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DRYING REVIEW OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA 1
DRYING
REVIEW OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA
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 Vapor pressure of Water  Humidity and Humidity Chart Humidity Percentage humidity Dew point temperature
Vapor pressure of Water
Humidity and Humidity Chart
Humidity
Percentage humidity
Dew point temperature
Humidity chart
Adiabatic saturation temperatures
Wet bulb temperature
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In most cases, drying is accomplished by vaporizing the water that is contained in the solid,
In most cases, drying is accomplished by vaporizing the
water that is contained in the solid, and to do this the latent
heat of vaporization must be supplied.There are, thus, two
important process-controlling factors that enter into the unit
operation of drying:
(a)
transfer of heat to provide the necessary latent heat of
vaporization,
(b)
movement of water or water vapor through the solid
material and then away from it to effect separation of water
from solid stuff.
Humidification – transfer of water from the liquid into a
gaseous mixture of air and water vapor
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Pure water can exist in three states, solid, liquid and vapour. The state in which it
Pure water can exist in three states, solid, liquid and vapour. The state in which it
is at any time depends on the temperature and pressure conditions and it is possible
to illustrate this on a phase diagram.
Under certain conditions, two states may
exist side by side, and such conditions are
found only along the lines of the diagram.
Under one condition, all three states may
exist together; this condition arises at
what is called the triple point, indicated by
point O on the diagram.
For water it occurs at 0.0098°C and 0.64
kPa (4.8 mm of mercury) pressure.
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If heat is applied to water in any state at constant pressure, the temperature rises and
If heat is applied to water in any state at
constant pressure, the temperature
rises and the condition moves
horizontally across the diagram, and as
it crosses the boundaries a change of
state will occur.
Starting from condition A on the
diagram adding heat warms the ice,
then melts it, then warms the water and
finally evaporates the water to
condition A'.
Starting from condition B, when heat is
added, the ice warms and then
sublimes without passing through any
liquid state.
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Boiling occurs when the vapour pressure of the water is equal to the total pressure on
Boiling occurs when the vapour pressure of the water is equal to the
total pressure on the water surface. The boiling point at atmospheric
pressure is of course 100°C. At pressures above or below
atmospheric, water boils at the corresponding temperatures above or
below 100°C.
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The capacity of air for moisture removal depends on its humidity and its temperature. The study
The capacity of air for moisture removal depends on its humidity and
its temperature. The study of relationships between air and its
associated water is called psychrometry.
Humidity (H) is the measure of the water content of the air. The absolute
humidity, sometimes called the humidity ratio, is the mass of water vapour per
unit mass of dry air and the units are therefore kg kg -1 ,
WHAT HAPPEN IF WATER IS ADDED TO
SATURATED AIR???
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Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. In daily language the term "humidity"
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. In daily
language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean
relative humidity.
Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial
pressure of water vapor in a parcel of air to the saturated
vapor pressure of water vapor at a prescribed temperature
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Humidity (H) – unit kg H 2 O/ kg dry air - defined in terms of
Humidity (H) – unit kg H 2 O/ kg dry air
- defined in terms of partial pressure of
water p A & total pressure, P
kgH O
p
kgmolH O
18.02
kgH O
1
2
A
2
2
H
kgdryair
P
p
kgmolair
kgmolH O
28.97
kgair kgmolair
/
A
2
18.02
p
A
H 
28.97 P
p
A
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Saturated air : water vapor in equilibrium with liquid
water at the given conditions of pressure and
temperature
Under conditions of saturation, the partial pressure of
the water vapour in the air is equal to the saturation
vapour pressure of water at that temperature
Saturation humidity is given by :
18.02
p
AS
H
S
28.97 P
p
AS
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H H  100 Percentage Humidity P H S p Percentage Relative Humidity A H 
H
H
 100
Percentage Humidity
P
H
S
p
Percentage Relative
Humidity
A
H
 100
R
p
AS
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The air in a room at 26.7 0 C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa and
The air in a room at 26.7 0 C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa
and contains water vapor with partial pressure p A = 2.76
kPa. Calculate the following:
a)
Humidity, H
b)
Saturation Humidity, H S
c)
Percentage Humidity, H P
d)
Percentage relative humidity, H R
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Solution : a) p A = 2.76 kPa, P = 101.325 kPa, hence H = 0.01742
Solution :
a)
p A = 2.76 kPa, P = 101.325 kPa,
hence H = 0.01742 kg H 2 O/kg air
b)
Refer steam table, at 26.7 0 C, 101.325 kPa,
p AS (partial pressure of water vapor in saturated air) =
3.5 kPa
(obtain H S )
H
S = 0.02226 kg H 2 O/kg air
c)
H P = 78.3%
d)
H R = 78.9%
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 Dew point - the temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled,
 Dew point - the temperature to which a
given parcel of air must be cooled, at
constant barometric pressure, for water
vapor to condense into water. The
condensed water is called dew. The dew
point is a saturation point.
