<r. + 1 - "z)

lr - ", l> , #G2 *,.L .3) lr-.rlrr#r^o*1-ar),

- s-31 -

with

equallty

ln the flrst

lnequall.tlee

of each llne

lf

and only

r r f a r l - l t - a r l , l"2 l - lr - a r l, ..., l.o [ 1 1- a r l, a ndi n the second lf "'r 8n2 and only if "1 .1 = 0, L 0=.r< "2> lfor 0, e2 I 0, 1 _ .3 2 0, Addlng, 0' 1> 0; i.e.r i-1r...ro.

we obtaln

## F-_ + .-L' - { " t +( 1 - " r rr4r ) - r n t, ^ 1 1

wlth equallty tf and only tf lf

E
condltione absrre are

both1equallty

satiefled.

## n is even, 1 "3 ^4-... r an_l - 1 - "o - al,

or al for - "3 3 "' - a'_l - "; If r ^2"4 n Ls odd, "' - I - "o-1'ao - r - a1, ... arr - 1a,

## any a such that

0 S a s 1. t3 - r

al - 1 "2or ^L=

^2-

"'

- an

1 2'
We have, by (2.1), of

## 2 . 2 3 . (a ) This problen wae solved Ln problen l.

that ', A < (Pl4)-,

deternlnes

we reflect wlth

## we get e new table

the perLmeter

- s32-

the area of the orlglnal. four eldee included le a square. 18 half in its

when lt

has mextmum

lllr .r r

## Conpare wLrh problen

2.1g.

we have

G + : ; ( 1+ ! y ( 1 5 - 1 + ,* .i * ) +

* .+ .

# .* ,.#
' 3 ',3 .-3

## > 1 + f '*\x+ ytz' - 6 + \$ ;;:5 3) -: ' > I + g x+Y+2 r 3 rI ; |1 1 3 r2 '3'

3 r- ' x + y lz t

1*

= ,fL

, , *I

r rA,

## for equaliryholdsln all caees lf

the hypothesls that

and only if

x = y = z = l, whLch contradlcte

## In other worda, equality would never hold. B y (2 . 6 ),

, - r - = 1* * =;F=--;T
,2
---{

## IL- x' + lr xa)

t-J
wlth equauty if and only r.f x - 0. guaranteee that L - *2 la poaltlve.

## Ttre requr.rement that

l*l

. r

- s-33 -

Second eolutlon.

Since

u ---2
'

n r-x

,+

2
1*x'

l-x'

4'

elearly

y ls nlnlnLzed

at x = 0, where ! = 4.

2.26.

## By the leltna of Sectlor- 2.2,

(x+a )(y -a ))x y , where 0 < x < y and 0 < a<y - x. x+y: !tr1s glvee

## x*y (x + a )(y - a ) '

*. + ' , . +;.# ;r o r
whlch la wtrat ls requlred.

; +

11

'rh,
xy
Hence, by

"'F-

2.27.

speclfied,

all

## terms are poeltlve.

v =*
t,,82 .

**

**

*r+. *

. *.

T # * T+E

En-tT?I-+
tf and only lf

x) + 2(1 + 2x) - 8 ,
1 - x = 1 + x - 1 * 2x, or x - 0. altltude, and R the radl.ua

wlth

equallty

2.28.

Let V be the volume of the cone, It lts of lts base. Then, ae in Problern 2.4,

I+h=r RH
and

- s-34 -

tj

' f,nr - h,

wlth

equalr.ty

when

3, or * - *, * -

H - 3h.

The vol,ne

of

## 914 tttat of the cyllnder.

aolutlou.

Squarl.ng, we have

y2 - (*2)t("2- *r)ro -

i&rrr(.2

- *2r2o,
Thuc,

## shere we \$ant na - 2n o 2n/n. - 0, or o

,'=f,[ffi*"-I,*,t#'#1" ,
".+* 2 - ^ 2
tflthout
-XrOfxr

wlth equallty

a ,_-F

Y m.

/t+g

Second eolutloa.

squaring,

we have

, - 44 -

ctB t

to* 1 t 1 8 ( a x ) ln ( a * x ) n -

B- 1 Wewloh to have ua - nB * n = 0 and x r 4o -1 -E -T T a ' o r I @ "^-: --' -v - fr-1-2; ' so that ffi arrt
rm
, -r

/;A

## Ttrla ehowg that y la naxlnlzed

at x - fq=

/t+ s vm
we wlsh to maxlnlze

2.30.

I{fth

crgry,

- s-35 -

## We have (1) and

c- B+ Y- 1- 0

* - 6 f 1 "- F + a - f f i a ,
or (2 ,
and (3)

2( y+t;-

( c+ 11 Q- ,r )

2(B-1)-(a+r)(g-z).
o and B fron these three equatlons, re optaln t 3 -g t 2 + g y -1 -0 .

rf *e ellnlnate

## Ole root of thte equatlon ie y

a

- 1, rhlch lfves c-

B - 3, eo that

* poLnt at trtrlch the product le greateat. Ttre other rootg i le a are Y ' (7 t 3rs) 12, both of uhtch are poar.tlve. rlowever, fron (2), a - ttl (Z - y), a n d, slnce c ) 0, \ < 2. B u t th e n u 8 -,2 > Thua,y - ( 7 - 3t5>l 1- . Ttr ua,r heonly

O and B - ( 1 - 8) lZ.O.

## poeelble coefflclenta are c = - B 3, y - 1.

2.3L. (a) Let the radlue of the cl.rcle the

## be r and the dLstance frm

chord to the center be a, as tn the flgure. on the circle the rectangle. Ttre polnt is one corner If A is the we-have (xry) of

- s-36 ,a ^

## *z + yz - r2 and A = 2x(y - a) = z/r-(y

_ a), or

t2 - 4(r2 - y z )(y - a )2 - 4 (= -y )(r+ y )(y -a )(y -a ). Introduclng two undetermlned coefflcients, o and \$, we have

## az and we want (1)

\$to ( r - y ) lt B ( r + y ) l( y - a ) ( y - a ) ,

- o+g*2- 0
solutlon to

and a cmm

(o (r-I )-y -a 1

I o ( r - ]) - B( r + y) .
o f t h e a e i" l(o r + a )l(L + c ),

## Tte eolutlon of t h e f ire t and a solutlon

of the gecond ie

(2 )

- - -dTBr - E=' , Y- o- B

## Ttrus, (ar + a)t\$

+ c) _

,
slnce O must be poaltlve. r ) 8r ^2 * gr2, ^2 /*

Aleo,

slnce

## a ff that y - *t. * R>.

Fron (2), we have, therefore, sjnce r > y > a, rhle determlnea 0, we get half a

the rectangle.

## Ife reuark that whenra

aquare, aa we ahould.

- s-37 22 + \tb a

(xry), then

If

## x ) 0, le a corner of the rectangle

on the elllpee,

A - 2x(y- d) - zau(|)Gfl,
where we have

Q t * ( f ) 2= r '
From part (a), the naxlmum of A qccure at

Yr

b4 , or

-(a)

2.32.

,2 and let

## v le the volume of the box

a corner of the box on the sphere in the flrst ,, then V - (2x)(2y)(z - a) < 2(x' + y')(za) r + z)(z - a), wlth equaliry the , undeternined tf and only if c and B: x y.

2(r - z)(r

We lntroduce

coefflclerrts

vf r [ c( t - z)]tB( r + z) l( z - a ) ,
problem 2.31(a), where - c + B + 1 - 0, and, ae ln

## "- ffi - fi+r-7;{1.,or

Slnce r ) 8r I - c - 1 ls poeitlve.

