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The electromechanical-energy-conversion process takes place through the medium of the electric or magnetic field of the conversion device of which the structures depend on their respective functions. Transducers: microphone, pickup, sensor, loudspeaker Force producing devices: solenoid, relay, electromagnet Continuous energy conversion equipment: motor, generator This chapter is devoted to the principles of electromechanical energy conversion and the analysis of the devices accomplishing this function. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of systems that use magnetic fields as the conversion medium. The concepts and techniques can be applied to a wide range of engineering situations involving electromechanical energy conversion. Based on the energy method, we are to develop expressions for forces and torques in magnetic-field-based electromechanical systems.

**§3.1 Forces and Torques in Magnetic Field Systems
**

The Lorentz Force Law gives the force F on a particle of charge q in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. F = q (E + v × B ) (3.1) F : newtons, q : coulombs, E : volts/meter, B : telsas, v : meters/second In a pure electric-field system, In pure magnetic-field systems,

F = qE

F = q(v × B )

(3.2) (3.3)

Figure 3.1

Right-hand rule for F = q(v × B ) .

For situations where large numbers of charged particles are in motion, Fv = ρ (E + v × B ) J = ρv Fv = J × B

(3.4) (3.5) (3.6)

**ρ (charge density): coulombs/m3, Fv (force density): newtons/m3, J = ρ v (current density): amperes/m2.
**

1

1. nondeforming structures.1. or torque.Figure 3. most electromechanical-energy-conversion devices contain magnetic material. In a motor. the two sets of fields associated with the rotor and the stator of rotating machinery attempt to align. It is rarely necessary to calculate the details of the internal force distribution. For a generator. The performance of these devices is typically determined by the net force. Unlike the case in Example 3. 2 . pulling on it and performing work. the rotor does the work on the stator. Just as a compass needle tries to align with the earth’s magnetic field. and torque is associated with their displacement from alignment.2 Single-coil rotor for Example 3. Forces act directly on the magnetic material of these devices which are constructed of rigid. acting on the moving component. the stator magnetic field rotates ahead of that of the rotor.

3(b): a simple force-producing device with a single coil forming the electric terminal.3 (a) Schematic magnetic-field electromechanical-energy-conversion device. A lossless magnetic-energy-storage system with two terminals The electric terminal has two terminal variables: e (voltage). x (position) The loss mechanism is separated from the energy-storage mechanism. 3. the electromechanical energy conversion.9) Equation (3. 3 . The mechanical terminal has two terminal variables: f fld (force). 3. Fig. – Electrical losses: ohmic losses… – Mechanical losses: friction. occurs through the medium of the magnetic stored energy.9) permits us to solve for the force simply as a function of the flux λ and the mechanical terminal position x .9) form the basis for the energy method. Figure 3. (b) simple force-producing device. it is merely changed in form. The interaction between the electric and mechanical terminals. Equations (3. and a movable plunger serving as the mechanical terminal.8) (3. i. i (current).3(a): a magnetic-field-based electromechanical-energy-conversion device. Wfld : the stored energy in the magnetic field d Wfld dx = ei − f fld dt dt dλ e= dt d Wfld = idλ − f fld dx (3.e.7) and (3.The Energy Method Based on the principle of conservation of energy: energy is neither created nor destroyed.7) (3. windage… Fig.

