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# Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Theory & Application

## Dr. S. Kamran Afaq

Professor HITEC University

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Course Outline
Introduction
Heat Conduction

Fundamental of Convection Application : Heat Exchangers Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces (FINS) Convection and Radiation
Mass Diffusion Boiling and Condensation

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Modes of Heat Transfer
Convection : In this mode heat is transfer due to the movement of the fluids Free Convection

Forced Convection

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Forced Convection
Free Convection

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Cool Air (T = 15 C) By Speed

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Mathematical Modeling :
The rate of heat convection over a medium depends on the:

## Nature of the flow (Re.Laminar or Turbulent)

Nature of the fluid (Viscosity, k, density, C, etc) Surface Area of the medium Temperature Difference

Q Q

T As

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Mathematical Modeling : Convective heat transfer Coefficient (Nature of the fluid)

Q Q

T, A,

Q As T Q hA s T

where;

T = (Ts -T)

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Convective heat transfer Coefficient (h)
Rate of Heat transfer b/w solid surface and a fluid per unit surface area per unit temperature difference

Units :

Q As T

h : (W/m2/ C)

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Nusselt Number

Consider a fluid layer of thickness L, and temperature difference is T = T2 T1. Heat transfer through the fluid will be by convection if the fluid is in motion or by conduction if it is in rest.

Qcond Qconv

T kA L hA T

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Nusselt Number

Qconv Qcond

hA T T kA L

Qconv Qcond
hL k

hL k

Nu

Nu represent the enhancement of Heat transfer by convection through the fluid as compare to conduction. High value means more effective the convection; Nu=1, means pure conduction

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Prandtl Number

Velocity Profile

The region above the plate where viscous effect are dominant; known as velocity boundary layer; and boundary layer thickness () is defined as y distance where u=0.99u
Temperature Profile

Similarly the region in temperature profile know as the thermal boundary layer; and boundary layer thickness ( t) is defined as y distance where T Ts = 0.99(T-Ts)

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection

Prandtl Number
In flow over a heated surface, both thermal and velocity boundary

layers develop simultaneously; Velocity profile have a strong effect on temperature profile; and finally on thermal boundary layer. Convective heat transfer coefficient is directly dependent on this temperature gradient; The relative thickness of these thermal and velocity boundary layer is describe by Prandtl number;

Convection

Heat Convection
Prandtl Number

Pr

Pr

k Cp
Pr Cp k

Convection

Heat Convection
Prandtl Number

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Reynolds Number

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends upon; Surface Geometry Surface Roughness Surface Temperature Free Stream velocity Type of fluid

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Reynolds Number

Reynolds describe that the flow regime completely depends on the ratio of the inertia forces to viscous forces in the fluid;

Convection

Heat Convection
Reynolds Number

Re

V2 L 2 V L

Re

V L

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Depends on geometry

Heat Convection
(m , n = 0 to 1)

Nu

hL k

Re

V L

Pr

Cp k

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Average Nu for external forced Convection

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Internal forced Convection
Hydraulic Diameter (Dh)

Qconv Qcond

hL k

Nu

hL k

Nu

hDh k

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Internal forced Convection
Laminar and Turbulent in tubes

Re

V L

Re

V Dh

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Internal forced Convection

Re

V Dh

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Internal forced Convection Laminar Flow

Nu

hDh k

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

Heat Convection
Internal forced Convection Turbulent Flow

Convection

Heat Convection
Example

Convection

Heat Convection

Tube Side

Convection

Heat Convection

Convection

Heat Convection
Annulus Side

Convection

Heat Convection

Convection

Heat Convection
Example

## Properties water at 140 F

0.378 Btu/h.ft. F

5.11 10 6 ft 2 / s Pr 2.98
Properties of air at 80 F

k Pr

3

ft 2 / s

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

EXAMPLE 75

A long 10-cm-diameter steam pipe whose external surface temperature is 110 C passes through some open area that is not protected against the winds. Determine the rate of heat loss from the pipe per unit of its length when the air is at 1 atm pressure and 10 C and the wind is blowing across the pipe at a velocity of 8 m/s.

Convection

## Heat & Mass Transfer

EXAMPLE 75

A long 10-cm-diameter steam pipe whose external surface temperature is 110 C passes through some open area that is not protected against the winds. Determine the rate of heat loss from the pipe per unit of its length when the air is at 1 atm pressure and 10 C and the wind is blowing across the pipe at a velocity of 8 m/s.

Convection

Convection

Nu

## 0.027 (4.219 10 4 ) 0.805 (0.7202 )1 3

Nu 127
h k Nu Dh 0.02808 127 0 .1 35 .6 W/m C
2

Then the rate of heat transfer from the pipe per unit of its length;

Convection

Thank You