## Ttrerefore, the oaxl.nun

occurs etz-N.*

ffi1.

- s-38 -

(b) 'Trre nethod of solutlon is analogous to that ueed Ln probleu 2.31(b). Ler rh e e lt lp s o L d b e + . * + 4 at bz cz

l and the

z - d ) 0.

If

V is

## of the box on the elllpeold

v - 4xy(z- d) - aabc\$)ffl *l ,
* afrt * (l)z - t, the naxinrm occure, by Part (a), at xla - ylb, and'z c 2.33. (a)

and,alnce tflt

+ J.,r -t

r o r " -| ta * /rc ).

Let the radlue of the cylinder be r, the helght z, and the gurfaceareaS . Then z+12 -c a n d s -I n t 2 * 2 rt z -

n 2rn(c + r - ,2, - Zrrr(t t z) - 2nr(r, - r)(r - rZ), where tLtz o -c, f,l * tZ o 1, and tL r t2. I,le lntroduce undeternined coeffieienta, c and B, wLth

## s - *F r(or, - ar)(Br- tur).

We requlre that 1 - o * B 0 and -

0r, 1+ o
eo that

Br^ B- 1'

(g + 1) r , J-Z g+2

Br ^ B- 1'

\$r

' 2* \ / ' ?* r |- , r r ,
r-r
lz
-6

- s-39 -

positlve,

## go that our eolutlon

ls'

x-B-r'-

t r(r,

+ A )(2 t , - t t - A )

fr-

## c72 tr(zti_ - tL tZ a ( r 2- r r ) A - r i - r i + r r r r ) _r_ _ , _ i ,r 3r z - 3rL z ^ I

2 tz

lmrr-A
r+ffi -=____f
the last

t2, * (rt

rr)A

rr* r" f A 33
-.4

1+A

;
the fact that A - V(rl + rr)' - 3trtr' c 21.

and only lf

## 2 0, be one corner of the box and let S be T t re nS - 8 x y + 4 x z + 4 y z - 8 x Y + 4 (x +y)2.

For fixed z, thls le maxLmlzed, ae ln Problen 2.32(a), wtren y we then want to naxlnlze S .- 8x2 * gxz wlth z + x2 - c. - x; , Ttrue S - 8x(c + x - xa). By the solutlon to Part (a)t thta Le naxtunlzed at * - |tr + frT-3E-). Note thst the box la lngcrlbed ln the cyllnder of part (a).

- s-40 -

2.34.

If

## A tg the area of the recthen

tangle,

A-(x-a)y-!1x-a) xy

'fr<t -u,
- ,*#,n-t1frtn-1<r _i)
t) = c.#ln-t[o - c*m
LPJ
1 - (-AP-l 'n "

(x,y)

* (t - il n

2.35.

#j5;

## r t . pa/(p _ 1). i , o" x

the altltude h, and one

Let the aurface area be s, the volnme v, elde of the base s. be a'and lte perlneter

## B -2ae2 * hps =z ^e 2 * t r , n " * ] u t "

. te

= te , "p2h2'4)Ll3 + v2)Ll3
and where .equallty holds lf and only if

wtrich la glven,

## glves h/s - 4alp.)

2.36.

3/pY 3h6ay 2as2 -*nn" - G*,? uz>rlio, " -3@^ {E ,"V T P 2 ffi

## also ' (nris

let

Let K be the area of the tr{angle, a be the opposl.te slde, and ret

let

## b and c be the lncludlng

eLdee.

Wehave K + bc eln c.

lfb-c.

## rrrh eqirdlltyrf andonly

- s-41 -

(b)

By (2.1) and the 1aw of coaines, + c2 - 2bc cos o "2 -b2 > 2bc(1 - coa ol \$]@ wLth equallty lf and onlY if b - c. when the trtangle LB

(c)

## Slnce a and b * c are both ntnlnlzed

leoecelee, 3o ls theLr errm, the perlmeter. 2.37. On the domaln glven, at mst by (2.2), + ?v + 11 - 3x-- v + 2x - v + 1]3 - - [x - 64 one factor Ln z ls negatLve. ThuSt

"=i
wlth equallty orxr
2.38.

lf

and ooly lf

x * 2y'

11 - 3x - ! - 2x - I * 1'

2r:y-L.

In the graph on the rl'ght' the elgaa Lndlcate of z in that aleo posltlve regLon. tlve tors dmaln. the sign z Le

reglon,

ln z ag wrltten

are ia

posltlve

maxLmumof z.

A11 relatlVe

octant a8

are therefore

- s-42 -

## To uge (2.2), we Lntroduce two undeterrnlned coefficlente, a and B:

* 2y - 1 0 ) lt B ( 2 3 x - 3 y ) ] ( 2 e- 2 x - y ) , z ft[a(x
rhere we \$aat the aun of the factors and y, or c - Z - gTtrug bo be lndependent of x

## 0 and 2ct - 1 - 38 - 0, eo that O 5, B - 3.

" =*[sr*sJ3
wlth equallty

-225,

ff aid only tf 5(x + 2y - 10) - 3(23 - x - 3y) y, or x I 3, Y - 26 - 2x - 5, wtrich |e |n the shaded reg1on. Then, by (2.1),

2.39.

## +f+ * 1 11 +f+ +-a!-]>iGb, 21 2 -rl- 21' 2 ii-ur ! ;*bJ

wlth equaHty {f and oply lf lf the arltluetlc lf a b. and harmonlc means are equal, thatla, and only

2.4O.

FLrat aolution.

From (2,6),

we have that

i .***=

e or

i1

## wtrlch, when factored,

ylelde

(1 - a)(1 - b )(1 - c ) l 8 a b c , or

'

e,

- s-43 -

## and ooly Lf a - b - c - +' tJe dealre to ghow that

(1 - a)(1 - b )(1 - c ) > S a b c . slnce 1 - a o b + c' Ec.' thla follows fron Problem 1.5. Equallty 2.4L , holde lf and only lf . a - b i - +

or (a + b +

=',

(a + b +

")(2.2

18ebc

## "3 rlth 2,42 .

* b3 + c3 + 1 5 e b c s 2 (a + b

+ c )(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ),

equaHty lf

.Flrgt 8olutlon.

[4 ("u2
or
with

*4

bc2

## ("4 + b2c + c2a)(au2 + bc2 + ca2) , g^\2"2,

equallty if and only lf e - b - c.

- s-44 tt,

,t,

By (2.2),

Multlplleation

## 2 . 4 3 . The nlnlnun of the dletance d fron (4r'2rL,

on the ptane le the dl.stance we seek.' Ry (2.5), we have

to any poing

(xryrz),

d*l v4+ 9+ 36

=lW2*stt+j'*rffi
- 1,

## .l?l| .rFfl| +361+2x*3v- !Zr 13*7 - ' "[ 6 l- ,3 2 -'l ., >

at wlthequality +1 ,K 11

tf
1

' +

-+,or

x I 2617, - - +, v

ls the polnt on Ehe plane cloeest to ThuB, q, -;, ? " - +. (4, -2, L); lts dlstence frm the plane le l. Reo4rk.
x - 4, y - -2t plane:

## For thLs problem, lt

2 I lnto

would be slnpler
forn

to substltute
of the

the nornal

of the equatlon

2x-3v + 6 2 ' L 3

## '2 2*( - l) 2+02

toobtainu-l
2 .44 . Fron (1.1), we have

l-t.