rearranging (3.11) where dWelec = id λ = differential electric energy input dWmech = f fld dx = differential mechanical energy output dWfld = differential change in magnetic stored energy Here e is the voltage induced in the electric terminals by the changing magnetic stored energy. The predominant energy storage occurs in the air gap. This is done mathematically as part of the modeling process. The ability to identify a lossless-energy-storage system is the essence of the energy method.11) and (3.§3.12) results in dWelec = ei dt = dWmech + dWfld (3. For motor action. Figure 3.4 shows an electromagnetic relay schematically. 3. This field acts as the energy-conversion medium.3(a). It is through this reaction voltage that the external electric circuit supplies power to the coupling magnetic field and hence to the mechanical output terminals.10) ⎜ form electric ⎟ = ⎜ energy ⎟ + ⎜ stored in magnetic ⎟ + ⎜ converted ⎟ ⎜ sources ⎟ ⎜ output ⎟ ⎜ field ⎟ ⎜ into heat ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Note the generator action. Fig. Combining (3. dWelec = ei dt (3. 3. 4 . we can account for the energy transfer as ⎛ Energy input ⎞ ⎛ Mechanical ⎞ ⎛ Increase in energy ⎞ ⎛ Energy ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (3.3 Energy in Singly-Excited Magnetic Field Systems We are to deal energy-conversion systems: the magnetic circuits have air gaps between the stationary and moving members in which considerable energy is stored in the magnetic field. and the properties of the magnetic circuit are determined by the dimensions of the air gap.13) §3.4 Schematic of an electromagnetic relay.10) gives dWelec = dWmech + dWfld (3. For the lossless magnetic-energy-storage system of Fig.2 Energy Balance Consider the electromechanical systems whose predominant energy-storage mechanism is in magnetic fields.9) in form of (3.12) The basic energy-conversion process is one involving the coupling field and its action and reaction on the electric and mechanical systems. and its energy is the reservoir between the electric and mechanical system.

19) (∫ B 0 H ⋅ dB′ ) dV (3. Since the magnetic energy storage system is lossless.17) On path 2a. x ) dλ ′ = ∫ ′= Wfld (λ .5 where tow separate paths are shown. On path 2b. λ and x are referred to as state variables. x0 ) = path 2a ∫ dWfld + path 2b ∫ dWfld (3.18) gives λ λ λ′ 1 λ2 ′ .λ = L( x )i dWmech = f fld dx dWfld = idλ − f fld dx (3.20) (3. Wfld (λ0 . x ) = ∫ i (λ dλ 0 0 L( x ) 2 L( x ) V : the volume of the magnetic field Wfld = ∫ If B = µ H . Wfld is the same regardless of how λ and x are brought to their final values. dWfld = 0 on path 2a. (3.5 Integration paths for Wfld . dx = 0 .15) (3.18) For a linear system in which λ is proportional to i . See Fig. it is a conservative system. ⎛ B2 ⎞ Wfld = ∫ ⎜ ⎟ dV V 2µ ⎝ ⎠ V (3.16) Wfld is uniquely specified by the values of λ and x . d λ = 0 and f fld = 0 .21) 5 . Figure 3. Therefore. x 0 ) = ∫ i (λ . (3. Therefore. Thus. 3.17) reduces to the integral of id λ over path 2b.14) (3. Wfld (λ0 . x0 ) dλ 0 λ0 (3.

6 .Figure 3.6 (a) Relay with movable plunger for Example 3.2. (b) Detail showing air-gap configuration with the plunger partially removed.

For linear magnetic systems for which λ = L( x)i .26) λ Once we know Wfld as a function of λ and x .24) gives (3.22) with (3. the force can be found as f fld = − ∂ ⎛ 1 λ2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ∂x ⎜ 2 L( x ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ f fld = 2 = λ 2 L(x ) λ2 2 dL( x ) dx (3.25) can be used to solve for i (λ . x ) ∂λ (3. (3. determined uniquely by the values of the independent state variables λ and x .26) can be used to solve for the mechanical force f fld (λ . The partial derivative is taken while holding the flux linkages λ constant.26): i= ∂Wfld (λ . Equation (3.28) i dL( x ) 2 dx 7 . x ) = idλ − f fld dx dF ( x1 . x) . x2 ) = dWfld (λ .25) and (3.23) (3.4 Determination of Magnetic Force and Torque form Energy The magnetic stored energy Wfld is a state function. x ) ∂x (3.25) x f fld = − ∂Wfld (λ . dWfld (λ . x) .22) dx2 x1 ∂F ∂x2 (3. x ) = ∂F ∂x1 dx1 + x2 (3.24) ∂Wfld ∂λ dλ + x ∂Wfld ∂x dx λ Comparing (3.27) (3.§3.

