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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The Vitex negundo L. which is also locally known as the Lagundi is an erect shrub that usually grows up to an average of five meters in height. Lagundi has a single, thick, woody stem like a trunk and is usually seen in swamps of the Philippines. Lagundi leaves appear palmately, in the form of five pointed leaves which splay out like the fingers of a hand. Lagundi leaves are 5-foliate, rarely with 3 leaflets only. Lagundi leaves are 4-10 cm long, slightly hairy beneath. The lagundi flowers are blue to lavender, 6-7 mm long bearing fruit globose of about 4mm in diameter that turns black when rip. Lagundi grows in the Philippines and has been traditionally used as herbal medicine. The Philippine Department of Health has conducted research and study for Lagundi and has suggested that the lagundi plant has a number verifiable therapeutic value. Since it grows in the Philippines, which is an archipelago, it is known in different names depending on which part of the country it is. Tugas (Cebuano); Molave-aso, Magupay (Surigaonon); Dangla, Lino-lino (Ilongot); Dabatan(Ifugao); Lingei (Bontoc); Sagarai (Bagobo); five-leaved Chaste Tree (English). Lagundi is generally used for the treatment of coughs, asthma symptoms, and other respiratory problems, Lagundi is also known for its analgesic effect that helps alleviate pain and discomfort. The lagundi is also used for the relief of asthma and pharyngitis. It is also

negundo and other Vitex species have been reported by several researchers in the past. flu and other bronchopulmonary disorders. Though almost all of its parts are used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. besides GC/MS analysis of fresh leaves. pharmaceutical companies sell it in capsule form at drug stores. and diseases of the liver. tonic and febrifuge. colic. The leaves are reported to be used for coughs and asthma. antifungal and antibacterial properties so in the present study. expectorant. cough. and expectorant. Its essential oil is found to be useful for sloughing wounds and ulcers. dyspepsia. is an important medicinal plant found throughout India. rheumatism. worms. It is also said to alleviate symptoms of Chicken Pox and removes worms from the body system. Internally. Its leaves and seeds are widely used externally for rheumatism and inflammations of joints and are also reported to have insecticidal properties. febrifuge. Today. The leaves of V. the antibacterial potential of all three different oils and five . Health care practitioners also prescribe is as treatment for colds. boils. and leprosy. flowers and dried fruits. and are also recommended as a cardiac tonic. decoction of its leaves is taken as diuretic. vermifuge. negundo are reported to possess pesticidal. The seeds make a cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy. The root is reported to be tonic.recommended as relief of rheumatism. fever. the extracts from its leaves and roots are the most important in the field of medicine and drug. The chemical components of the essential oil of leaf isolated from V. The flowers are used in diarrhea. boils and diarrhea. Huang Jing Zi) Vitex negundo (family: Verbenaceae). cholera. and for inflammation of the mouth. fever. (Philippine Medicinal Plants. The root is also used in a great variety of diseases: dyspepsia.

in the form of five pointed leaves which splay out like the fingers of a hand.wisegeek. It has a single thick. and the leaves appear palmately. as regular doses appear to reduce the strength of asthma attacks.htm) Commonly known as Lagundi in the Philippines. or through practitioners of herbal and alternative medicine. and the use of lagundi is actively promoted by the government as a result. Outside of the Philippines.com/what-is-lagundi. Preparations of lagundi have been used for a wide variety of complaints traditionally. The leaves. although scientific research has concentrated on its use for respiratory complaints. Lagundi is generally accepted in the Philippines to be useful for coughs. This plant is native to the swamps of the Philippines. Research on lagundi conducted by the Philippine Department of Health has suggested that the plant has a number of practical uses. (Retrieved from: http://www. Some doctors also prescribe lagundi to assist in the treatment of asthma. Khokra et al.) Lagundi or Vitex negundo is a large shrub native to the Philippines which has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for centuries. and seeds of lagundi all appear to have medicinal value.successive extracts was studied. and other respiratory problems. woody stem like a trunk. Vitex Negundo is a large shrub with thin and greyish bark and bluish-purple flowers. It has finger-like structured . S. preparations of lagundi are sometimes available at stores which supply herbal medicines. L. where it can sometimes grow quite tall. Extracts. asthma symptoms. flowers. (Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. root. and the Philippine government actively promotes it as an alternative to Western cough medicines.