@,iFr*r-A+B-yr)
Er(r*r- Eyr) rr+@ - A), - ofi" - A)+
wLth equallty *i*It-AiB. tf and only lf x* - A' B - yl (1 ' 1,

- s-45 -

2.45.

x ' Y)

## then, by the two-l.ntercept forn of a stralght line,

i * * = t.
Ttre area of the triangle, (2.6) , K, is gtven by Fb sin 0, and thue,

## K = * absLn = :E-#-g (*r e

,xys rn 0

'T
lrlrh polnt equallty (x,y)

t 5; ; l
i= +

]2

=2xYsrn e,
= 2, or a =
2xrb=

lf andonly if

2y.

The

of that

- s-46 -

3.1.

ar

## 'trr * i * ot- +i(6 - H, * ++ zf.:' ,

rhogo ntntuun value
orttren y-Li,lf3,

fCA

* ztil

o r* -*

rrt T \$ + 2 )z (x

la achlevedntrea d5t-{12 vy
1 ).

- o,

?.2..

file rrlte

*." x-+4+5

+1

rhe targecr

the orlglnal

ie a nlnlnun

## value of the aaxlnun of the glven functloo

3.3. Let ug set y 3 x + 3 or x becooea y - 3, eo that

expreeelon

y ' - z y+ 2,
{e

-1 Z * ? - z - w _ u fi l + z E-'

1 - __,- - _

\$ -rQ)2 o 0 ,

3.4,

the

wtrenwe nlnlnlze

+ sln4x.

- s-47 -

## By (1.9), that thls

we know that the mlnlmun of cos4* + sln4x le 1/2, and mlnlunrn Ls achleved rdren x n nlL. Bence the maxfioun

we

xy

## - l*!r'A2x y ' 2 2'

wLth equallty crly lf x s y.

' x * y - 1,

## under the same condlt!.one, nanely thet

t2, t . i,#2 2 L7
eo that 7 xy < 7 =L4

x 2+v 2+7+4* 4 - . { . * 7 2 2

3L'

Itrus the naxLnum te L4l3L and ls achieved when x y - LlL. 3.6. For the flrst factor of the denonlnator we have

2+ (x +r)(+|l
ulth equallty have

= z + 2 + *.i

> 2 +2 + 2- 6,
For tbe gecond factor we

when y/x - 1, or x - y.

f +.ffi +
wlth equaltty when lffit

> 1 + Z - i. ,

ffi
: 1. - 1 or x * y Ttre two equallty

- s-48 -

3.7.

## Ttre ldentlty detalls.

given ln the hl.nt ls easy to show, and we onlt the by S the quantlty tan A + tan B * tan C,

If we denote first

S > 37tan
?-

tan A -

## tan2A+ tan2B+ tan2c= l rt r fG/5 l2 ,

wlth equallty agaln lf and only lf ten A tan B - tan C, so that

of the given

## only ln the case of the equLlateral trlangle.

Remark. ln Grapter V. A general approach to problems of thle ktnd ts glven

3.8.

## Suppoeethat the equatlon of & te ax * by * c = 0. then wrltten

If

& te

ln normal form, x cos td + y sln to - p = 0, where fr------5 tcoa o, - al/at * bt, sln o = 6l/at i b', then, when (xry) ls replaced by (xorlo), the expresslon xocos t * yo eln o - p ls the In par-

(slgned) dlstance fron the potnt (xorlo) to the lfue J. ticular, the dlstance d, of the polnt (xrrlr) slno lles - p. We re ma rk f irs t to [.

t h a t ic o a

on {.

flrst

## If M ls the total rnass

of the sYsten'

- s-49 -

IlN F ' .F .

.l-ottt 1-1--

l_tr(x l 1-1^

c o a u J* y , s in o - p )

## ' [rlr"*rJ"o" '* [rlr"rtrJ"* o - Pill'l

- Cil{)coe ar + C\$r)stn o - pM j - ttfi coa ut + sfu 6 - p) = 0.
3 .9. Let the coordlnates o f A rB rCrDb e (x rry 1 , z r), (x rrl2 rz 2 ), (x4r! O,zo), reepectLvely.
lhen, tf

f*

rB

(x 3r l 3 r z 3 ) ,

2

-4 *2 -

4 2x fx. +
1-1 4

1=1 I 4

fx

+ 4v2 -2y Iy r +
L-l

i=1

Iv l

## * +r2 rr "r * rt ,trr?

I{e have here the strm of three lndependent quadratlc expreseLons of the form (3.1), and lf we conplete the equares, we see that

,, _yr+

yr+ yr+ y4

"L*

,2*

zr * zo

## and notatLon are glven ln the statenent of the

Let ax + by + cz * d - 0 be the equatlon of the plane, normal form x coa o * y cos g * z cos y - p - 0

' ,8

Weremark flrsr
the equatlon

rnat (frl7)

nusr

## on thls plane and eatlsfy

.1..

t+.

- s-50 -

T cos a +y

cos B *7

cos Y - p - 0.

A e L n P ro b le m 3 . 8 r. t h e

dlstaoce d, of (xr,yr,zr)

to II ts glven by flrst

xl cos a + yl cog B * z, cos Y - p, so that the total Doment ls nn f t.dr a - f n*(x.a cos c + yr cos B * z, cos Y - p) -1 1 a a flt l:t

## '[rlr"*t;coscr* [r]r"trJ"ot u* [r]=r""

= Ui cos o + Ut cos B +fr .!t(i co s o + ! cos g +; coe 1 - Mp cos y - p) - 0.

r\$

.r P

rt

,J"o"'-'[ir'J

3.11.

Ttre total lf

second mdtrent, or moaent of Lnertfa, ls the sum = re2 + PB2 + Pcz + PDz PB2 + Pc2 + PD2, Slnce / Paeses through BCD, pg2 + pc2+po?

of trlangle

cr * c2 - t,t

## c, t xr* *r)' - *,t, * yz* yz)Z,where andc,

glven ln Exanple 4.

## . 3.L2. Flrst solutlon J = (1 + 1 + L)2 = (Ix E * # W * # Al' f+ Yz t vy

= * * +. )(x + y * z ) wt t h e q u a llt y f o r x = ! - z .
In problens of thls sortr that ls, where we

Second solutlon.

replace 1 by

. c, the relatlon

and

- s-51 -

If

we nultlply

## thege two Lnequalltles,

we obtal.n

( x+ y + z ) a * .+ * ) . s 3 W;l JXltz

e;
for

ulth

equallty

for x y' -

## equellty acen3. 3.13.

ln both lnequalltlea

and geogetrlc

Ttre ldea ig the aane aa ln the eolutlon of problem 3.L2. the flret rnethod of solutlon we have

For

"'*r**{J

r'[tr
wlth equallty
Deang, we have

## or..*J(*1 +... *ro) ,

for *1 ... - *n. uelng arlthmetlc and gcmetrlc

## *1*. ..* * o > " ffi = f

(*1 r- { *
... wLth equallty for x. IN 3.14 . rf wewrltel-cos have xn2

## + ... . *"J=o2, -")[t

r x .

a rn 2 f

a n d l* c o g

x -2 " o "--2f

z ,,"

1- +;+ #'|"""2;.2"""2f
whlch le eseentially ln Exanple 8. Ttrus, by the Ceuchy-SchwarzLnequallty,

- s-52 -

2x

2x

z c s c T+v gec

t=

## , [,fr""" srn.fr"." ] "'"i]' - +r^ vl)z + . f ]

Ttre nlnLunm occurs uhen equallty prevalle, namely, whenever

IExEx vz cBcz ltz Bec z or rhenever 2 arc ,"ffi x, .x-.T co8Z. sanZ
3.15.. By the Cauclry-Schrnrz lnequallty, we have

y * ,rG

## s G2 + 4\Ll2 (*2 + (r - *2))112 - s.

prevall,e, shich happena

i'frfr7
t-

'

## = foru of the or whenever'x315. The

If rre set x - cog 0, to be oaxLnlzed

## functlon suggeste e second solution: thcn etn 0 - YL - xz. , so thrt

the functlon

is 3 cog 0 + 4 eln 0 = 5 cos(0 - 0o),'where go - arc a"o * . Itre naxlmum value of 5 coa (0 -- e ) le 5 and occurs when -o cog(0 - 0 ) - 1or wh e n 0 ' 0 ^ the o - a rc t ' a n 4 1 3 , rit rlc h I ' s

*r"
3.16.

