Vizija uivotu i delu vilijema blejka (Viziuni în viaţa şi opera lui William Blake

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Jelena KRNETA Universitatea din Belgrad, Serbia

Abstract The art and poetry of William Blake is exquisite, but apart of being the artist and the poet he was visionary above all. That includes being thinker, spiritualist, mystic and modern prophet. His work was absolutely exeptional concerning the time and historical background in which it had been created, but as well as concerning our contemporary perspective. He had been creating in a period of transition in the european history, in the times of revolutions and when romanticism had been replacing neoclassicism. Although he is usually considered as the artist of romanticism, he never really and completely belonged to any historical art movement, nor his art could have ever been fully defined or interpreted. He always remained independent by creating and describing his own Universe, but also the Universe we are all living in, but never really experiencing it as he did, as the absolute and infinite. He was always completely devoted only to his inner guide – the Imagination in his creative process, so he was considered a rebell and even a madman by his contemporaries.

He was deeply spiritual, but never really traditionally religious. He created his own mythology and characters and his art is fully symbolic. Sources of his inspiration, apart of his vision and imagination, are various. It is known that he had been delighted and influenced by medieval art, and most of his art are iluminated books (illuminated manuscripts were very known and spreaded form of medieval art and painting) that so successfully combined his poetry and painting, even though his technique and expression are original and very unique. His motives and representations oftenly seem to be monumental, almost comparable with some of great mannirist wall decorations (of Michelangelo and Gulio Romano), but yet they are just book illuminations, which make his art even greater. Unfotunately, his art was not understood, excepted or praised during his lifetime. Most of his life he had spent poorly and in isolation, but yet happy and fullfilled by his freedom and creativity, because glory ment nothing to him. He was a genious, artist and visionary in its wholeness!

ve} sa 14 godina odlazi u radionicu grafi~ara James Basir-a.Pesni~ke skice (1783). Naprotiv. jedno kratko vreme }e provesti na engleskoj Kraljevskoj akademiji4. kao tre}e od petoro dece jednog engleskog trgovca. u doba kada je na umetni~koj sceni neoklasicizam zamenjivao romantizam. Vilijam Blejk je ro|en 1757. Kao dete je upoznao siroma{tvo. Po~eo je da pi{e poeziju sa 12 godina. spiritualista i moderni prorok. a njegovo prvo objavljeno delo su Poetical Sketches 2 . da bi se. tako i posmatrano iz dana{nje perspektive. Kakvo je vi|enje i mi{ljenje o Akademiji i Reynolds-u imao. uveo neki logi~ki redosled ili bar ne{to {to bi poslu`ilo kao mapa za lak{e kretanje kroz nepoznate krajeve ili lavirinte ljudskog postojanja i beskona~nosti. @iveo je i stvarao na prelazu u novu epohu evropske istorije. objasni i razume Blejk i njegovo delo. And yet they are blockheads you all agree: Thank God! I never was sent to school To be flogg’d into following the style of a fool. Po{to je usavr{io svoje crta~ko znanje i graverski zanat3. mistik. Knji`evno i likovno delo Vilijema Blejka je u potpunosti vanredno. najbolje pokazuju njegovi stihovi: “You say their pictures well painted be. gde provodi sedam godina. Poku{a}u da kao okosnicu i kostur razmatranja njegovog sveobuhvatnog dela koristim neke hronolo{ke odrednice njegovog `ivotnog puta. ali ga ne do`ivljavaju u svoj svojoj puno}i. niti se njegovo stvarala{tvo moglo jasno definisati. ako ne i pre njih. ostao je nezavisan. ako je to uop{te mogu}e kada se razmi{lja i poku{ava da analizira. a pre svega vizionar. koje je fascinirano otkrivao i prezentovao svojim stvarala{tvom. Iako je najve}im delom bio samouk i nije stekao tradicionalno umetni~ko obrazovanje. Njegove umetni~ke sklonosti dolaze do izra`aja jo{ u najranijem detinjstvu. ali }e se ubrzo odmetnuti kao pobunjenik protiv njenih krutih doktrina i tada{njeg upravnika Sir Joshua Reynolds-a. . potpunosti i beskona~nosti. kako u odnosu na vreme i istorijske tokove u kojima je nastalo. koje }e ga pratiti skoro celog `ivota. Sve ovo je otelotvoreno u li~nosti Vilijama Blejka. u Londonu1. kreiraju}i i opisuju}i svoj sopstveni Univerzum ili bolje re~eno svet u kome svi `ive. Ipak on nikada nigde nije u potpunosti pripadao.Umetnik: pesnik. mislilac. grafi~ar i slikar. u doba revolucija u Americi i Francuskoj. a istovremeno. prva vizionarska iskustva.

The errors of a wise man make your rule. To se ne mo`e smatrati ta~nim. “The only man that e’er I knew Who did not make me almost spew Was Fuseli: he was both Turk and JewAnd so. umetnika. Rather than perfections of a fool. na Akademiji }e ste}i dvojicu zna~ajnih prijatelja.” “Can there be anything more mean. pa se ~ak smatra da se Blejkov stil oformio apsolutno pod Fuseli-jevim uticajem. Nasuprot njemu Blejk ostaje veran svojoj unutra{njoj vodilji – imaginaciji.da sa~uva autenti~nost sopstvenih vizija. koji se ipak na kraju pomirio sa zvani~nicima. sa jedinim ciljem . Re~ je o Henry Fuseli-u i John Flaxman-u. Ostaje ve~ni pobunjenik. More malice in disguise. Than praise a man for doing what That man does most despise? Reynolds lectures exactly so When he praises Michel Angelo. ali su nijhovi ideali i okolnosti u kojima su stvarali bili potpuno razli~iti. Tako }e do kraja `iveti u siroma{tvu i izolaciji. Fuseli je bio umetni~ki i politi~ki radikal i buntovnik. za koje se mo`e re}i da su izvr{ili izvestan uticaj na njegovo likovno stvarala{tvo. Njih dvojica su se me|usobno izuzetno po{tovali. pa ~ak prihvatio naimenovanje za profesora slikarstva na Akademiji.”5 Uprkos tome. how do you do?” 6 . Veoma ~esto se Blejkovo i Fuslijevo stvarala{tvo posmatraju pod istim svetlom. dear Christian friends. sa `eljom da stvori umetnost koja prenosi poruku.

