WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PATIALA DISTILLERY

Mohit Kumar Bansal 601101015

INTRODUCTION
Located in Mehn village at a distance of 10 km from Patiala.  Came into existence in 1978 and started production in 1979.  Capacity of plant 60KLD Ethanol.  Raw material used is molasses and grain (rice).

Inlet of Molasses Molasses Storage Grain Loading Steam Milling & Screening Husk Storage Chopper Rice Husk

Dilution Tank

Liquefaction

Blower

Prefermenter

pH Setting

30%
Flue Gases

Cooling Water

Fermenter

Cooling Water

D.M Water

Cyclone in series

Cooling Tower

Wash Holding

A

H.E

Turbine
Boiler Blowdown

Boiler

Distillation
Ash

Spirit Storage
Domestic Waste

Spent Wash Blower Equalization Tank
Biogas

70%

Tank

Biocomposting

A

Green Belt

Acidogenesis

Methanogenesis

Aeration

Settling

Aeration

Settling

RAW MATERIAL HANDLING
Molasses stored in steel tanks  Grain stored in godown  Molasses pumped to weighing machine where according to sugar content, weigh of molasses is taken in dilution tank.  Grain lifted in bucket elevators, screened followed by removal of stones, then milled using hammer mills  Flour through a screw conveyor added into slurry

LIQUEFACTION
In grain flour along with processed water, enzyme and stabilizing chemicals are added.  Slurry is cooked with high pressure steam  Liquefied mash is cooled in mash cooler and saccharifying enzyme is added which initiates the formation of sugar.  Mash now sent to pre-fermenter.

YEAST PROPAGATION
Molasses is received into the yeast vessel and sterilized by steam.(mash is taken during fermentation by grain)  Yeast seed material is prepared and added to the yeast vessels by inoculating molasses with yeast.  Aeration is done for yeast activation

FERMENTATION
Convert fermentable sugars into alcohol and CO2  Significant heat released during fermentation but temp maintained at 35-37 deg C by use of forced recirculation plate type heat exchangers  Aerated cell mass is transferred to the fermenter for maintaining critical growth rate.

DISTILLATION
Multipressure distillation is done to extract ethanol from wash.  Wash is preheated with spent wash and fed into distillation column for distillation  Here aldehyde column remove the aldehyde impurity.  Ethanol thus collected stored in tank for further processing.

BOILER
Steam requirements of the industry are fulfilled by a boiler of capacity 8TPH operated on biogas(70%) and rice husk(30%).  A turbo alternator of 600 KW is installed for cogeneration.  Four cyclones in series are installed to take care of ash generated during combustion.  R.C.C chimney of 50 m height, 2 m internal dia having efflux vel 9.5 m/s

Steam Biogas and Rice husk Turbine Alternator Steam F.D Fan External Boiler Furnace Fire Tube Boiler Steam
Flue Gas

Flue gases to atmosphere through stack

APCD

I.D Fan

Blowdown to drain Ash Boiler Feed Water Pumps

Soft water from Ion Exchanger

Boiler Feed Water Tank

Boiler

WASTE WATER STREAMS
    

Fermentation section – Fermenter cleaning water Pump Sealing water Floor Washings water Process Air Blower Sealing water Distillation Section – Molasses based Plant- Spent Wash Grain based plant – Thin slops Spent Lees Vacuum Pump Sealing Water Other cleaning water Liquefaction Section – (For Grain Plant) Pump Sealing water Floor Washing water Other cleaning water


   

   

ETP
Pretreatment involving bar screen, oil traps, catching of the grit or sludge.  Equalization.  Neutralization.  1st stage anaerobic digestion.  2nd stage aerobic oxidation.  3rd stage oxidation.  Drying of sludge on beds.  Channeling of clear water for irrigation.

ANAEROBIC BIOMETHANATION SYSTEM
Mixed tank reactor to convert organic matter into useful energy in the form of biogas at mesophilic temperature in a controlled atmosphere to ensure maximum efficiency.  Before pumping first spent wash is allowed to settle to reduce the solid buildup in biodigestor  Temperature brought down to 40deg C  pH adjusted to 6.5-7  Predetermined SRT and HRT is maintained in biodigestor.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
     

Flue gases from boiler Water used per lt of alcohol is quite high 15-20 lt Boiler blow down containing TDS

Resin Backwash & Regeneration water
Regeneration Chemicals Fly ash from the boiler

SUGGESTIONS
Installation of flash tank to recover heat and water vapors from boiler blow down  Indirect heating during distillation  Flue gas heat can be used  Installation of multi effect evaporation plant to achieve ZLD  Adoption of thin slop treatment option for grain based distillery

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