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Distinguish clearly, giving examples between pin, axle and shaft. How the shafts are formed? Discuss the various types of shafts and the standard sizes of transmissions shafts. What types of stresses are induced in shafts? How the shaft is designed when it is subjected to twisting moment only? Define equivalent twisting moment and equivalent bending moment. State when these two terms are used in design of shafts. 7. When the shaft is subjected to fluctuating loads, what will be the equivalent twisting moment and equivalent bending moment? 8. What do you understand by torsional rigidity and lateral rigidity? 9. A hollow shaft has greater strength and stiffness than solid shaft of equal weight. Explain. 10. Under what circumstances are hollow shafts preferred over solid shafts? Give any two examples where hollow shafts are used. How they are generally manufactured? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2.

Solve the following problems and assume any missing data: 1. Determine a sensible minimum nominal diameter for the drive shaft illustrated in fig. consisting of a mid-mounted spur gear and overhung pulley wheel. The shaft is to be manufactured using 817M40 hot rolled alloy steel with utm= 1000MPa, y=770MPa and Brinell Hardness approximately 220 BHN. The radius of the fillets at the gear and pulley shoulders is 3mm.The power to be transmitted is 8 kW at 900 rpm. The pitch circle diameter of the 20 pressure angle spur gear is 192 mm and the pulley diameter is 250mm.The masses of the gear and pulley are 8 and 10 kg, respectively. The ratio of belt tensions should be taken as 2.5. Profiled keys are used to transmit torque through the gear and pulley. A shaft nominal reliability of 90 per cent is desired. Assume the shaft is of constant diameter for the calculation.


In the double-reduction gear train shown, shaft a is driven by a motor attached by a flexible coupling attached to the overhang. The motor provides a torque of 2500 at a speed of 1200 rpm. The gears have 20o pressure angles, with diameters shown on the figure. Use AISI 1020 cold-drawn steel. Design one of the shafts (as specified by the instructor) with a design factor of 1.5 by performing the following tasks. a) Sketch a general shaft layout, including means to locate the gears and bearings, and to transmit the torque. b) Perform a force analysis to find the bearing reaction forces, and generate shear and bending moment diagrams. c) Determine potential critical locations for stress design. d) Determine critical diameters of the shaft based on fatigue and static stresses at the critical locations. e) Make any other dimensional decisions necessary to specify all diameters and axial dimensions. Sketch the shaft to scale, showing all proposed dimensions. f) Check the deflection at the gear, and the slopes at the gear and the bearings for satisfaction of the recommended limits. g) If any of the deflections exceed the recommended limits, make appropriate changes to bring them all within the limits.


Determine the diameter of the drive shaft for a chain conveyor, which has the loading parameters illustrated in fig. A roller chain sprocket of 500 mm pitch diameter, weighing 90 kg will be mid-mounted between two bearings. A 400mm, 125 kg roller chain sprocket will be mounted overhung. The drive shaft is to be manufactured using cold drawn 070M20 steel. Operating temperatures are not expected to exceed 65C and the operating environment is non-corrosive. The shaft is to be designed for non-limited life of greater than 108 cycles with a 90 per cent survival rate. The shaft will carry a steady driving torque of 1600 N m and rotate at 36 rpm. A sled runner keyway will be used for the overhung pulley and a profile keyway for the mid-mounted pulley.


An AISI 1020 cold-drawn steel shaft with the geometry shown in the figure carries a transverse load of 7 kN and a torque of 107 N m. Examine the shaft for strength and deflection. If the largest allowable slope at the bearings is 0.001 rad and at the gear mesh is 0.0005 rad, what is the factor of safety guarding against damaging distortion? What is the factor of safety guarding against a fatigue failure? If the shaft turns out to be unsatisfactory, what would you recommend to correct the problem?


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