koji mu je pomogao da otvori sopstvenu grafi~ku radionicu . Ova dela karakteri{e izra`ena linearnost. Osim Poetical Sketches. bio je John Flaxman. pomagala mu je u {tamparskom radu. Catherine Boucher. koje su izvan dometa ljudskog poimanja. Kada je i poku{ao da stvara po ukusu svojih savremenika. Krajem osamdesetih godina XIX veka Blejkova umetnost }e do`iveti izuzetnu transformaciju.{tampariju 1784. pored toga {to mu je bila velika `ivotna podr{ka i inspiracija. koja }e se. Otkrio je sopstveni grafi~ki postupak8. Songs of Innocence – Pesme nevinosti (1789) su njegovo najpoznatije rano delo. na`alost. Uprkos tome Blejk }e najve}i deo svoje karijere i `ivota raditi kao grafi~ar i ilustrator. Uprkos lepoti. za dosezanje onih realnosti. kojim je kombinovao tekst sa slikama. koji su zatim ru~no bojeni. Ve} ovde je u potpunosti razvio komplikovan “dijalog” izme|u teksta i ilustracija. stoga se okre}e isklju~ivo svojoj imaginaciji i duhovnom svetu. Odgovor je veoma slo`en i dalje }e ga razvijati u svojim kasnijim proro~kim spevovima. nevinost je ozna~avala neophodni preduslov. samo su naizgled jednostavne. ~ine}i sa njima celinu. . Ilustracije su veselih boja i najve}im delom ispunjene `ivahnim i razigranim formama. ova dela su se veoma slabo prodavala. Tada po~inje da stvara svoja najve}a dela kako poezije tako i likovne umetnosti. Songs of Experience —Pesme iskustva (1794) nastaju kao njihova suprotnost i pandan. Blejkov poetski jezik je prodoran i jasan. Njegova supruga. One slave i veli~aju bo`ansko prisustvo u svemu {to postoji. U ovom najranijem periodu. niti }e ikada biti spreman na kompromise. naj~e{}e vodenim bojama. Blejk je sva svoja dela samostalno ukra{avao i {tampao. Ove kratke lirske pesme. {to je bilo i suvi{e ekscentri~no u doba kada je klasi~na forma bila normativ. u kome dominira ekspresivna linija. koje nikada ne}e napustiti. Svaka pesma nevinosti ima svoj pandan u pesmama iskustva. Jo{ manje uspeha je imao sa svojim slo`enim i komplikovanim mitolo{kim radovima. koja ve} ovde dose`e svoje najvi{e domete. Za Blejka. vrlo brzo propasti. Svaka {tamparska ispravka bila je skoro nemogu}a. Ubrzo shvata da nije. i bila je njegova jedina prava ljubav. godine. kao i njegov likovni jezik. tipi~na za Blejkov likovni izraz. To je iskonsko stanje apsolutne ~istote.Druga za Blejka zna~ajna osoba sa Akademije. koji su se neprekidno pro`imali na stranama njegovih knjiga. Blejk jo{ uvek `eli da se bavi “istorijskim slikarstvom”. njegove religiozne i istorijske kompozicije nakon izlaganja7 nisu bile prihva}ene. Na taj na~in je dobijao samo mali broj primeraka. Ovde poku{ava da otkrije za{to u bo`anskom svetu mora da bude predstavljeno toliko zla. Ostala je uz njega do kraja `ivota.

kao i uop{te u uobli~avanju celokupne Blejkove ideologije i opusa. Clark smatra da ilustracije koje krase ovu poemu mogu se smatrati najveli~anstvenijim. Now hear a plain fact: Swedenborg has not written one new truth. the Eternal Hell revives. Kao {to je jednom prilikom zapisao: “I must Create a System or be enslav'd by another man's I will not Reason and Compare: my bussiness is to Create”.” 11 da bi kasnije njegove ideje i shvatanja zamenio sopstvenim. and it is now thirty-three years since its advent. u kome se ose}a da u`iva. tho’ it is only the Contents or Index of already publish’d books. jer je govorio u parabolama. dok drsko i smelo izokre}e drevne vrednosti. ali za ovo delo posebno zna~ajan. One kao i stihovi predstavljaju himnu `enskog principa stvaranja.”12 . ba{ kao i Blejkov jezik. {to se lako mo`e pratiti u uvodu ”Ven~anja Neba i Pakla” “As a new heaven is begun. U po~etku se dosta identifikovao sa Svedenborgom. ali ne i najsna`nijim. “Thus Swedenborg boasts that he writes is new. ~ije ilustracije izgledaju kao bukte}i izlivi energije. Blejk pored Svedenborgovog intelektualnog spasenja uvodi i ideju spasenje pomo}u umetnosti. i otkrivaju ne`nu i radosnu prirodu. Me|u njima je ve} pomenuta supruga Catherine. Ovakva nota njegovog unutra{njeg stanja prene}e se ~ak i na njegovo prozno delo ”The Marriage of Heaven and Hell” – Ven~anje neba i pakla (1790). [to vi{e prou~ava “svedenborgijanizam”. Thus Swedenborg’s writings are recapitulation of all superficial opinions. Now hear another: he has written all the old falsehoods. ne`no raspolo`enje. ali je ipak odoleo svemo}nom uticaj njegovog u~enja i ostao dosledan samom sebi.9 Tada je Blejk bio u svojim tridesetim godinama. kada je verovatno bio najsre}niji i najdopadljiviji. K. koje je Blejk ikada stvorio.“Book of Thel” – Knjiga o Teli (1789) je jo{ jedno njegovo rano delo. And Lo! Swedenborg is the Angel sitting at the tomb: his writings are the linen clothes folded up. Njime tako|e dominira sli~no lirsko. Po njemu je i sam Hrist bio umetnik. 10Za Blejka je on bio “najve}i od svih ljudi”. uo~ava i njegove propuste i ograni~enja. ^ini se da je Svedenborgovo u~enje poslu`ilo samo kao odsko~na daska njegovoj narastaju}oj bukte}oj viziji. and analysis of the more sublimebut no further. Veoma raznovrsne ideje i razli~iti ljudi su uticali na Blejka. bio je Emanuel Svedenborg.