Negundo is considered as a “hardy” plant because it can thrive even in the most extreme conditions though they are commonly found among humid areas or along courses of water. The leaves of the V. As a matter of fact. inflammation. wounds. AS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT During an episode of inflammation several chemical mediators are released which increase blood flow and extravasation of fluid through the area of affectation. Its action is geared primarily on the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis . Vitex Negundo is widely used on par with other proven herbal plants in traditional medicine. It bears flowers that develop in to clusters within densely matted filaments. AS ANALGESIA . Its significance is known since the early times. it is vastly promoted and recommended by different health institutions worldwide upon verification of its use in relieving symptoms of respiratory ailments. One of these mediators is prostaglandin. Other scientific findings also claim that almost every part of this plant serves a variety of medicinal purposes such as remedy for febrile state.(digitate) leaves which grow in quadrangular branches. V. More recent studies show its proven effectiveness to treat common illnesses such as cough and colds. rheumatic conditions. and ulcers. It activates inflammatory response. and even induces increase in body temperature (known as fever). produces pain sensations. V. to name a few. Such action was said to be achieved all alone or in conjunction with other commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs such as Ibuprofen.Negundo has gained popularity due to its medicinal value.Negundo have essential phytochemicals that are said to be effective in treating acute or sub-acute inflammations and pain.

There are also several experimental studies involving administration of V. pain and discomfort is reduced or alleviated. in mast cells associated with asthma attack.Negundo extracts which indicates that its analgesic effect is not associated with opiod-mediated receptors as evidenced by its lack of response to Naloxone. klebsiella pneumonia. also a mediator of inflammatory process. flavonoids. The phytochemical extracts from the leaves of V. namely phenols. there are various studies showing that sub-therapeutic doses of leaf extracts increase the analgesic effects of some standard pain-relieving medications such as Meperidine (a type of narcotic) and Aspirin. RELIEF OF RESPIRATORY AILMENTS Vitex Negundo has properties that can treat a wide array of illnesses. terpenoids. It has essential phytochemicals which are effective in treating common respiratory ailments and asthma. colds. a potent narcotic antagonist. Hence. Its properties are also capable of inhibiting the production of leukotriene. AS ANTI-MICROBIAL Certain bioactive phytochemicals present in Vitex Negundo. pain results from prostaglandin synthesis. Examinations showed that certain pathogenic agents such as salmonella paratyphi.As mentioned earlier. and carotenoids are said to be associated in the antibacterial capabilities of the plant.Negundo act on inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandin. . Studies show that they work to alleviate cough. and vibrio cholera are susceptible to these innate bioactive agents. anthraquinones. streptococcus mutans. In addition. and pharyngitis.

Japanese pharmaceutical companies import tons of it from Philippines. and asthma. It also contains isoorientin.hubpages. Most vitex negundo trees are located within National Parks of Japan. luteolin-7-0-glucoside. you can find chaste trees around. Chaste tree also shows leukotriene release inhibition. pharyngitis. Also. a smooth muscle relaxant with anti-histamine properties. among other things. Reduced cancer cells are reported on some patients.com/hub/VITEX-NEGUNDO-TheMulti-Purpose-Medicinal-Plant) The Philippine Department of Health has certified Lagundi (five-leaved chaste tree) as a medicinal plant for treatment of cases like colds. The Department of Science and Technology has performed numerous studies on Lagundi (five-leaved chaste tree). because of its wild and non-cultivated quality. It is a beautiful tree and one of tourist attraction during autumn season in Japan. casticin. to the most part of Florida. These products are approved by the Bureau of Food and Drugs. In USA. Phytochemical studies have revealed that chaste tree contains chrysoplenol D. recent study indicates that the chaste tree extract is one of promising cancer prevention substance.(Retrieved from: http://thesingernurse. flu. Junji Takano) . from California. (Five-leaved Chaste Tree or Lagundi – Vitex Negundo L. especially in Texas. which exhibit an anti-histamine effect. We are applying Lagundi tea to cancer patients and the result is remarkable. an important mechanism in controlling asthma..