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BIO 168 Exam 1 (Ch 1 & 2) Study guide Cytology is the study of ___cells___________ Histology is the study of ____tissue___________

What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback? To maintain homeostasis in the body. The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. These mechanisims cause the variable to change in a direction OPPOSITE to that of the initial change, returing it to its ideal state or value. Negative feedback works to prevent what from occurring? The body going into a catastrophic state. Preventing sudden severe changes within the body How does positive feedback work? Positive feedback control infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments. They set off a series of events that may be self-perpetuating and have an amplifying or waterfall effect. Cascades. Positive feed back usually races out of control Name two examples of positive feedback. Labor & Bloodclots What is an organ composed of? An organ is a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for the body. I.E. Live Brain blood vessels stomach What are the functional characteristics of life? Maintain Boundry. Movement. Responsiveness/Irritability. Digestion. Metabolisim. Excretion. Reproduction. Growth. What does irritability refer to? The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them. (I.E. touching something hot and pulling away) nerve cells are highly irriatable and communicate rapidly with each other via electrical impulses. What is the single most abundant chemical substance of the body? water Define homeostasis. (unchanging) the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes constantly. Place the following in order from the simplest to most complex: molecules, atoms, tissues, cells, organ Atoms. Molecules. Cells. Tissue. Organ. Organ System. What is considered to be the cause of most diseases? Homeostatic imbalance. What are the survival needs of the body? Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure. Why is the anatomical position used? Anatomical position is used to describe body parts and positions accurately. Directional terms allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another. What two planes does a sagittal section divide the body into?

The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right parts. It does not always have to be at the middle (bellybutton) it can also be offset from the midline, parasagittal plane. What two planes does a transverse section divide the body into? The Transverse sections the body in two parts, superior and inferior, also know as a cross section. What two planes does a frontal section divide the body into? The frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior/posterior parts. The heart is anterior to the spine. What ions (elements) are necessary for the proper conduction of nerve impulses? Sodium & Potassium Which type of reaction produces more energy than they absorb? (exergonic or endergonic) Exergonic Which type of reaction absorbs more energy than they produce? Endergonic In chemical reactions, breaking old bonds __Forms or creates (ATP) energy and forming new bonds ___Requires____________ energy. A key feature of the bodys meatabolism is the almost exclusive use of ___exorgonic___ reactions by the body. The function of proteins depends on their __structure or 3 dementional shape_____________. What happens to proteins in high temperature or acidity? ___________________ are a type of protein. What is glycogen? What happens when chemical bonds are broken? Salts are always ____________ compounds. What is the maximum number of electrons in the following electron levels? First __2__, Second __8___, Third ___8__ Solutions that have a pH __lower___ than 7 are considered to be acidic. What is the major positive ion (cation) found outside cells (extracellular)? What is present/found in ALL organic molecules? What must be removed to build complex molecules like carbohydrates and proteins from their building blocks?h20 What are the functions of enzymes? What are they composed of? Catalist / prortein What factors affect chemical reactions and how? Catalist, size, heat, concentration (tea bags) Define molarity. A solution contains solvent in _________ amounts and solute in ___________ quantities. What is HCO3- ? bionicarbonate Ion Is the changing of glucose molecules into carbon dioxide, water and ATP reversible in animals? What are isotopes? What four elements make up 96% of body matter?

Oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen What fat soluble vitamin is produced in our skin due to sun exposure? Vitamin D If an atom has 17 protonshow many electrons does it have in its outermost (valance) shell? Chlorine, 7 What information does the atomic number tell you? # of protrons and electrons How many atoms of each atom is found in the following? C6H12O6? 6/12/6 amu180.156 What iis a neutralization reaction? What two things are combined & what is the product? Canceltation of combining a strong acid and strong base. They cancel each other out What factors influence reaction rate? Temp concentration size (smaller faster) catalysts (speeds things up with less engery) Is water an electrolyte? Sucrose is a __diasacharide____saccharide. What purpose does the phosphate serve in a DNA molecule? SERVES AS THE BACKBONE OF THE DOUBLE HELIX DNA STRCUTRE What property of water is demonstrated when we sweat? What is a synthesis reagtion? What information does the column number tell you? Blood is an example of a What does the ATP molecule do? What happens in redox reactions? Note: You will be given 3 clinical questions on the exam. You may choose any 2 to answer for 5 bonus points each.