Svako ljudsko bi}e je posmatrao s dva aspekta. znaju}i da je onaj ljudski manje va`an. njenoj ulozi u dru{tvu i u `ivotu pojedinca. Veze sa natprirodnim. Ipak je o~igledno da Blejkovim univerzumom vlada jedan svemo}an razum. kao i o dvadeset sedam slojeva tame. Percepcija mu je funkcionisala po principu dualizma. Kako sam ka`e: “Vizija ili imaginacija je predstava onoga {to postoji ve~no. ^esto je razmatrano pitanje o Blejkovom navodnom ludilu. bilo na ra~un njegovih fascinantnih vizija. Svoj stav o uzaludnosti politike izrazio je u vi{e pasusa svojih stihova i proze: „Kad bi ljudi bili mudri ni proizvoljni vladari im ne bi mogli nauditi. Razni nepoznati duhovi su mu diktirali proro~ke odlomke. America: A Prophecy – Amerika: Proro~anstvo (1793).Blejk je i sam dosta razmi{ljao o religiji. pojedini delovi Milton-a i Jerusalem-a ostaju neobja{njivi. Taj razum nije mehani~ki. uprkos boljem poznavanju Blejkove li~ne filozofije. ~iju vrednost i zna~aj njegovi savremenici nisu bili sposobni da uvide. Video je drvo puno an|ela. To se najvi{e ogleda u prvim delima koja je sam {tampao 1788. Spevom The French Revolution – Francuska Revolucija (1791) nudi jedinstven uvid u doba u kome je `iveo.Evropa: Proro~anstvo (1794) i kasni Jerusalem (1820) su tako|e proro~ki spevovi. Sa ~udima i vizijama se suo~io jo{ kao dete. godine "There is no Natural Religion" – Nema prirodne religije i "All Religions are One” – Sve religije su jedno. Na`alost njegovo delo je. Zadivljuje zamisao o dva sveta sadr`ana jedan u drugom. upravo nasuprot njegovoj `elji. smatrala ih je dokazom njegovog poreme}enog uma. koja je i poku{la da ih ~ita. Blejk je stvorio sopstvenu mitologiju. Simbolika je op{te prisutna u njegovom stvarala{tvu. proroka Jezekilja na livadi. a isti~u}i zna~aj ve~nog aspekta. Nije ga zavaravao privid ovog sveta. Europe: A Prophecy . Komunikacija i povezanost sa nevidljivim i nepojmljivim bi}ima i svetovima nastavile su se do kraja njegovog `ivota. Bio je istinski mistik.“ Visions of Daughters of Albion – Vizije k}eri Albiona (1793). nekonvencionalnog pona{anja i na~ina `ivota ili njegovih proro~kih sposobnosti. kojim se svako bi}e povezuje sa svojim stvaraocem. ve} razum mistika. ali su se ona nastavila tokom ~itavog njegovog `ivota. koji je nepoznat i neshvatljiv ~oveku svakodnevnice. koje je ponekad pisao i protiv svoje volje. pa i danas. i drugim sferama Univerzuma postale su mu potpuno prirodne. . i osu|uje svako socijalno i politi~ko ugnjetavanje. u velikoj meri nedoku~ivo. Nekolicina savremenika. koji proviruje kroz njegov prozor. Ako nisu mudri najslobodnija vlada je prisiljena da bude tiranija. a jednom se prestravio ugledav{i Boga.13 Pozdravlja revoluciju.14 Sve {to je pro`ivljavao i sa ~ime se susretao poku{avao je da saop{ti jednostavno.

U ovom periodu. Pretpostavlja se da njihova imena mogu da otkriju zna~enja npr. Blejk je svakako bio upoznat s drevnim kulturama i umetno{}u. mere i materijalizam. i sl.Njutn i Nabukodonosor su primeri ovih serija. oni ostaju prili~no nejasni i mra~ni.stvarno i nepromenjeno. Kao rezultat svega toga i Blejkov likovni izraz je pretrpeo izvesne promene. Sa devedestim godinama XVIII veka dolazi do promena u duhu Blejkove umetnosti. ponekad zauzimaju}i i ~itave stranice.” Kreirao je likove (modele li~nosti) kao {to su Urizen. nego doba i dru{tvo u kome je `iveo i stvarao. Potpuno je jasan uticaj koji je na njegovo stvarala{tvo ostavila srednjovekovna kultura i umetnost. u sli~nom duhu. Hecate 16 . Promene su drasti~nije u njegovom poetskom re~niku nego u grafi~kom delu.ukra{avanje knjiga) vodi poreklo iz srednjovekovnih iluminatorskih skriptorija. U ranoj mladosti prou~avao je gotiku. skiciraju}i njenu arhitekturu u Vestminsterskoj opatiji.. Prikazane su tri figure koje aludiraju na trojstvo koje oli~ava ova gr~ka boginja. Ipak. Los i Albion. “The book of Urizen” (1794) je najo~itiji rezultat Blejkovog stanja i njegovog novog stila. U liku Njutna je otelotvorio razornu mo} mehani~kog razuma koji sve premerava. izveo je i izvanredno neobi~ne serije velikih monotipija. “Ako bi se u jedan izraz moglo sumirati sve ono {to je mrzeo bio bi to dijalekti~ki materijalizam. Ilustracije vi{e ne uokviruju tekst. Los je obrnuto od Sol (sunce. nade i strahove. Bajku ili alegoriju stvaraju k}eri se}anja. a sami umetni~ki proces koji je koristio (iluminacija .”15 Umesto varljive jasno}e dotada{njeg Blejkovog izraza. Za Blejka je ova figura naja~i primer degradacije.Hekata (oko 1795) predstavlja veoma kompleksno delo. “Newton i Nebuchadnezzar . dok je u Nabukodonosoru prikazao najni`i nivo. i verovatno zami{ljene kao par. ili izgubljen). Imaginaciju okru`uju k}eri nadahnu}a. koji se i ~ine bli`i njegovoj prirodi. ve} se name}u u samostalnim okvirima. Izvori ideja za nastanak ovih likova. kao da iz svega odjekuju jecaji i vrisci. koje prikazuju razli~ite vidove ljudske degradacije. Urizen (your reason).. u kome su sumirani motivi gr~ke mitologije. ili sam. definicije. kao i hermeti~kim znanjima i knji`evno{}u. sada njegovim delom dominira tama i konfuzija proro~kih knjiga. i ote`avaju razumevanje Blejkove umetnosti. prikazuju}i materijalnog ~oveka vra}enog na nivo zveri. kombinuju}i . ukazuju}i na stra{ne posledice Urizen-ove vladavine. U svemu je op{te prisutna mu~nina. {to se ose}a u ve} pomenutim proro~kim spevovima kao i u spevu “Urizen” . nekoliko Sheakespear-ovih komada i njegove poezije. U liku Urizen-a je otelotvorio sve ono {to je prezirao: ograni~enja. kojom je bio potpuno op~injen. koji su me|usobno povezani. ostaju u domenu tajanstvenog i skrivenog. a ~ija priroda i odnosi odra`avaju njegova verovanja.