""

ti.

rr""t 8olutlon.
we have that

## (12x * 3y + 4z)z s 1tz2 + 32 +,r2r(*2 +y2 + 12, - L32,

Bo that -13 < LZx * 3y + 4z s 13. rften x/12 - ylLz - zl4. The extrele valueg occur

## Ttre largest value, 13, occurs when

x - L2lL3, ! - 31L3, z - 4113, whlle the arnalLest value, -13, occura ntren x - -L2lL3, y - -3 l1-lt z - -4ll.l3.

- s-53 -

?.L7.

It

then nulttply

## ".c6* By Problen 1.10, we have

+ csc6x and

+ cec6x , {1"""2x + cac2x)3 wlth equalLty for sec x = csc x, "..6* 2' ot 8. r 1t14. Now, by the Cauehy-Schwarzlnequall.ty, we have

\$"""2*
I

## + cec2x1? + - f,t{"""2x + csc2x)(cos2x sln2x)13 "tr, *)213= f,f Crl'lt = 24 n L6,

g!9 same value as

-tt
ln the flrst
A

rs i[(aec x co a x * csc x

. rrtth equallty

## I+L +Z_ 1 x * . - L J _ * I 2' 3 6 frJ T' , 6 6 ' 1 6 1 6 ' 2

'2 '
I-+I-+ z 236

z = r!*!* '3

L \ L lz l* - * I l_ *L l - ' 6) 6' 3 [2

2t1.l2

2
,

wlth equalltY for x I y = z. 3.19. l{e nay wrlte the glven functlon as

- (x*y+z) [+

**.+]

-3 - 3.

## =!rc* y)+ (y+ z)+ (z+rrrffi .#.*] +

Bi the reeult of Problem 3.12, thls laet expression"is not lesg

than i

1t

. 3- - 3, so that

- s-54 -

## #" + **; . f ;r+ ' g 2 -t' 3 t2 .

Equallty holds lf and o'oly lf x r z. - I

## rtrlch, by (3.20), ls not less than

. Ttre rnlnlmum of AP * PB occurs when we have equallty or when trlcel * = 1{; - ;, or when x - y = ;-|:5. to the geonetrlcal .

## proof Lg slnoet tdentlcal

Exanple 7.1f *e obsctve that the perpendlcular llnes froo A and B to the (xry)-plane foin a plane.

s( *2+

## y2+r 2) ( y2+ ,2**21,

l*y + yz + zxl s x2 + y2 + rz .
Equallty oceurg whenever x3,22. y - z. to the expresalon

## * t"ioi "la|*"b|)'r.?u?*.?ul* "la?r>z

* + +u! s ("i + al+"frcuf +ulrt"l cl+"fltaf a!* a!r.

- s-55 -

3.23.

8y (3.25) we have

## t < u.Jt"ff""o"2, u.Jt" " - f"." t cos dt [J*"""t.

' lEfi-T'f,* * ! "o" zt)atJLtzq '

,i,r* * elnz*r)Ltz

when." 4*2 ( tan x (2x * sln 2x), fron r,rtrlch the deelred lnequallty follona.

3;24.

## s ( t 2 + 1 2 + o r er r zlt*f + ... *r ll.o ( *i

wlth equaUty lf 3.25. *1 - ... - *o.

g o r o**fl

## rf rru epply the cauchy-schwarz lnequallty slde of

to the rlght-hand

we have

rn

r2

(n

r2

## 2l = F z rF lr F ' [rlr"'*'J* [rlr"'J [r!r"'.iJ ,lr"r*',

xflfi fi xl - xn for all l and k, or xl r ... - q ,-k/q o r - 1r . In P to b l e n 3 .1 8 a , - Ll2, Ll3, ar - Ll6 so thst "Zo 1/n. t1 * 4 2 *.3 - 1 , and ln Pr oblen 3.24 ar r ... - a'
A general Chapter V. theory of lnequalltles of thls sort will be glven ln

rn

r2

1
- s- 56-

I I

3.26.

rf rrc rrlte

## r.r. *... t"r', +"o*ol. r e *"]:Jt"tffr)' .[*J ["]i .r 1'''

' l1 o t r o r o * " io o j '
x_

I I

.i-

xi.

x,

r .. .

&

- tfr

. Ttrentntnun

E .. "lultl/2,

## r" echte'ed chengtng stgna by the

i I I

'l
3 . 2 7 . Conglder the quedrgtlc f,unctLonof't:

,l

## rb --- ---, v-f ta tfiilr(x)t-ffi8(x)12>0, l

I I

rhtch ls non-negetfve and can therefore aot have tro dletlnet real roote. Ife have y - A"2 + Bt + C, nhere

I I

[f ^ - {- l tB

P2 (x)l"p(x)dx

I l

B - -z I r1x1g1x)p(x)dx tgl

pl

c[ s ( x) ]2p ( x) d x. l"
Ttre fact thar t2 - 4Ac < 0 inplles rhar

pl

:l

## r2n(*)a*] r2n(*)a*J . U:rr(x) [fr<.rrtx)n(x)axl' \ra , ' (ra [/t,r,o I

;l

ii'l

'l

ll i ,l

- s-57 -

rhe quadratlc y can venlsh for one value of t, caae we have equallty. t6(il f(x)to

## But then, by the Lema, alnce

tt

- /t-Glg(x)lz

le non-negarive, g(r)

- to f(x),

ao

## that g(x) 1s a multiple of f(x).

t.:t.

r{errrlte o =

,i, nlra"ioi

2arbrfub. .bi). *

rr weaum riret
1a thle etro-

'reuenberlng

o=

rlrr"lcuf

## +b?(.i ul+... +"l)). * z 1'J- r

Now we aun over J, regardlng the three terns in parentheses ag conatantc wlth respect to J, and we obtal.n

o s (" i + a zr+... +.3r*i *al* ooo {oll - 2(arb, * arb, { roo + a bn)- +
t

## whlch glves we aee thet

us the lnequallty.

To deternine

when equallty

holds,

ln the

## statement of the problen must vanioh,

"Jb*-a*br-0
for all J and k. Thle neans that 3 = 3 for all J and k, eo Lhat oJ ok "1 "z "o ..''q'

E"qf

- s-58 -

3.29.