θ ) = idλ − Tfld dθ (3.29) Tfld = − ∂Wfld (λ .3.9 Magnetic circuit for Example 3.Figure 3. (b) Force as a function of position x for i = 0.30) λ For linear magnetic systems for which λ = L(θ )i : Wfld (λ . 8 . (a) Polynomial curve fit of inductance.75 A. the mechanical terminal variables become the angular displacement θ and the torque Tfld .32) (3.31) (3. dWfld (λ .34) Tfld = − ∂ ∂θ ⎛ 1 λ2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 2 L(θ ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Tfld = 2 = λ 1 λ2 dL(θ ) 2 L(θ )2 dθ i dL(θ ) 2 dθ Figure 3. θ ) ∂θ (3.33) (3.7 Example 3. For a system with a rotating mechanical terminal. θ ) = 1 λ2 2 L(θ ) (3.4.

4.40) will give the same result.25) ∂Wfld (λ . The selection of energy or coenergy as the state function is purely a matter of convenience. determined uniquely by the values of the independent state variables λ and x .40) i For any given system. the coenergy W fld (i. dWfld (λ . x) can be seen to be a state function of the two independent variables i and x . x) is defined as a function of i and x such that ′ Wfld (i . (3. x ) = d (iλ ) − dW fld (λ . x ) = idλ − f fld dx (3. x ) = λ di + f fld dx ′ From (3.37) ′ dWfld (i . x ) = ∂Wfld ∂λ dλ + x ∂Wfld ∂x dx λ (3.36) (3.34) (3. ′ The coenergy W fld (i. 9 . x ) = ′ ∂W fld ∂i x di + ′ ∂W fld ∂x i dx (3. x ) = iλ − Wfld (λ .26) and (3.§3. the magnetic stored energy Wfld is a state function. x ) = − fld ∂x x (3.22) dWfld (λ . x ) d (iλ ) = idλ + λdi ′ dWfld (i .24) (3. x ) i= ∂λ f fld ∂W (λ . ′ dWfld (i . x ) ∂x x f fld = (3.38) (3.39) λ= ′ ∂Wfld (i . x) (3.35) (3.26) λ Coenergy: from which the force can be obtained directly as a function of the current.37). x ) ∂i ′ ∂Wfld (i .5 Determination of Magnetic Force and Torque from Coenergy Recall that in §3.

θ ) ∂θ 0 (3.47) (3. x ) = ∫ λ (i ′ . x 0 ) = ∫ i (λ .48) (3. x ) = L( x ) i 2 2 2 i dL( x ) f fld = 2 dx (3.θ ) = ∫ λ (i ′ . the coenergy can be found as (3. ′ Wfld (i .41) Wfld (λ0 .3. 1 L (θ )i 2 2 i 2 dL(θ ) Tfld = 2 dθ (3. x0 ) dλ 0 λ0 (3. θ ) = (3.46) (3. x ) di ′ i 0 For linear magnetic systems for which λ = L( x)i . 1 ′ Wfld (i .43) is identical to the expression given by (3.33).50) 10 .18) (3. For a system with a rotating mechanical displacement.45) i If the system is magnetically linear.By analogy to (3. θ ) di ′ i (3.43) Tfld = ′ ∂Wfld (i .41) ′ Wfld (i . In field-theory terms.44) (3.28).49) (3.47) is identical to the expression given by (3.18) in §3. for soft magnetic materials H0 ′ Wfld = ∫ ⎛ ∫ B ⋅ dH ⎞ dV ⎜ 0 ⎟ V⎝ ⎠ 2 µH ′ Wfld = ∫ dV v 2 For permanent-magnet (hard) materials H0 ′ Wfld = ∫ ⎛ ∫ B ⋅ dH ⎞ dV ⎜ H ⎟ V⎝ c ⎠ ′ Wfld (i .42) (3.