pa ~ak i zaradu. koji ustvari predstavlja lik Urizen-a. Okru`ena je sovom. magijom i nadprirodnim. Ovo je sada Urizen kao trijumfator koji stoji nasuprot onog koji se davi u vodama materijalizma. Njen lik se dovodi u vezu sa ve{ti~ijim kultom. kao i ve}inu patrona. ulaze}i u njega kroz stopalo. Do`ivela veliki uspeh. The Ancient of Days – Starac dana (1827) je kasno delo. Smatra da je ~ovekov `ivot uzvi{en. {to nije bilo uobi~ajeno. kao njen pandan. nego Blejkove mitologije. Ona je apsolutni dokaz Blejkovog poznavanja raznolikih bogatih okultnih znanja pored hri{}anske istorije i verovanja. {to je umetnik mirno prihvatio. sa tajanstvenim i prete}im bi}ima. miru i slobodi.aspekte Meseca. zatim pesnik William Hayley 19. slepim mi{em i zmijom. vi{e zanimala dobro poznata dela. Ona je u stvari tra`ila John Milton-a). Ova figura predstavlja mo}nog stvaraoca. i da se mora stalno razvijati i uzdizati. nastaju kao produkt ponovnih autenti~nih vizija. Serija grafika za The Book of Job – Knjiga o Jovu bila je porud`bina mladog umetnika John Linnell-a. John Flaxman. Blejk ovde kombinuje srednjovekovni simbol sa sna`nim maniristi~kim formama (Mikelan|ela i Tibaldija). Vi{e nisu dolazile neo~ekivano. jer je imao sposobnost da svako delo vidi u svom svetlu i da mu podari svoj li~ni pe~at.18 Blejk se okrenuo religiji koju otkriva Biblija. Najve}i deo svoje karijere radio za nekolicinu privatnih patrona. koja poku{ava da uhvati mu{karca u svoju zamku-mre`u religije satkanu od seksualne represije. Pity – Milosr|e (oko 1795) se ~esto dovodi u vezu sa Hekatom.20 Spevovi Jerusalem. koje se ipak mo`e uvrstiti u ovu grupu. ^ak i magarac mo`e se posmatra kao aluzija njene mra~ne i kobne prirode. Bolje se slagao sa skromnijim patronima. za koga je radio tri godine u Felpham-u. Prikazano je njeno mra~no cartvo. Ovaj trogodi{nji boravak van Londona. O~igledno su mu poznati srednjovekovni primeri predstava Boga kao velikog arhitekte stvaraoca. Me|u njima je njegov kolega sa Akademije. pa je inspiraciju morao da crpi iz svojih se}anja. {to Blejk upravo ovde i nagla{ava. Milton Klonsky ovu povezanost obja{njava time da su ova dva motiva zami{ljena da predstave dualizam onoga {to je Blejk smatrao dominiraju}om @enskom Voljom. kakav je bio Thomas Butts.17 Blejk ovom slo`enom dvostrukom metaforom ujedinjuje dve {ekspirovske verzije Milosr|a. No ubrzo }e se oporaviti i nastaviti da stvara jo{ neka od svojih remek-dela. ali bez njenih strogo utvr|enih mehanizama koji bi sputavali ljudsku energiju. koji mu je poru~io da izradi veliki broj predstava iz Miltonove poezije i Biblije. ~ednosti i ljubomore. da bi mu se kao druga vizija ukazala dvanaestogodi{nja devoj~ica koju je pome{ao s jednom od svojih muza. Zemlje i podzemnog sveta sa mo}ima Neba i Mora. jer je Blejk najve}i deo svog `ivota proveo u siroma{tvu. . je bio i period kada su ga vizije “privremeno napustile”. Njega su ipak. koji su neophodni sastojci njenih mo}nih magijskih napitaka. i Milton (o umrlom pesniku koji mu se javlja u vidu komete. iz Macbeth-a. veli~anstven ep o ratu.

