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Theory & Application

Professor HITEC University

Convection

Course Outline

Introduction

Heat Conduction

Fundamental of Convection Application : Heat Exchangers Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces (FINS) Convection and Radiation

Mass Diffusion Boiling and Condensation

Convection

Modes of Heat Transfer

Convection : In this mode heat is transfer due to the movement of the fluids Free Convection

Forced Convection

Convection

Heat Convection

Forced Convection

Free Convection

Convection

Cool Air (T = 15 C) By Speed

Convection

Heat Convection

Mathematical Modeling :

The rate of heat convection over a medium depends on the:

Nature of the fluid (Viscosity, k, density, C, etc) Surface Area of the medium Temperature Difference

Q Q

T As

Convection

Heat Convection

Mathematical Modeling : Convective heat transfer Coefficient (Nature of the fluid)

Q Q

T, A,

Q As T Q hA s T

where;

T = (Ts -T)

Convection

Heat Convection

Convective heat transfer Coefficient (h)

Rate of Heat transfer b/w solid surface and a fluid per unit surface area per unit temperature difference

Units :

Q As T

h : (W/m2/ C)

Convection

Heat Convection

Nusselt Number

Consider a fluid layer of thickness L, and temperature difference is T = T2 T1. Heat transfer through the fluid will be by convection if the fluid is in motion or by conduction if it is in rest.

Qcond Qconv

T kA L hA T

Convection

Heat Convection

Nusselt Number

Qconv Qcond

hA T T kA L

Qconv Qcond

hL k

hL k

Nu

Nu represent the enhancement of Heat transfer by convection through the fluid as compare to conduction. High value means more effective the convection; Nu=1, means pure conduction

Convection

Heat Convection

Prandtl Number

Velocity Profile

The region above the plate where viscous effect are dominant; known as velocity boundary layer; and boundary layer thickness () is defined as y distance where u=0.99u

Temperature Profile

Similarly the region in temperature profile know as the thermal boundary layer; and boundary layer thickness ( t) is defined as y distance where T Ts = 0.99(T-Ts)

Convection

Heat Convection

Prandtl Number

In flow over a heated surface, both thermal and velocity boundary

layers develop simultaneously; Velocity profile have a strong effect on temperature profile; and finally on thermal boundary layer. Convective heat transfer coefficient is directly dependent on this temperature gradient; The relative thickness of these thermal and velocity boundary layer is describe by Prandtl number;

Convection

Heat Convection

Prandtl Number

Pr

Pr

k Cp

Pr Cp k

Convection

Heat Convection

Prandtl Number

Convection

Heat Convection

Reynolds Number

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends upon; Surface Geometry Surface Roughness Surface Temperature Free Stream velocity Type of fluid

Convection

Heat Convection

Reynolds Number

Reynolds describe that the flow regime completely depends on the ratio of the inertia forces to viscous forces in the fluid;

Convection

Heat Convection

Reynolds Number

Re

V2 L 2 V L

Re

V L

Convection

Depends on geometry

Heat Convection

(m , n = 0 to 1)

Nu

hL k

Re

V L

Pr

Cp k

Convection

Heat Convection

Average Nu for external forced Convection

Convection

Heat Convection

Internal forced Convection

Hydraulic Diameter (Dh)

Qconv Qcond

hL k

Nu

hL k

Nu

hDh k

Convection

Heat Convection

Internal forced Convection

Laminar and Turbulent in tubes

Re

V L

Re

V Dh

Convection

Heat Convection

Internal forced Convection

Re

V Dh

Convection

Heat Convection

Internal forced Convection Laminar Flow

Nu

hDh k

Convection

Heat Convection

Internal forced Convection Turbulent Flow

Convection

Heat Convection

Example

Convection

Heat Convection

Tube Side

Convection

Heat Convection

Convection

Heat Convection

Annulus Side

Convection

Heat Convection

Convection

Heat Convection

Example

0.378 Btu/h.ft. F

5.11 10 6 ft 2 / s Pr 2.98

Properties of air at 80 F

k Pr

3

ft 2 / s

Convection

EXAMPLE 75

A long 10-cm-diameter steam pipe whose external surface temperature is 110 C passes through some open area that is not protected against the winds. Determine the rate of heat loss from the pipe per unit of its length when the air is at 1 atm pressure and 10 C and the wind is blowing across the pipe at a velocity of 8 m/s.

Convection

EXAMPLE 75

A long 10-cm-diameter steam pipe whose external surface temperature is 110 C passes through some open area that is not protected against the winds. Determine the rate of heat loss from the pipe per unit of its length when the air is at 1 atm pressure and 10 C and the wind is blowing across the pipe at a velocity of 8 m/s.

Convection

Convection

Nu

Nu 127

h k Nu Dh 0.02808 127 0 .1 35 .6 W/m C

2

Then the rate of heat transfer from the pipe per unit of its length;

Convection

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