## Ue must ehow that the serLes deoote the partial eum

Crl.ao*l

ls ccvergenr. Let So

## so - l"rbrl + larb2l { roo + lro\l

Slnce It So Ls monotone increasl.ng (that

.
n), By

of n.

eufflcea

to ehow that

## go ie bounded ladependently we have

the Cauchy-Schwarz

inequallty,

so = l"rl lurl + ... + larrl = t l.r[' { orrr l.ol2l}ttorlt ... + lbofri,, + lbol
tlow the aerlee of p o s lrlv e t e ru s , i, l* 1 2 -. t . r: - A ls c o n -

## versent, rhat l"rl' + ... . ,":Tl'=i, .r,l-lrrrr.rr, eo

t r lorf g -r + lurrl2s, Rr where *!rtl.
8o ilrat
3.30.

Hence s ALlzBLlz, so
nlrlaaull
M and N, thet

]"lB

s' exlete.
inequality

we have, for

By schnarzte

any poel.tlve

M

rN

^ f lz
[/tt' ( x) ]

Ll2 tu"l
a Sequence

We know that

there

must exlst

s6

such that

il*tf(1|l?

## = Q, and hence;fur t(1)

number d such that xo, and thle ie finlte.

= 0, for, orhencl.se
tf(x) )2 , a for the
Ife

a poeltlve

N

for all

M and N greater
N,

## than some flxed

/ tr<*l l'd* . e ,

lf ' (x )l-d x

< e ,

S -58a -

s o th a t,

fo r

all

x > Mo and * t

t Mo, w e have

## lx t r ( *) r - t r ( x n ),' l ,l i " rrr* l t' u * l t/' t' 2 .|l .

which s h o w s th a t l i m [f(x) x+o ]2 = O, w hence 1i m f(x) x+@

lf ' (x )l2 d x
K

'x.

= 0.

- s-59 -

Solutlons

to Chapter IV

4 .1.

By wrltLng F(x) - [f(x)]P a n d G(x) ' g(x). - tc(x)lB, where a - 1/p andBmay recast (4.22) Ln the forn

## = igu* f ,r,*,101c1x) [fr,*,u*,J"[{t",.,*Ju.

Suppoee next that we have three functlong a + g frg'h and three positive
r]

## constenta orBrY lrlth lt follolrs that

* y - 1.

Itren B'+ Y

- o, ftom whtch

*+1fr'r.
If we wrlte rb | -c 6.Yd* _ tgn J a

.rr 'at/

1 B

f-ralrr-a hl*l

-J--11'a

dx,

rhen

## = .4"[[l', *]*]'" [f, .-)*[t"

.4"[" u*J', - 11" ..Jt["
as deal.red. 4.2. In the last lnequallty, changesI'

se tp - *,

o ' fr

t' f,

uake ana

the

- s-60 -

4.3.

## I{e apply H'61derts inequallty

to the identl.ty

3 - 1+ r + 1 - !+,^

t6

tri, #+r*

3ra * L_L<G

= cxyz" xyz. l r l z 1 l* * * 5 1 /3 ( xs + y5 + l* * * *
where rhe indtces a =
raise both sides

"t) ' 1 6 ,

f , B - +,

y =

inequallty,

to the slxth

poner,

## we have the stated

wlthequalltytfx=y=2. (Note that and that thle problen is analogous to problena is posslble: 3.12

an alternatlve

solutlon

1* 1 * ! t
x
so that

z -' Y x y z , "E

( * .+*)t =3sv/#.
Aleo

*5 +y5 +15r tr @,
so that the nultipLlcatLon of the problen of the last two inequalltles aleo ylelds

## Ttrls should not be surprLslng, of the ttiilaer inequalitLes

on the Lnequality

## and geometrlc meane.)

4.4.

If

we wrlte

3-l +1 +1 we have
!

'r-JIT;m

## 1 ,=+* ' lt*

1,

- ; iBr

1, y2l3-f TF I -

3 . (l *i * Llttt(ll.

- s-61 -

## where we have uied c - t,

laet Lnequallty ylelds

B - i, +,

t - *. ' 3

3.L2;

the result,

eolutlon

4.5.

ltrlte wlth

## 0 < n/n < 1 and m and n are posltive

lntegers between

Slnce I- * x > 0, we nay appl"y the lnequali.ty and geometrlc means to the expreeslon

arithmetlc

(t + x)a to obtaln

(1 + x)o -

(1 + x)m/n = t(t

+ 11n 1n-nrl/n

+ 1l ox

## (n - m)rl = - * tr(r * x ) * ftr* * n) - 1**x n--n

Equallty inequallty ls attalned only tf all the factors

-1*

## are equal, namely, only tf

1 t x = 1, or x = 0.

4.6.

SLnce o > 1,( l we have l. ' (1 + cx)-r* rlth equality o'nly for
1l n

t,

## and Problem 4.5 ytelds

1

s 1*;

. ctx = 1*

x, to the

x = 0.

Ralse thls

l-ast lnequality

power 0,

and we have

r+cu( <( t+ x) 0.
4.7. In the lnequallty that Yo > 1 +0(Y' wLth eguallty nultlpLy this only for last y 1) = L - o f oYr yo - ay > 1 - c. :i If we now of Problem 4.6, let us substltute y for 1 f x' ao

- 1, so that

lnequallty

by Ao, we have

- s-62 -

(ly)o - oao-l(ly)

> (r - a)eo.

## If we set a - otro-l and set z = Ay, we have

,Q wl.th equality only for z> (L - o)A0

",

1
A (l.e.r I = l-). 0

4.8.

## Suppose first enough so that

that

1 * ox > 0. < 1.

Choose a posltive

integer

N l-arge

0 < -{/N

## Then, by Problen 4.5,

we have

( r +x) a /N= t- \$ *,

or

1+frx
:,_-=-* TZ
NO

L+ 'r*c F * '

## x- < 1. since L - ""2t a n N, we have

If

we ral.se this

last

lnequallty

to the Power

(1 r x )0 > (1 + f t r n = 1 * F x
We observe that tf 1 + cx Ls negative, trivially valid.

= L + c llc .
the lnequal-lty 1n the state-

4.g.

- s- 63 -

(1 +x)0=

lirn
r+(l n

(1 +x)n<

- 1*

crx,

the conditions

## of equality. (1 + *)o num-

Suppose now that x t O and 0 < o < 1; we must show that is strictl-y less than 1 + ox. To this end, let

r be a rational

and since

## fol-lows from the result

(1 + x )o / r < 1+9x:
so that

r'

(t+x)0 <

(t *

* ")''

If

regard .0;

## of Problem 4.5 to the e x p re s s io n (l-+ ? * )t ,

x as the quantlty x in

(1+9x)r<1 +
and thls

rc lx r

a strict

## must be replaced by an inequal_ity e.g., 0 < 1_/n, but 0 = is required H

which equality

is to be considered,

inequality

in those

inequality

is possible.)

4.10.

## Consider f irst equality *o-0*> minimize

x0 wlth

1 + y = *.

Ttren (1 +y)0>1+aywith

*o - a* rather

- s-64 -

x = Az.

But if'we

multiply

by

or

)o

ir
(1-a)Ao=(1

"))o-1,

4.11.

L+sln 2 x . 1

## + 4(cos6* srn6x). Equalitvhords nrrenever W=

alternative solutLon

SF

## may be found by means of Problen

t . t"0.
4.!2. Agaln, we have 1.= cos2* . 1 + slo2* . 2131.3 . 1

1cos3* + sln3x)

+ 13)

## whence L < 2. Equaltty

("o"3* + sln3x)2,

whlch ls

equival.ent

to the eolutlon.

## holds wtrenever (tro2*)3/ 2 -

(po"2*)312
I

,3

ot

x=1114.