ukra{avanje knjiga. um i vizionarska iskustva. Smatrao je da `ivot nalazi savr{en izraz u ljubavi. Do kraja je ostao potpuno dosledan sebi i svojim. stoga ona mora bit apsolutno slobodna. tako|e izvedeno kao porud`bina za Linnell-a. koje su pre svega krasile knjige. gotovo bez senki. on sve vidi u svom izvornom. {to zna~i da su veoma malih dimenzija. Kriti~ki je pristupio tuma~enju Dantea. i prikazuje ih u vidu dinami~ne spirale koja se uzdi`e. Dante je bio veoma cenjen tokom ranog XIX veka. Jer mistik ne voli zasen~enost. o~ajanje ili neobuzdanu radost. koji je podjednako sna`an i prodoran kao i njegove re~i. kao i izrazito li~ni stil. jer je njegova imaginativna mo} izuzetno odgovarala zahtevima romanti~ara. koji ~esto reflektuju uticaje izuvijane goti~ke forme. Ovo pore|enje sa grandioznom maniristi~kom zidnom dekoracijom jedne prostorije. pro~i{}enom stanju. kako sopstvenih tako i dela drugih knji`evnika. Ovi primeri su sasvim dovoljni za sticanje potpuno jasnog utiska o Blejkovom likovnom jeziku. Sva njegova dela su prepuna uskovitlane. Senke i vi|enje mistika su nespojivi. a ne puko pokoravanje moralisti~kim i crkvenim pravilima. koja ostavlja utisak arhitekturalne ko{nice sa sna`nim telima divova i otvorenog neba s koga se svi istovremeno obru{avaju na nespremnog posmatra~a. Pod stare dane susre}e se sa grupom mladih umetnika. jer je njegovu religioznost smatrao suvi{e rigoroznom i tradicionalnom. daje likovni izraz potrebi za novom religijom ili za novim tuma~enjem hri{}anstva. Imao je izuzetnu pronicljivu mo}. Me|u prvima koji }e biti pod njegovim sna`nim i direktnim uticajem . 21 Izuzetan je njegov prikaz pakla u kome su Paolo i Francesca: The whirlwind of lovers – Vrtlog ljubavnika jer on njihovu preljubu posmatra kao izraz slobodne ljubavi. kome je te`io. koja svemu daje karakter. Sve {to prikazuje je odre|eno sna`nim i o{trim obrisima. najbolje mo`e ista}i monumentalnost njegovih predstava. Njegova dela podse}aju na Sala dei Giganti Giulia Romana. radikalnim shvatanjima. Njemu priroda nije bila merilo. ve} svoju inspiraciju. {to jo{ ja~e isti~e napetu atmosferu.Bo`anske komedije su poslednje Blejkovo veliko delo. nesputane energije. Upravo izbor likovnog izra`avanja . Ona je samo jedna verzija onoga {to nas okru`uje u ovom beskrajnom Univerzumu. ^esto prikazuju u`as. ali gotovo nikada mirne i spokojne scene. predstavljeni kao sna`ne i muskulaturne.Ovim delom. Ilustracije Danteove Divine Comedy . ukazav{i na veru kao viziju. Blejka ponovo dovode u vezu sa srednjovekovnom tradicijom rukopisne iluminacije. kao i ilustracijom Jerusalem-a. Zato Blejk ne koristi svoje o~i kada stvara. Njegove figure su zaista idealni likovi. Osnovno izra`ajno sredstvo kojim se slu`i je mo}na linija. Na to ukazuje i besprekorna upotreba linearnih efekata. koja slavi i ceni njegovu umetnost. kao da su usred besne}e oluje. Blejk je bio savr{en kandidat za ukra{avanje ovakvog dela. kojoj se Blejk posebno divio jer je izuzetno doprinosila utisku spiritualnosti. Tako se i ona svim svojim adutima obru{avaju na onoga ko se sretne sa njima. Njegova dela ne nastaju po prirodi. za ostatak sveta.

vizionar i mistik XVIII veka. 3 Grafika }e biti ustvari glavni nosilac Blejkovog likovnog izraza. Veoma sam sre}an!” 1 U londonu je proveo skoro ceo svoj `ivot. filozof. za kojim }e uslediti Pre-Rafaeliti. 8 Ovaj postupak je smatrao boljim od bilo kog drugog. Umetni~ko delo Vilijama Blejka je ostalo neshva}eno i neprihva}eno u doba kada je `iveo. koja na `alost nije nai{la na razumevanje. nikada ne}e biti potpuno dostupne obi~nom ~oveku. kao zbirka njegovih mladala~kih stihova. bilo da je re~ o laiku ili nau~niku. i postala je najzna~ajniji i najuticajniji faktor na tada{nje umetni~ko stvarala{tvo Engleske. 10 E. Verovatno }e takvo zauvek i ostati. kada mu je posve}ena zaslu`ena pa`nja nije u potpunosti doku~ivo. novu religiju. . 2 “Poetical Sketches” (1783). upravo zato {to je poku{avao da prika`e neke druge. pod patronatom Williama Hayley-a. Stvorio je sopstveni sistem. 9 Kenneth Clark's The Romantic Rebellion: Romantic versus Classic Art (1973). koji su uvideli veli~inu njegovog stvarala{tva. On Sir Joshua Reynolds 6 On friends and foes: On Fuseli 7 Organizovao je sopstvenu izlo`bu. Pored toga {to je promovisala umetnost kao intelektualnu i uzvi{enu delatnost. a otkrio mu ga je u jednom privi| enju njegov pokojni brat. Njegova poezija je najve}im delom neodvojiva od likovnog stvarala{tva. Ja ne `elim ni{ta. koja govori o intelektualnom spasenju pomo}u istinskih dela. 4 Royal Academy je osnovana 1768. pa je njegovo u~enje moglo biti veoma blisko Blejku. kada je `iveo i radio u priobalnom engleskom gradu Felpham-u. jer njegovo doba definitivno nije bilo spremno za novine koje je njegovo delo donelo. @iveo je u Londonu. stvarao i hodao ovim svetom koji svi poznajemo. tako su grafi~ki postupci otiskivanja pomogli oboga}ivanju i ukra{avanju njegovih poetskih dela. koja je sam {tampao i izdavao. jer sva materijalna slava koju ~ovek stekne utoliko vi{e umanjuje njegovu duhovnu slavu. osim 1800-1803. Swedenborg je {vedski nau~nik. 5 On art and artists:On the foundation of the Royal Academy. ~esto nije podr`avala najinventivnija i najoriginalnija dela koja su tada nastajala. kakvo je upravo bilo Blejkovo stvarala{tvo. Jednom prilikom je napisao: “Bilo bi mi `ao da imam ovozemaljsku slavu. vi{e sfere. Tajne koje je spoznao mo}ima svog genija i vizionarskog duha. ^ak i danas.bio je Samuel Palmer.