B 2 / µ = µH 2 . the energy and coenergy (densities) are numerically equal: 1 1 1 2 1 λ / L = Li 2 .10 Graphical interpretation of energy and coenergy in a singly-excited system. (b) change of coenergy with i held constant. ′ Wfld + Wfld = λi (3. Assume the relay armature is at position x so that the device operating at point a in Fig. x ) ∂x ≅ lim i ′ ∆Wfld ∆x → 0 ∆x i Figure 3. Consider the relay in Fig.4.51) Figure 3.11 Effect of ∆x on the energy and coenergy of a singly-excited device: (a) change of energy with λ held constant. the two functions are not even numerically equal. 3. 3. x ) ∂x ≅ lim λ − ∆Wfld ∆x →0 ∆x and λ f fld = ′ ∂Wfld (i . For a nonlinear system in which λ and i or B and 2 2 2 2 H are not linearly proportional. 11 .For a magnetically-linear system.11. Note that f fld = − ∂Wfld (λ .

the force acts to increase the inductance by pulling on members so as to reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path linking the winding. In a singly-excited device.6. Figure 3. 12 .12 Magnetic system of Example 3.The force acts in a direction to decrease the magnetic field stored energy at constant flux or to increase the coenergy at constant current.

§3.θ Tfld = − ∂Wfld (λ 1 . λ 2 . i2 } . λ1 . λ 2 . λ 2 = λ 20 . λ 20 . λ 2 } . λ 20 .55) λ 1 .θ ) ∂λ 2 λ 2 . i1 .14 Integration path to obtain Wfld λ 10 . λ 2 . {θ . Wfld λ 10 .53) (3.56) ( ) Figure 3. Three independent variables: {θ . i2 } . i1 . dWfld (λ 1 . Energy conversion devices: multiply-excited magnetic field system. use the path of integration in Fig. 3. θ = θ 0 )dλ 2 + ∫ λ 10 0 i 1 λ 1 .6 Multiply-Excited Magnetic Field Systems Many electromechanical devices have multiple electrical terminals.θ (3. λ 2 .54) λ 1 . θ ) = i 1dλ 1 + i 2 dλ 2 − Tfld dθ (3. λ1 .θ 0 .λ 2 To find Wfld .θ ) ∂θ (3. λ 2 } . or {θ .θ ) ∂λ 1 ∂Wfld (λ 1 .14. Measurement systems: torque proportional to two electric signals. 3. A simple system with two electrical terminals and one mechanical terminal: Fig.θ 0 = ∫ ( ) λ 20 0 i 2 (λ 1 = 0 .52) Figure 3. 13 ( ) .13 Multiply-excited magnetic energy storage system.13. i1 = i2 = ∂Wfld (λ 1 . {θ . power as the product of voltage and current. λ 2 .θ = θ 0 dλ 1 (3.