13
I "o"2* + sln2x, whlch ls not greater

4.13.

wlth

rhe ldentity

c-2

zx)alz *
["'"

## " (srn2*)a/ 1',"8h. ,#t] ,

- s-65 -

whence

a.-2
1 < (cosox + slngx)zlo(2,
0

,0 ,

wtrence 2'-l

"o"o*

+ sl#x,

wlth

equallty

for

"o"o*

sin0x =- - r ,

x = r1 4 .

4.L4.

tet.Llp

- c and Llq-

3, so that o+

{ttt*l

## less rhan t{rt*lO(*)a*)o({bc(x)O(x)dx)8. rf we set f - Fo, g' cB,

/a then F = pl - fP and e "Ll\$ g9, and ne harre

## t'0, t'o (r(x)lpo<*la*J = )qo(x)a*] 0(x)dx [f Jor(*)r(*) lio,r,x)

with equaltty lf (f(x))p = (g(*))9.

4.15. .

Set p have

## , so that L/p + Lln = l.

ny H6lderrs l"nequallty, we

axfb

+ < (a P * 6n11/n1*o
and therefore

"o

when

lrlth

equallty,

## the maxLmum, occurrlng

_C

ap n x

- f fbP i'
c -x

or whea

xt-

ca

ilf ',
n rl/ n '
)

l- il^.f ilr l D ta

- s-66 -

4 .16 .

## s o rh a rl* 1 P q the functLon xP - (py)x, whose minlmum is

p (1-p)yP-l-(1-p)yq

t. -

lJ e c o n s id e r

ln Problen 4.10.

Ttrus

*P:(py)x>(1-p)y9,

so that

"P

+ (O - l)yq

> p x yr or

1P * ( o : r ) y e > x y , pp'
frm wtrich (+.2) foll-ows.
Frm Problen 4.10 lt follorls tliat the

p

or nrhen

*P

yP -l ,

*P = y9,

## whlch ls the condLtion for equality

1n (4.2).

4 . L 7 . W ese t p -*

(n >n ),9

= f, fr t s) , and]-

r - *- i.

Then

## * * + . + +{ = **oi rn (t- * - l " '

nrxP + nsyQ + (mr - nr - em)zr mr between the arlthnetlc Ls not less than na and geometrLc means, By the lnequaLlty last expresslon

## f*ott ,9ne "r(mr-ot-"df/tt ()

wlth equaLtty oaly lf xP yi

- *6 ,oi
= zt.

r(1 -

* -;

z ,tyz,

- s-67 -

4.18.

## We wrl.re HiiLderfs lnequallty

ln the forn

= , where At ,i;l'n'1,0[,!,rJ"o[,i,,,1"0
Then

## ' rl, tr - bl'

I.rrr", "11t

rl/o

",

= [(rrcr)l/ntar"r)l/e

## < ([ercr)t/n{Irr"r)l/q = (I"l"r)l/pt[r!"r)l/q,

wl.th equallty tf
D

"i"t

tl"

"

..-

tP" nn
.q D-C '

## which le the same sg the form glven

4.19.

Fl.rst eolutlo,n.

I{e have

L +2 +4 -

r1 Y ,*'.8

L+6

z+G #.

4,

or

7<(x.l+y

wlth

equality

for

z.

If

we

the deeLred

meane relation

we

xt-2 y+4 2- 7m
Tz

txyz

V.*

- s-68 -

## lrlth equaLtty only tf

x = y = z.

Also,

i. 3 + !
7 wlth ities, equallty only if

z ix

7 /l z v z y
If

x - y - z.

we nultiply

result,

of equalLty:

that

## we had used the Lnequalltles

ry.3 @ =3 @
r.
x

2.4
y 3 z L >3/ t xyz' -

## we obtaln true for

that

(x t 2y * tr:')(! * ! + !-'1 ,- g 3G4 '-xyz' two lnequallties being x = 2y = 42, the conditlon =

## enough, but the last eguality, the first

have dlfferLng

a n d t h e s e c o n d l= ; = t ,
x=y=2.

whlch therefore

cannot yteld

4 .20 .

## {n Let c, = 2-, i o 1, ' ", wrlte

rt.

Itren .!rc,

t:1-

.B-zi - zntL- z. we
L/2

2t*1'2=l.i=

T-

so that,

on squarlng, n

## 4(2n - L > 2 <

1=1
and, on dlvldlng equallty only lf ,{,
1

lz'

.,] , [,i,+,J
with

*1 =*2-

"'

= x . n

- s-59 -

Another

soluti.on

parallels

## the sec@d eolutlon

of Problen

4 .r9.
4.2L. Let us use Problem 4.18 agaln wlth p n q2. We have

a * b * c * d -< ["+. #

Thug re obtain

la(eH)

## (a+b+c+d)2 + b(d+a) + c(a+b) + d(b+c)l

< -

c u'

wlth

equallty

o,n1y lf

c * d = d * a.= a * b - b + c, or a b c - d. therefore S .
ml.n

Ttre value

of the mlnl.mum ie

2.

4.22.

We shall

and wlth

poq-2.

Weheve

L-12+b2+cz

whence

## .2(u*") + b2(c+a) + c2(art)

Norrequalttyholds forb+c'

## (e= -LJ-D b*c

.2
' c{e,

2
.r' c a*b

cta-a+b,

ora-b-

c.

Thus r

- s-70 -

w hen - b - c , S 2 +, a

6a"

and S = {, 6b"

s 2 +, 6c-

## l /s s 6 b 3 ; l /s s 6 " 3 . r f we add these last

l /s < 2(a3 + b3 +
onlytfa=b-c=

lnequalitles,

we have

"3),
I

wh e n c es 2

z( a3+t3+c3)
wh e n c es > f 3 1 2 .

wlth

equallty

R,

4.23.

## any p and q satisfyLng

(4.1).

we havc

L - a 2 + b 2 + .2 - ( *, ^. ^2**.r .u2

+!.

". "2)

= |.+
(aP

## * ot * * .zluet"a"2* ueb2 .'"2 * ) "e"2;1/c, bP cP

"2-P)9(^24 * b2{l * "2t)P > 1, wlth equallty

or

.,,2-p + b2-p *

lf a = b - c.
4.24. Ttre case that asatrne that l/p l/p + L/q = 1is < 1. Hdlderrs ineguallty, so that lre may

+ l/q

## Ttre number r def ined by

;= t-F-a
ie greater Pr gr fr than 1, go that, by Problen 4.17 extended to arbl.trary we have

1.11

d*d*{,
Pqr

r*.

By (4.24) we have b rb

I rer ax< l/ a \a
=(b

rea*j''' [i "
_ alLtt[orn

t'n[io"u*]t"

dx

]"'[1'-'u*J"n,

- s-7t_-

wlth

equeltty
'

only if

f(x)
1t-

## and g(x) are conatant.

Ttre constanr k

turrrs out to be (b - a) " ^ . 4.25. fire aolutlon lnequallty that, for paral1els lnstead that

## of Problen 3.30, where 1re uae Hiilderte Indeed, we have first

of Schwarzrs inequallty.

any M and N,

## ,( r2 (w ) - r2 (u ) = l N zt( x) f x) dx . .M rN r Upr N _ \i./q ' lt trllrM/tm)1"y lPa"l lr ' ( * ) lqa* l lr

the detalls fron this point on are essentlarly identlcar t,o

of thc eolutloa

of Problem 3.30,

4.26.
.t

\-'

## n(n-+l ')-1+z? +3+...* n = t r . + + : _T - r' z + r r . . . + - - . _ 1 E.

where ne aet
n6

1 ztxZfr+

...

nrrx

t#o

-.F'

"i

- i,

"1

= q.

and b, = 11fi,

we have, for p - 4 -2 ,

## n'(n+L)t,, --'(*1 wlth equallty

+ 2x

+ z + ...+ n x o )(i t.
... E X

...