dok je ne{to slabije ukra{avao dela drugih. za razliku od Kenneth Clark's The Romantic Rebellion: Romantic versus Classic Art. Uprkos dobro namerI patrona`i. dok je radio za ovog pesnika. so below”. 18 vidi fusnotu 9 19 Jedini period (1800-1803) koji je proveo van Londona jesu. on po~inje da ima redovne vizije-putovanja po rajevima i paklovima. Po njemu je Bog ~oveku dozvolio slobodu mi{ljenja i posle smrti. He shared with the Hermetics that if one could really . And eternity in an hour.William Blake is probably most famous for the opening verse of his “Auguries of Innocence”: “To see a world in a grain of sand. Po njemu mora da postoji ravnote`a izme|u paklenih i an|eoskih sila da bi svet opstao. The verse was Blake’s rephrasing of “as above. 14 Smatra se da je upravo tako nastao spev “Jerusalem” (1820) 15 vidi fusnotu 9 16 Slika je ranije bila poznata pod ovim nazivom. And a heaven in a wild flower. ~istili{ta i raja. Hold infinity in the palm of your hand. tako da nikoga ne nagra|uje niti ka`njava. British painting: The golden age. 1973. expressing Blake’s adherence to the notion of correspondences.” The verse formed one of the centrepieces of the Tombraider movie about Lara Croft at the height of her fame.Nakon jednog otkrivenje. a nije `eleo da tra}i svoj talenat na izradu serije portreta. 20 Ovakav stav zauzima William Vaughan. 11 Marriage of Heaven and Hell 12 vidi prethodnu fusnotu 13 I druga njegova proro~ka dela daju uvid u doba u kome je `iveo kao i neka koja }e uslediti. 21 Pogotovo u opisima pakla. it was probably an hour even Blake would not have been able to prophesize. koji smatra da je Blejk svoj maksimalni likovni doprinos davao pre svega sopstvenim delima. svako prema sopstvenim predispozicijama bira pakao ili raj.danas je u Tejt galeriji poznata kao “The Night of Enitharmon's Joy” 17 'O Woman-born / And Woman-nourish'd & Woman-educated & Woman-scorn'd!' pisao je u spevu Jerusalem. i da li }e postati an|eo ili demon. 2. Blejk je ~esto bio nezadovoljan jer je dobijao mnogo trivijalnih porud`bina . jer i an|eli i demoni su nekada bili ljudi. 1999.

near Dulwich Hill. He believed that this gift was innate with all. together with many like-minded people. Quite a few of Blake’s friends would enter Freemasonry. everything was double. ruled by Druids. and it was she rather than the father who whipped him. To this. mythological past. Since childhood.see. especially Celtic-megalithic Britain and the Druids. as the opening verse might suggest. but in his time. at Peckham Rye. micro. Blake’s biographer Peter Ackroyd states that Blake never joined any organisation. would transform the history of Britain and direct it into the Celtic direction. 31 Great Queen Street. Blake was a grandmaster from 1799 till 1827. though there is no record that Blake ever joined. and he continually alluded to the possibility of ancient lore and arcane myths that could be employed to reveal previously hidden truths. The honourable Emanuel Swedenborg is the wonderful Restorer of this long lost Secret. mentioning it in some of his poems. Still. When his father tried to thrash William for talking about this. even though he was influenced by those who had written about Atlantis. Blake had read Stukeley’s Abury on the supposed Druid temples of Avebury and Stonehenge. in an alehouse apparently established by the Order itself. Blake. was Blake’s obsession – but so was the past. 28 Poland Street. as the future would restore the glories of the past. His first important vision apparently happened when he was eight or ten. when he told his parents about an encounter with Ezekiel. the mother intervened. and it was a tree filled with angels. England’s great. who lived on No. no beginning and no end. When he became apprenticed in 1772. stayed with him throughout life – if not grew in their intensity. To quote Peter Ackroyd: “All his life. between 1785 and 1790. that “without contraries there is no progression”. Blake believed that “The Egyptian Hieroglyphs. the “The Ancient Order of the Druids” convened merely a few yards down from Blake’s house. a past that he had labelled “Albion” and which was largely seen as a Garden of Eden – but British in nature.” Already at that time. he added. Blake had experienced. Ackroyd begins his biography of Blake by stating that “in the visionary imagination of William Blake there is no birth and no death. Of course. the Welsh bards met on Primrose Hill and it was a site for which Blake had great affinity. Blake spoke of Albion. primarily. but he had merely retained it beyond childhood. unlike most people. away from its Roman foundations and focus. Blake not so much romanticised. around 17661768. when he lived at No. which. Too close for comfort? But perhaps even if Blake wasn’t. Blake is remembered as a poet and painter. Blake had not arrived at this framework by reading. the Greek and the Roman Mythology. for he was greatly interested in the Druids and must be seen as one of the great contributors to reintroducing the Celticmegalithic dimension into British culture. and the Modern Freemasonry being the last remnants of it. he was not considered to be an artist. his master engraver was James Basire. Blake was entranced and persuaded by the idea of a deeply spiritual past.” . only the perpetual pilgrimage within time towards eternity. opposite the Masonic Grand Lodge.” The future.and macro-cosmic. but according to the lists of grandmasters of the Druid Order. such lists are often grand claims with little substantiation. Blake had visions. he should have been. but “mythicised” the past.

at the height of the Great War. where he had quite a few visions of this “Jerusalem”. the light of the Imagination. In 1916. For Blake. King George V said that he preferred it over the national anthem. but despaired with the rise of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror in the French revolution. To be absolutely precise. The poem itself was inspired by an apocryphal story that Jesus accompanied Joseph of Arimathea to the English town of Glastonbury. Parry would set it into music. he gave a new vision to an old nation. upon hearing the orchestral version for the first time. prophets. London was a “Heavenly London”. it created a powerful mythology that inspired Britain to see itself as holding a special role in the destiny of the world. preferring to be an individual. a site cherished by the early modern Druids. He felt the landscape became a vision of hell and Mankind the subject of a new form of self-imposed slavery. C. a key ingredient in every Last Night of the Proms and to some. Blake lived at the time of the French and American Revolutions and was a great fan of both. But above all. realizing that the Diogenes represented the “chartered” forces of the establishment. Blake’s Jerusalem was written as a preface to Milton. and it is here that Blake’s role in history is perhaps at its most important. which he compared to the true light. Blake. but this is not totally accurate. he knew Thomas Paine. as such. London’s foundation stone. there may be truth to the statement that Blake never joined any organisation. he had a vision of the “Spiritual Sun”. he believed himself to be the living embodiment of the spirit of Milton. but. to see a London of utter bliss. Here. When he learned that it was to be used by Varley and Hockley as a “key” for the Diogenes’ occult operations. He lived at a time when towns were society was entering the Industrial Age. often used as such for sporting occasions. almost like a second national anthem. He seemed to have a particular affinity for the London Stone. as perhaps he was a serial non-joiner of organisation. time did not exist and he therefore looked to the distant past and the distant future. got Samuel Palmer to disperse the cards. Britain needed to have a new vision of the future and the past. England may have been Jerusalem. that was the site of his visions. a “Jerusalem”. Mixed with legends of Troy. for Blake. Blake saw London as a heavenly city. Hence.At one point. John Milton. Blake also created an alchemically-themed tarot deck. specifically. . he also understand that in these times of change. one of his best known poems. following in the footsteps of Elijah and Milton. with Revolutions in America and France. The poem is apocalyptic in its setting and deals with the union of the dead and the living. Blake is therefore frequently seen as a mystic. not some romantic place near a river in the countryside. On Primrose Hill. souls. Blake wore a red liberty cap in solidarity with the French revolutionaries. with factories appearing in the landscape. Blake was a Londoner and it was London. he saw angels. He deliberately wrote in the style of the Hebrew prophets and apocalyptic writers and envisioned his works as expressions of prophecy. to become known as the hymn “Jerusalem”. returns from heaven and encourages Blake to develop his relationship with dead writers. the “Heavenly Jerusalem” spoken off in the Bible. Indeed. to him. Hence. In his visions. Hubert H. he saw a different London than all those other people that ran through its streets.