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 Example : at 26.7 o C, PAS = 3.50kPa dew point is 26.7 o C
 Example :
at 26.7 o C, PAS = 3.50kPa
dew point is 26.7 o C
if a water-vapor mixture at 38 o C, PAS = 3.50kPa
mixture will not be saturated
if a water-vapor mixture cooled to 26.7 o , PAS=
3.50 kPa the air would be saturated. Further
cooling, some water vapor would condense
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c s  Humid heat is the amount of heat in J or kJ required to
c
s
 Humid heat is the amount of heat in J or
kJ required to raise the temperature of 1
kg of dry air plus the water vapor present
by 1 K or 1 °C
c
 1.005  1.88
H
kJ/kg dry air.K
s
c
 0.24  0.45
H
btu/lbm dry air
s
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 Humid volume is the total volume in m3 of 1 kg dry air plus the
 Humid volume is the total volume in m3
of 1 kg dry air plus the vapor it contains
at 1 atm abs pressure and thegiven gas
temperature
3
3
o
v
(2.83 10
x
4.56 10
x
H T
)
K
m 3 /kg dry air
H
o
v
H  (0.0252  0.0405
H
)
T
R
ft 3 /lbm dry air
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 Chart of properties of air-water vapor mixtures at 1.0 atm abs  Plot of humidity,
Chart of properties of air-water vapor mixtures
at 1.0 atm abs
Plot of humidity, H versus actual temperature of
the air-water vapor mixture (dry bulb
temperature)
Any point below saturation line, represents
unsaturated air-water vapor mixtures
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H = 0.0225 kg H 2 O/ kg dry air 19
H = 0.0225 kg
H 2 O/ kg dry air
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Air entering a dryer has a temperature (dry bulb temperature) of 60 0 C and a
Air entering a dryer has a temperature (dry bulb temperature)
of 60 0 C and a dew point of 26.7 0 C. Using the humidity chart,
determine the actual humidity H, percentage humidity,
H P ,humid heat c s , and humid volume v H .
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H P = 14% H = 0.0225 21
H P = 14%
H = 0.0225
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Inlet Gas, H, T Outlet Gas, H S , T S Gas is contacted with spray
Inlet Gas,
H, T
Outlet Gas, H S ,
T S
Gas is contacted with
spray of liquid water.
Adiabatic process.
Make-up
water, T S
The temperature of the water being recirculated reaches a
steady state temperature called the adiabatic saturation
temperature, T S when a large amount of water is
contacted by the entering gas (the contact is enough to
bring the gas and liquid to equilibrium).
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If the contact between the entering gas and spray of droplets is enough (sufficiently long time)
If the contact between the entering gas and spray of
droplets is enough (sufficiently long time) to bring
the gas and liquid to equilibrium, the leaving air is
saturated at T S and H S .
Read T S and H S on 100% saturation curve.
If contact is not sufficient, the leaving mixture will
be at percentage saturation less than 100% but on
the same line.
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An air stream at 87.8 0 C having a humidity H = 0.03 kg H 2
An air stream at 87.8 0 C having a humidity H = 0.03
kg H 2 O/kg dry air is contacted in an adiabatic
saturator with water. It is cooled and humidified to
90% saturation. Determine:
a)
The final values of H and T
Answer : H = 0.05 kg H 2 O/kg dry air, T = 42.5 0 C
b)
For 100% saturation, what would be the values of
H & T
Answer : 0.0505 kg H 2 0/kg dry air
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This is the temperature indicated by a moistened thermometer bulb exposed to the air flow. Wet
This
is
the
temperature
indicated
by
a
moistened
thermometer bulb exposed to the air flow.
Wet Bulb temperature can be measured by using a
thermometer with the bulb wrapped in wet muslin. The
adiabatic evaporation of water from the thermometer and the
cooling effect is indicated by a "wet bulb temperature" lower
than the "dry bulb temperature" in the air.
The wet bulb temperature is the steady-state nonequilibrium
temperature reached when a small amount of water is
contacted under adiabatic conditions by a continuous stream
of gas.
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The temperature of the water being re circulated reaches a steady state temperature called the adiabatic
The temperature of the water being re circulated reaches a
steady state temperature called the adiabatic saturation
temperature, T S when a large amount of water is contacted
by the entering gas (the contact is enough to bring the gas
and liquid to equilibrium).
VS
The wet bulb temperature is the steady-state
nonequilibrium temperature reached when a small
amount of water is contacted under adiabatic conditions
by a continuous stream of gas.
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The rate of evaporation from the wet bandage on the bulb, and the temperature difference between
The rate of evaporation from the wet bandage on the
bulb, and the temperature difference between the dry
bulb and wet bulb, depends on the humidity of the air.
The evaporation is reduced when the air contains more
water vapor.
The wet bulb temperature is always lower than the dry
bulb temperature but will be identical with 100% relative
humidity (the air is at the saturation line).
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A water vapor-air mixture having a dry bulb temperature of T = 60 0 C is
A water vapor-air mixture having a dry bulb
temperature of T = 60 0 C is passed over a wet bulb, as
in figure 9.3.4. The wet bulb temperature obtained is
T w = 29.5 0 C. What is the humidity of the mixture.
Solution:
The wet bulb temperature can be assumed to be
the same as the adiabatic saturation temperature
T S .
Adiabatic saturation lines can also be used for wet
bulb lines with reasonable accuracy! (refer to
Geankoplis page 571-572)
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Books : 1. Geankoplis C. J., Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall,
Books :
1.
Geankoplis C. J., Transport Processes and
Separation Process Principles, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall,
2003.
2.
McCabe W. M., Smith J. C. and Harriott P., Unit
Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th Ed., McGraw Hill,
2005.
Website :
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