69) For the linear system described as (3.68) i 1 .63).66) λ1 = λ2 = Tfld = ′ Wfld (i 1 .70) (3.θ ′ ∂Wfld (i 1 .58) (3. θ ) ∂i 1 ∂Wfld (i 1 . i 2 = i 2 . i 2 .60) (3.θ (3. Systems with more than two electrical terminals are handled in analogous fashion. i 2 .65) (3.θ 0 ) = ∫ i 20 ∂Wfld (i 1 .64) (3. i1 = i2 = L 22 λ 1 − L 12 λ 2 D − L 21λ 1 + L 11λ 2 (3.46) ′ Wfld (i 1 . i 2 . λ 20 . the coenergy function is a relatively simple function of displacement. θ ) ∂i 2 i 2 .θ = θ 0 )di 2 + ∫ λ 10 0 λ 1 (i 1 .θ ) = λ 1 di 1 + λ 2 di 2 + Tfld dθ (3.59) Note that Lij = Lij (θ ) .θ = θ 0 )di 1 0 (3.61) (3.θ 0 ) = L 11 (θ )i 1 + L 22 (θ )i 2 + L 12 (θ )i 1i 2 2 2 2 2 ′ ∂Wfld (i 1 . λ 1 = L 11i 1 + L 12 i 2 λ 2 = L 21i 1 + L 22 i 2 L 12 = L 21 (3.i 2 0 λ 2 (i 1 = 0 . 14 . The use of a coenergy function of the terminal currents simplifies the determination of torque or force. θ ) ∂θ (3.62) L 12 (θ 0 ) 1 1 2 λ1 λ 2 L 11 (θ 0 )λ 20 + L 22 (θ 0 )λ 10 − = 2 2 D(θ 0 ) 2 D(θ 0 ) D(θ 0 ) 0 0 Coenergy function for a system with two windings can be defined as (3.i 1 2 (3. i 2 . i 2 . i 2 .70) is simpler than (3. That is. θ 0 ) i 12 dL11 (θ ) i 2 dL22 (θ ) dL (θ ) = + + i 1i 2 12 Tfld = ∂θ 2 dθ 2 dθ dθ i .57) to (3. i 2 .71) Note that (3.θ ) = λ 1i 1 + λ 2 i 2 − Wfld D D = L 11 L 22 − L 12 L 21 The energy for this linear system is λ 2 0 L 11 (θ 0 )λ 2 λ 10 L 22 (θ 0 )λ 1 − L 12 (θ 0 )λ 2 0 dλ 1 dλ 2 + ∫ Wfld λ 10 .63) ′ dWfld (i 1 . i 2 .59) 1 1 2 ′ Wfld (i 1 .In a magnetically-linear system.67) i 1 .57) (3. i 2 . θ 0 = ∫ 0 0 D(θ 0 ) D(θ 0 ) ( ) ( ) (3.

Figure 3. 15 .15 Multiply-excited magnetic system for Example 3. Figure 3.16 Plot of torque components for the multiply-excited system of Example 3.7.7.

178 sin 2θ ___________________________________________________________________ System with linear displacement: Wfld λ 10 . λ 2 . x ) ∂x ′ ∂Wfld (i 1 . i 2 .77) 16 .296 sin 4θ + 0.74) 1 λ 1 . i 2 . x 0 = ∫ ( ) λ 20 0 λ 2 (i 1 = 0 . i 2 .75) i 1 . x ) ∂x λ 10 0 λ 1 (i 1 .i 2 For a magnetically-linear system. x = x0 )dλ 2 + ∫ λ 10 0 i 1 λ 1 . λ 2 . x = x0 dλ 1 ( ′ Wfld i 10 .72) (3.76) (3.37 A .Practice Problem 3.73) (3. λ 2 = λ 20 . λ 20 . x = x )di 0 (3. x = x0 )di 2 + ∫ f fld = − ∂Wfld (λ 1 . i 20 .8 + 0.27 cos 4θ L12 = 0. x0 = ∫ ( ) λ 20 0 i 2 (λ 1 = 0 .7 Find an expression for the torque of a symmetrical two-winding system whose inductances vary as L11 = L22 = 0. x ) = f fld 1 1 2 L 11 ( x )i 1 + L 22 ( x )i 2 + L 12 ( x )i 1i 2 2 2 2 2 i 12 dL11 (x ) i 2 dL22 ( x ) dL ( x ) = + + i 1i 2 12 2 dx 2 dx dx (3. i 2 = i 2 0 ) .65 cos 2θ for the condition that i1 = −i2 = 0. ′ Wfld (i 1 .λ 2 f fld = − (3. Solution: Tfld = −0.

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