it was but one in a series of supernatural visitors. and written down by Blake. Hence. William Wordsworth wrote: "There was no doubt that this poor man was mad. including. as a punishment for past lives.” Again. the scribe. but there is something in the madness of this man which interests me more than the sanity of Lord Byron and Walter Scott.It is here that we begin to see the real Blake – or try to find out who the real Blake was. Some. Late in life. it was his brother Robert. like darkness. Blake is credited with inventing a specific type of printing. have said that he suffered from hallucinations. As to his poems. dictated by beings from the otherworld. Thus each print is itself a unique work of art. a mental aberration. Crabb Robinson had a conversation with Blake. is whether it was real – or imagined… though for Blake the latter was real too. it was Blake himself who said "I can look at the knot in a piece of wood until it frightens me. Blake’s friends nevertheless said he did not see himself as his disciple. I have an obscure recollection of having been with both of them. or stars. others that he was just mad. not a biblical prophet. So I had with Jesus Christ. following his death. For Blake. or a portrait of Newton. who came to Blake in the night and explained to him the method of illuminated printing that he was to make his own. One friend was there when Blake had a second vision of the flea. apparently Satan – the true devil – “all else are apocryphal”. a cup in his hands to hold blood and covered with scaly skin of gold and green. . a more genuine bible were the writings of Emmanuel Swedenborg. He and his wife coloured these prints with water colours. I was Socrates… a sort of brother. The central question. in which he asked: “You use the same word as Socrates used. For example. It is known that Blake felt that most of his art – whether poems or paintings – were merely representations of what he saw or knew in that other world. Most of Blake's paintings (such as "The Ancient of Days") are actually prints made from copper plates. Blake the painter does not do shepherds in a landscape or baby Jesus.” Despite using Christian imagery repeatedly. Blake was a mystical prophet. in his own time. Instead. All his backgrounds are “eternal”. at which point he would sketch him in more detail: “here he is – reach me my things – I shall keep my eye on him.” Indeed." None of the scenes in Blake’s art show landscapes as we know it. Biographer Mark Schorer even states that Blake “went as far in the direction of the automatic as it is possible to go and remain poetry”. he tackles subjects such as “the ghost of a flea”. There he comes! His eager tongue whisking out of his mouth. seeing such ghosts was not at all upsetting. “Ghost of a Flea” was the result of his vision of a flea and its statement that human souls sometimes resided in fleas. He saw the Bible as a very long poem. which he etched in this method. of course. What resemblance do you suppose is there between your spirit and the spirit of Socrates?” Blake answered: “The same as between our countenances. but more like a fellow visionary. but according to Blake. perhaps we should ask whether it was real or a hallucination. I must have had conversations with him. some have seen these as automatic writing. for Blake.

appeared to him often for a period of many years after his death. As several others of his works. but did not submit to its authority. For him. his wife Catherine continued selling his works. to look upon “our ancient days before this Earth appeared in its vegetated mortality to my mortal vegetated Eyes. his first book. whom. Blake was true to himself when he stated that "The imagination is not a State: it is the Human existence itself." Blake considered memory to be an aspect of time.” Did he reject Newton and the scientific approach? In life. Still. She said that her husband would appear daily to her. but expressing Blake's own intensely personal Romantic and revolutionary beliefs. Foreshadowing Dali. “Salvation” were imaginary states. Blake’s fame would be postmortem. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell revealed the mysticism of Swedenborg. He said He was going to that Country he had all His life wished to see & expressed Himself Happy.But Blake had to – and did – use Christian imagery. present at his expiration. echoed in one of his other famous sayings "If the doors of perception were cleansed.. Hence. in a most glorious manner. his “spiritual ." George Richmond gives the following account of Blake's death in a letter to Samuel Palmer: “He died . every thing would appear to man as it is. I wish to live for art. said. The book describes the poet's visit to Hell. his poem Milton is often seen as his achievement of the state of mystical union. Gilchrist reports that a female lodger in the same house. say I. a series of texts written in imitation of biblical books of prophecy. In fact. Blake stated. Poetical Sketches (1783) was the only one published conventionally during his life. not of a man.” In life. Blake seems to have been the first painter of the world of physics. Blake claimed that Milton had appeared to him several times. I wish to do nothing for profit. as wise logicians say. Indeed. Blake did not object to reason. a device adopted by Blake from Dante's Inferno and Milton's Paradise Lost. must fail if matter brings no grist. after promising his wife that he would be with her always. it seems. but of a blessed angel. Newton is probably his most famous painting. in which the physicist is cast in the role of the Great Architect of the Universe – revealing a strong influence of Freemasonry.” So what would death be like for a man who felt death did not exist? At six o’clock in the evening on August 12. and hence what Christianity labelled the “Fallen World”. he had said that “I should be sorry if I had an earthly fame for whatever natural glory a man has is so much detracted from his spiritual glory. infinite. He is centuries ahead of Rupert Sheldrake when Blake writes that “Matter. It was no different than Blake’s relationship had been with his dead brother. I want nothing whatever. Either way.” After his death. in life. seeing it merely as the agent of a partial truth. where he could transcend time. I am quite happy. Others have stated that he had gone as far as to think that he was a reincarnation of Milton. cannot without a form subsist. who would claim to be the first painter of the world of quantum physics. "I have been at the death. But his mind was definitely quantum physical. 1827. sit for some hours with her and advice her on how to run the business. if not even more modern. speaking on consciousness – which he labelled Imagination – he stated that it was not subject to matter.” Despite having known the leading lights of his time. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell is one of his books. Blake died. and form.. as well as they.