T" n

n\

for

*1

= - *2

4.27.

tdentlty

the

t,

## F.g - .!r* 4tt *f,'tt,

\ vr-, andtakep-3,9-3/2Ln rhe lnequallty

o f P ro b le m 4 . 1 8 .

J.-; d,!

- s- 71 -

Solutions

for

Chapter V

5.1.

If

f(x)

= 1og x,

then f '(x)

= l/x f(x)

and f"(x)

## is concave for Ttrus n

(5.3).

locl

1t 1= los . * * t"r x, = ) ,r=, *J Z ,1, *r"gx.=1og 1og J1*t/t=loq,,ffix ,F..n ,]r"1'" ) *l (5.18). slnce 1og x is not linear x, = ... = xn. over any intervar, equallty

*r)-

whlch is hol-ds lt

(5.18) only if

5.2.

B y (5 . 8) ,

of inequality

## t.*f.i,or*rlz i-c, 1og. = 1ogf, *lt , x, \i = 1 ^ -/ i=l

i=l ^ whi c h gLves (5 .1 9 ). Eq ual -i ty hol ds onl y if * 1 = ...

=x

n o, * cx,,= l.

5.3.

## In (5.19), Hence, for equallty

let

us set n = 2, dL=

L/p, aZ = L/q,

so that

S olAt

only if

nPi

(5.20) with

equality

5.4.

iltoi

= 1.

If

## of Problem 5.3, we obtain

equality

*l-

Pr

= *2

Pz

=x

Pn n

5.5.

For any o, > 0, g > 0, we have immediately f(x) = x log x (verify that f'r(x)

## frorn the convexlty for x > 0) that

of

ls positive

- s-72 -

"#
@
whence t#l equallty ' . holds only

## rore+it . f ros * t losB, "

(oo3\Llz'. lf o = B slnce x log x Ls ttnear nowhere,

5.6.

that

## x l-og x is convex (Probl-em 5.5)

aesurea ua thet,

lf

1, Pi > o,

(ot*t + "'
S Pl*l

f p xo)J-oe(nrx, "' +
lo8 x, + "'

* po*o)

* po*r, log xo

Pr*r . = rosf [1
whlch le (5.22r. Equallty

Pr,*ol *o ),
= ... = "r. x > 1. Equallty

5.7.

## Obsenre that holds only lf

the functlon c = B.

-6

5.8.

If

we play a blt

nith

we have, slnce

e{n x, > 0r

that

or

## (r 1*sln 1 < los sinfi F I i olrt"t nlr\j

Ttrle le the form (5.3) Ln this case, f(x) of Jeneents inequalLty After for a concave functlon, that the functlon to obtain the

- log sln x.

verifyLng

Lo9 sln x ls

## lndeed concave, rre may reverse Equallty

the steps *1 .

requLred lnequaltty.

## holds only for

- s- 73 -

5.9.

If

f(x)

ls twice dlfferentLable,

is concave on

## x, and x2 are any two points

'[+] =roq'[+]
2. l"s
f f(x'

) + f (xrF1

T-J
+*t"r f(xr)

(f ts eoncave)
(1og x Ls concave)

f rosr(x r )
* I r<*r) *
Thus, if xrr

r(*r)'

* z'
*1

## , xn are poLnts of tr, we have

1og f

+. .. * x r nl

"J

, ! tog f(xr)

+ or. r*

tot

f(xo),

. t f ( x r )t ( x r ) . . . f( xr r ) Jr ln t[:#
as desLred. Equallty holds only for *1 = ... thls woul-d imply

bl
= *rr, for lf that f(x)

were linear

is exponenf(x)

for

numbers 0rr

0n with

rogr[rlr,r-rJt

rlro,

rogr(xr),

- s-74 -

or

## . tr(xr)rot... [r(xo)]oo t[rlr*t],

whlch l.nvolveg the weLghted arlthmetlc - *rr. f(x) = *P-1, f(O) - 0, le increaelng drlch we Day or becauee y > 0 and and geometric meane. Equaltty

5.10.

functlon

g(y),

calculate

## tlp + Llq, - 1, x - y9-1,

whlch ie an increasing

vanlehea at y * 9.

Now

fa p-r.<tx=f a P ^ r -l*^ ^1 o
and the flgure below ehows that

= o, = I)ro-tu, f ,
o

## the area of the rectangle

wlth

sLdee a hords

and b cannot exceed the sum of the areaa A, and Ar. only lf b f(a) - "P-1, or, what Ls the same thlng,

Equality lf aP -

bQ.

(e (b) ,b)

(a, f (a) )

(a, f (a) )

Flg.

- s- 75 -

5.1-1.

An lntultlve

geometrlcal

proof

ls

clear

if

## we nodtfy solutlon. for

the solutLon

glven

to Probl-em 5.10 and use the flgures a sol-utlon case that that ls applicable f(x)

in that

the functlons

the solutlon

## we set y = f(x) Lntegral

1( crB) ,
I (0,0) wlth the upper llmtt

## V dx*xdy, SLnce y le poeltlve

to be deternlned.

and

g(b) ) ar we have

A r* A r=

I (0 ,0) t (0 ,0)

(s ( b ) , b )
ydx*xdy-

(a, f(a) )

ydx 1(s(u),u)

1 (e ( b ) ,u )

Ydx*xdY-

( 0,0)
b

d(:ry) 1(s(t),t)

## (s( b) ) ' b = g(b) xIl; | (0,0)

> ab. that, as we traverse

Ilere,

## we meet the polnt

before meetlng

Ls not llJ-ustrated,

but in thls

caee we have

A rfA r=

(o'o )

1(a, f (a )) d (x y )J 1(a,f (a ) )

(e(b) 'b)

1(a , f (a )) *dy J

(0,0) z ab,

- s-76 -

shown in Figure

5.L2.

## Uel-ag the reeult

of the precedlng

problem, we have

.* . J""rn t dt + fsro-lt
oo

at

## and the reeulr follows by settlng a a r/2. x=1. 5.13.

ustng the reeult of Problen 5.11, we have, slnce f(x) 8(y) are lncreaaing,

- x5 + x and

OO

## wLth equeltty forb

equallty, a > 0. 1.e., Hence

= a5 + a.

## To evaluarc 12 e(y)dy, wemuat have o

ie the only solution for

= 1; this a- + a - 2, or e

L.2- Itt*t *
o

x)dx *

g(y)dy,

B (r)dy - 4 / 3 .

5.14.

## Using the foru of (5.3) we have

for

conceve functlone

(with

equer.lty reveraed),

f; !.:i

- s-77 -

## r's[r.j, 3 ->r T 1og(1 * nj o tlr

(1 +so >
with equality only lf ar" n II (1 + ar)r & k-l
E ... E I .

"t)

5.15.

ls

## convex follows for fron all

fron x.

the fact

that

= .*(1

is posltlve follows n

## Thus for that

any n real

numbere xr,

xn) it

(5.3)

t1*e

*1*"' +:(

] "t - lr [ t * "* n] ,

['

...

