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research (structured process) organised - there is a structure or method to do research systematic - a definite set of procedures and steps finding

answers is the end of research without questions research has no focus or purpose research process - assigning the questions (need to be inquisitorial, potential of being answered, deal with topic, are these researchable, sources, scope of info reasonable) - identifying the important factors - formulating a hypothesis (answer to questions, expectations about events, abstract statements reflect the design of research) - connecting relevant info - testing hypothesis (H0 - null hypothesis, H1 our alternative) answer is given with respect to H0 - working with hypothesis - reconstructing theory - answering questions hypothesis - difference between type and research questions factors that make up research: concept - represent an idea, cannot be observed directly, exist only as mental images, building blocks of research problem, used at all stages indicators - the phenomena which point to the existence of concepts variables - components of indicators which can be measured ( dependent, independent, control) example: concept - professional development indicators - development of new skills variables - no of work placements, no of training sessions inductive approach - observation -> pattern -> tentative hypothesis -> theory deductive approach - theory -> hypothesis -> observation -> confirmation scientific method - make conclusive statements about studies with a minimum bias grounded theory - begins with a research situation. mostly done through observation, conversation and interview

develop questions or concepts for questioners and interview guides Interviewing . attitudes.looks for evidence and theory case studies . survey research. speeches. either openly or secretly.open for ideas interview guide approach . histories tertiary . after a prog has been concluded complimentary method . ensure participation by all) aims: gather info. by other members of the research team. used to gain insight into behaviors. a good method for making specific inferences from texts to other states or properties of its source. determine how decisions were concluded used: exploratory stages of study. leads to the analysis of unstructured data.interviewing a group of people focusing on questions and answers moderator in focus groups: encourage open communication. rely on interaction between group members different from group interviewing .can help to explore or generate a method.set of questions only standardized open ended interview Format: Unstructured format .understand the world from subject point of view.qualitative method . records of organisations & govt agencies secondary . how or why frequently used. abstracts focus groups (anthropology) .(written after the fact) commentaries.(original) interviews. a way of discovering experiences thoughts and feelings. sometimes really data sources primary . very flexible.a gathering of people moderated by a member of a research team and perhaps observed. during a study.few specific questions .(anthropology) investigates in real life context especially when there is little info about. group or institution.social or behavioral studies without the numbers.analyses not only the manifest content of material but looks at differentiated levels of content. should have a structure and a purpose Types: informal conversation interview . gathering info. essentially descriptive and inferential in character. generate insight. value systems. does not force his ideas. multi method approach single-case design (holistic or embedded) multiple case design (holistic or embedded) Qualitative content analyses . can be an individual.(collection of primary data and secondary sources) indexes.

simple random sampling. no real numeric properties. country) Ordinal Variable . snowball sampling Quantitative method . calculate the mean subtract the mean from each observation square each of results add the answers divide by the no of observations . consider how info will be processed Nominal scale . 2.the opinion of the subject on particular situation semi structured format . cluster/multi-cluster sampling Non-probability sampling . economic method rules: establish the variables. systematic sampling. quata sampling.explain in numbers what isn’t.allows you to transform your data and reduce them to build categories Categorising .particular order to categories. clear language. 4.convenience.numbers are used as a unit of measurement.informant interview . 3. 0 as a natural measurement and is a real number example: size of group of students distribution & summary statistics: frequency tables. e example: using scale from 0-4 to describe whether one agrees or not Metric measurement . simple questions.categorise the coded data types of sampling: probability sampling . connect to proper names (religion.introduces the topic and asks questions Respondent interview . number and statistical methods. availability or opportunity sampling. categories are assigned no.attention on measurements and amounts. 5. no geographical limitations. median and mode Variance .interviewer remains in control Coding . arithmetic mean.questions are fixed. aims to produce generalizable results questioners and surveys . professional presentation. application of categories.measure of dispersion from the mean 1.

between 0 and 1.ex: 95% = 0.involving time.05 and 0.samples are randomly drawn from populations .df = n-1 check distribution table R squared .assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other.uses a combination of more than one strategy in a single investigation. space and persons . comprehensive evidence Data triangulation .a measure of goodness of fit.(i think the assumptions) .a parametric test that involves comparing the observed values with the expected values to check if there is association x2 = summation (0-E)2 / E if value is big then there is a large difference between observed and expected counts determine degrees of freedom . to assure completeness of findings. we have one independent variable and one dependent t = x-0 / Sx/rootn-1 the top part is just the difference between the two means the bottom part is the dispersion of the scores x= mean Sx = standard deviation n = number of cases then we look at the: degrees of freedom = n-1 significance level .standard deviation . a ratio of the data variation explained by the regression variables Triangulation .scores are normally distributed . strengths offset the weaknesses.squared root of variance influenced by outliners ( non normal observations) useful measure of spread t-test .025 with two tailed then look at the t-table to get t compare the computed t with the one in the table (ours need to be smaller) restriction of t statistics .scores have same variances chi squared .

discuss with others who had worked on it.multiple observers Theory triangulation .interpret the phenomena in more than one theory methodological triangulation .Investigator triangulation .present a problem to be researched.using more than one method multiple triangulation .combination of the above strengths of qualitative: useful for limited no of cases. cases in depth describing complex phenomena allows dynamic processes responsive to local situations. conditions and stakeholders needs weaknesses of qualitative: may not generalize difficult to make quantitive predictions lower credibility time consuming may have researcher biases strengths of quantitative: can generalize when sufficient sample size or different populations can make quantitive predictions precise quantitive data less time consuming independent of researcher useful for large populations weaknesses of quantitative: researchers’ categories may be inappropriate may miss hypothesis generation due to only testing knowledge may be to abstract and general purpose of research proposal . to present a work plan of a research project Reasons why research proposals Fail unclear objectives mismatch between approach and issues . to suggest data necessary and how to use it.

problem is of insufficient importance insufficient information resources had not been carefully thought topic had been done too many times .