The commission for Dante's Inferno came to Blake in 1826. a knot. so below. Everything is eternal. including Joseph Priestley. The mob were wearing blue cockades (ribbons) on their caps. his paintings. the illustrations for the Book of Job and Dante. he was at the head of a rampaging mob that stormed Newgate Prison in London. Blake's first collection of poems "Poetical Sketches" was published circa 1783. His teeming imagination sought expression both in verse and in drawing.August 12. as a Man may suppose that the states he has passed through exist no more. but his death in 1827 meant that only a handful of the watercolours were completed. but he still existed. For Blake. At ten years old. As above.” He added: “This world of imagination is the world of eternity… There exist in that eternal world the permanent realities of everything which we see reflected in this vegetable glass of nature. In 1779. What had he learned? “These states exist now. provoked a flurry of paranoid legislation from the government of George III. Jerusalem. he became a student at the Royal Academy. he passes through them like a traveller who may as well suppose that the places he has passed through exist no more.” Hence. it would not have mattered. later known as the Gordon riots. After two years Basire sent him to copy art from the Gothic architecture churches in London. in a grain of sand. He had. and such he remained to the end of his days. with the remainder of his work. as well as the creation of the first police force. so did – would – Blake. As before. Information on the artist William Blake (November 28. so after. so in death. or a flower. to symbolise solidarity with the insurrection in the American colonies. . As in life. But just like Mozart left his Requiem unfinished. but states remain for ever. Four years later he became apprenticed to an engraver. or poems. 3. James Basire.glory”. painter and printmaker. seeing "Ezekiel sitting under a green bough". and "a tree full of angels at Peckham". so did Jesus. After his fathers death. William and brother Robert opened a print shop in 1784 and began working with radical publisher Joseph Johnson. or in Blake himself. a practice that was then preferred to real-life drawing. There was only Eternity. 1827) was an English poet. At the age of twenty-one Blake finished his apprenticeship and set up as a professional engraver. In July. This disturbance. At Johnson's house he met some of the leading intellectual dissidents of the time in England. as the retention of it. 1757 . it seems. Man passes on. He was from earliest youth a seer of visions and a dreamer of dreams. 1780. where he rebelled against what he regarded as the unfinished style of fashionable painters such as Rubens. Milton had died. He was born at London into a middle-class family. He preferred the Classical exactness of Michelangelo and Raphael. so did Blake die before completing his illustrations of Dante’s Inferno – the voyage into death. achieved his personal ambition in life and completed his spiritual quest. he began engraving copies of drawings of Greek antiquities.

There were early problems. and Thomas Paine. Blake benefited from this group . The preface to this book included the poem "And did those feet in ancient time". which Blake decided to discard for later editions. in accordance with the beliefs of the Swedenborgian Society.scientist. This group shared Blake's rejection of modern trends and his belief in a spiritual and artistic New Age. and he dropped it. which he could see but not quite understand. the pair seem to have settled down. who belonged to a group of artists who called themselves the Shoreham Ancients. It was in this cottage that Blake wrote Milton: a Poem (which was published later between 1804 and 1808). a patron who saw Blake more as a friend in need than an artist. Blake's marriage to Catherine remained a close and devoted one until his death. because as the words to the hymn "Jerusalem". Blake began to experiment with relief etching. About 1800 Blake moved to a cottage at Felpham in Sussex (now West Sussex) to take up a job illustrating the works of William Hayley. described Butts as 'a dumb admirer of genius. however. who believed in racial and sexual equality. In 1788. John Henry Fuseli. Through Linnell he met Samuel Palmer. Richard Price. and their apparent domestic harmony in middle age is better documented than their early difficulties. At one point. He retained an active interest in social and political events for all his life. Mary Wollstonecraft became a close friend. a uniting of the physical and spiritual sides of human nature. Slavery was abhorred by Blake. Blake rejected all forms of imposed authority. Blake returned to London in 1802 and began to write and illustrate "Jerusalem" (18041820). we have him to thank for eliciting and preserving so many works. philosopher. In the "Visions of the Daughters of Albion" in 1793 Blake condemned the cruel absurdity of enforced chastity and marriage without love and defended the right of women to complete self-fulfillment. Mary Wollstonecraft. Geoffrey Keynes. They shared similar views on sexual equality and the institution of marriage. but was often forced to resorting to cloaking social idealism and political statements in protestant mystical allegory. and Blake illustrated her "Original Stories from Real Life". such as Catherine's illiteracy and the couple's failure to produce children. free of economic exploitation. to Thomas Butts.' Dumb or not. a mediocre poet. with people able to develop the full potential of their being. which was the method used to produce most of his books of poems. a biographer. Catherine was distressed at the idea. feminist. this is now one of Blake's most well-known if not well-understood poems. Blake had great hopes for the American and French revolution and wore a red liberty cap in solidarity with the French revolutionaries. with several of his poems and paintings expressing a notion of universal humanity: "As all men are alike (tho' infinitely various)". Later in life. Blake suggested bringing in a concubine. Along with William Wordsworth and William Godwin. particularly his Bible illustrations. He was introduced by George Cumberland to a young artist named John Linnell. His constant vision for humanity was rebuilding "Jerusalem" on earth. This is ironic. but despaired with the rise of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror in the French revolution. at the age of thirty-one. but was cleared in the Chichester assizes of the charges. painter whom he became friends with. Later in his life Blake sold a great number of works. indeed was charged with assault and uttering seditious and treasonable expressions against the King in 1803. American revolutionary.

by finding a receptive audience for his ideas. In recent years. These works were later admired by John Ruskin. London. . At the age of sixty-five Blake began work on illustrations for the Book of Job. William Blake died in 1827 and was buried in an unmarked grave at Bunhill Fields. who compared Blake favourably to Rembrandt. Blake is also recognized as a Saint in Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica. a proper memorial was erected for him and his wife.technically. by sharing in their advances in watercolour painting. and personally.

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