[".t

"*]""]"

k-1 (

*.\ ft|,t

l
or ak - exk,

## Slnce the an are posLtlve, we oay set 1o8 A - * k ' whence

., (1 + (ara, ... "o)r/n)n

n < ,II_11 + an), k-1 holds "o. of Problen 5.15 nay be only lf x, '"

Equallty

al = " ' =

5.16.

dieplayed as

lnequallty

ln the solutton

t. + (ara,...

"o)t'" = Jrar

* 1)1/o.

- s- 78 -

If,

in thls

inequalityr

rr replace

"k

by a,/b1,

we have

## . jr4 /" ' f nlrol'". * ,|]"", Jr[,

and, if we nultiply
inequality. Equality it

## both sides ur nuf/D, w obrain rhe desired

holds 7f. ar/b, = .. . = arr/brr.

We remark that

is quite

k=lK by applytng

## il "t/" * ftorl"* .ft-"|/" r.ft-,* + bk+ "o)t/'

k=lK k=lk k=l resul-t of this
1t^

the orlginaln

k=l

5.L7.

power, the

## the geometric means g, and

In accordance with

n

(s.+8b+g")t
K =I

numbers crr

...,

cn.

5.18.

If

we set,

n(*,f(x))dx

rhen we nay

## At * AZ ln terms of the llne

integrals

A .,*A r=

1(s(b),b ) p (x , y )d x f J (0,0)

q (x , y )d y -

1 (e (b ), b ) j p (x , y )d x (a , f (a ) )

A .,*A r=

1(a,f (a ) ) p (x , y )d x + q (x , y )d y I (0,0)

1 (a , f (a ) ) q (x , y )d y , J (e (b ), b )

- s-79 -

\.,

## eccording as (a'f(a)) the path of integratlon q(xry)

or (g(b)rb) startlng

## Ls encountered flrst at the orlgin.

as we traverse and

slnce p(xry)

## we have, Ln both caaes above, that

A r +A ? Z

) (0,0)

r(e(b) b ) ' p (x , y )d x + q (x , y )d y

## 1 (e (b )' b ) = F(x,I) l' - F (g (b ), b ) | (0,0)

> F (a rb ), and

A l +A 2 >

;(a ,f

(a ) )

J (0,0)
F(xry)

p (x , y )d x + q (x , y )d y
(a, f (a) )

(0,0)

- F(a,f(a))

5.19.

rf

we rotete

solid

of rotation - {t

given by fron

and F v* trold

n*y2d*,

(0,0)

to the cen-

of the solld

stnllarly,

of problen

5.1-g, we have

## F v* + t v.,= f ,*r'* * l'n*r, ayz[ x-y'"o ^2a2,

for rhe functlon F(xry) - t *'r'has the properry rhat eo that, in dF - n:ry2dx + rm2y dy. thts ease, holds when b = f (a),

Equaltty

- s-80 -

xv
(a) The function restrict triangle

t'"=i

'fl

^ 2 lt (^ ))2 .
so that rile must so that the

5.2O.

cos x is

## concave on 0 ( x < t/2,

the angles x1r *2, *3 to be less than rl2, is acute. By (5.3) we have

cos xr)

## < cos = n/t.

"r

+_*z+ *:
3

= L/2,
* eos x, * trlangJ_e.

*1 = *2 = *,

Hence cos xl

the equilateral-

## problem, rde must restrict

ourselves

to an

acute angle because cos x is concave only over 0 < x < rT/2. By Problem 5.9 we have

## cosxr cosx2 cosx3 .

with equality, for

"o"3taa.pJ3]
aBain for

= L/8,

and hence the maximum value of the expression, x, = *2 = xy the equilateral triangle.

occurring

## 0 < x < Tt/2, should be

where both cot x and 1og cot x are convex (tnis verified; use Theorern 5.1). We have, by (5.3),

fact that

log cot x, * 1og cot xZ * 1-og cot x, S 3 log cot or or wLth equality log(cot cot xl for xl cot xZ cot *3) . 3 1_ogcotgr cot x2 cot x3 < (cot *L = *Z = *3. 3 =

*1**2**3

3-)

L/36

## trIe observe that

the maximum of the given expression tan xl tan xz tan x3 assumes its

occurs minimum,

- s-81 -

## sec x is convex on 0 < x < Ttlz, so that,

b y (5 . 3 ) ,

whence sec xl * sec x, * sec *3 , 3 sec n/3 wlth equallty for tie equrtateral triangle; - 6, the mlnLnun value

## the gLven expresslon ls then 6.

(e) Ttre functl.on tan xlT ts convex on 0 < x < fi, so that, by (5.3)

t""[#J
or

## f{."o xrlz + tan xrlz + tan xr/3)

xl

xr

xt

ta n f+
go that trLangle.

ta n f+

## tao, t' :.3

ls achleved

r an Ttl6- 31 6 ,
ln the ease of the equllateral

the ml.nLmtrn 3 | 6

5.2L .

r f we set yl = f(xr),

lz=

f (x r),

y 3 = f (x 3 ), a n d re c a ll f ro n a n a lyt l c

## for the area of a trl.angle

^-+
wlLl be posltlve to (xrrl3), lf, (xr,y2) othenslse, precleely A w111 be negatlve. the dlettnction

*1 vl tl *z v2 tl
Y3 1l
the edges fron (,xrrY1) to

*3

of the triangle

- s-82 -

algebralcally,

note

that

the condltLon

*rY l 1
0<

*2-*1 *3-*L

tz-tt It-It

0 0

and to

yL-yZ Yz t3-yz

0 I0 gLvee

## = (xr-xr) (v,-yr) - (xr-xr) (rr-rr),

and that these two Lnequau.ttee gLve us (5.24>, whLch in turr us (5 -23). The ateps precedr.ng (5.23) are reverslble,

so that the

## condLtl.on ls both neceaaary and suff{clent. 5.22. Let x and xo 1le ln a ( x ( b, x

*o. We have already \

"

eeen that

ri(x)sW
for Ax > 0. lncreaeingr slnce f(x) is conrinuous and ri(x) of this

is nonotonlcally aa x * *o,

## tr may take the llnlt

lnequallty

x ) xor to obtaln

## L1n fi(x) x')x

' x)xo

<

f (xo +/lx)

- f (x)

Thus, as Ax + 0, Ax > O, we have tin fl(x) ? x*,r *r*o o But we know already that <

ff (xo).

fi(xo)

S fi(x)

for xo ( x, wtrence

- s-83 -

*t*o The last o

> fi(xo).

two LnequalitLes

show that

lln fi(x)
x+:( *t*o o

- ff (xo),

that

5.23.

Let J* - ff(x)

- f](x); x.-

lf If

Jx - 0 for

## < y < fi(x).

x, and if

and J1t > 0, the two l-ntervals for both f'(x) each lntenral and ff(x) J-- contatns x

of x.

there le,

## be more Lntervale of polnts

Jx than there

are ratLonal

the eet

x such that

Jx > 0 Ls denumerable. ueee the faet that ri(x) aad ft(x) are

the proof lt

Actually,

## means that at of the

poeeeaelng rlght-hand

derivatinee

at al-l polnte

except

## at a denumerable eet of poLnt*r

- s-84 -

5.24. t{e set r r<*,yldxdy and call g = f - rnr so rhat // g a*ay = + {/ "r rlto
r Let us use L --Z (5.26) ln the foLlowing calculatl.on:

## rr rt , = 1 // roe(r + g)dxdy II log f(x,y)dxdy + fir- D. nr- D,

lo g n .# //lo e ( r + t) a xa y
r
1. = m, // + D. fi a"ay 1og nr-

(loe'*
which proves the result. lf f ts constant,