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AND THE ENVIRONMENT
MEGHA BEDI 601101017 MTECH EST
WHAT IS AN OIL SPILLS ????
petroleum hydrocarbon released into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity. •Releases of crude oil from tankers, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products(such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
1. STORAGE 2. HANDLING 3. TRANSPORT
1. LOADING AND DISCHARGING 2. BUNKERING
Rain washes oil leaked by cars from roads into storm drains, which empty directly into our waters. The hundreds of tons of hydrocarbons that are emitted form particle fallout, which is then swept into the oceans by rainfall.
FATE OF OIL SPILLS
WEATHERING: series of chemical and physical changes that cause spilled oil to break down and become heavier than water. These droplets are then distributed vertically throughout the water column, lead to formation of think film on surface. Oxidation occurs when oil contacts the water and oxygen combines with the oil hydrocarbons to produce watersoluble compounds, forming tar balls, which linger in the environment. EVAPORATON: occurs when the lighter or more volatile substances within the oil mixture become vapors and leave the surface of the water. This process leaves behind the heavier components of the oil, which may undergo further weathering or may sink to the bottom of the ocean floor Biodegradation occurs when microorganisms, such as bacteria, feed on oil hydrocarbons To sustain biodegradation, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are sometimes added to the water to encourage the microorganisms to grow and reproduce. Emulsification Is the process that forms emulsions, which are mixtures of small droplets of oil and water. They greatly hamper weathering and cleanup processes.
EFFTECTS OF OIL SPILLS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
1.EFFECT ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS:
Physical contact When fur or feathers come into contact with oil, they get matted down. This matting causes fur and feathers to lose their insulating properties, placing animals at risk of freezing to death Toxic contamination Oil vapors can cause damage to the animal’s CNS, liver, and lungs. Animals are also at risk from ingesting oil, damaging cells in the intestinal tract. Destruction of food resources and habitats – Predators that consume contaminated prey can be exposed to oil through ingestion, may refuse to eat their prey and will begin to starve. Sometimes a local population of prey organisms is destroyed, leaving no food resources for predators. Reproductive problems – Oil can be transferred from birds’ plumage to the eggs they are hatching. Oil can smother eggs by sealing pores in the eggs and preventing gas exchange.
2.EFFECTS ON HUMANS
Direct exposure to oil spill : health effects may develop when the oil spill occurs close to where people live or work and may come in contact with humans through: • breathing gaseous oil compounds •skin adsorption when touching spilled material. Indirect exposure: • consumption of contaminated food or water • consumption of fish meat, humans may become seriously exposed to higher concentrations of oil components than in the surrounding environment or as compared to ingestion of the polluted water or bathing in the polluted water.
3. Economical impact:
•Long-term ceasing of activities such as fishing in polluted areas effects the local fishermen. •Reduction of property value •Reduction of tourism in affected areas; •Disturbance of traffic (e.g., marine traffic) – affecting import-export activities
4. Recreational and aesthetic impact :
closure of such recreational areas to general public enjoyment
PREVENTION OF OIL SPILLS
•The use of spill prevention devices for any storage and drilling equipment, as well as any device used in handling and exploitation of oil. •The use of preventive practices related to waste handling and waste minimization. •Constant monitoring for detection of incipient spills and leaks •Minimization of land drainage containing spilled oil or runoff water. •Various emergency-response methods aiming to prevent existent oil spill to reach the shores or get into contact with vegetation, wetlands, wildlife, etc.
CLEAN UP AND RECOVERY FROM OIL SPILL
1. Bioremediation: Use of microorganisms to break down the hydrocarbons into water and carbon dioxide. There are three kinds of oil-consuming bacteria(natural): Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria are anaerobic, general aerobic bacteria (GAB) are aerobic. 2. Bioremediation accelerator: • Hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria, which chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons • Acts as a herding agent , forming gel-like agglomerations. 3. Controlled burning 4. Dispersants: act as detergents, clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water. 5. Solidifying: • Are composed of dry hydrophobic polymers(insoluble in water) that both adsorb and absorb. • They clean up oil spills by changing the physical state of spilled oil from liquid to a semi-solid or a rubber-like material that floats on water.
Oil containment booms:
Temporary floating barrier used to contain an oil spill. Booms help to concentrate oil in thicker surface layers so that other collection methods can be used more effectively. Effective in calm water. 1. Diversion Booming - Placing a boom in a body of contaminated water for the purpose of diverting the contamination to a collection point. 2. Exclusion Booming - Placing a boom in a body of water for the purpose of blocking off a sensitive area from contamination.
1. Sand ,cotton-fibres , organo-clays . 2. Dyna-Aqua Oil Sorb™ (DA Oil Sorb™ ) was developed for the removal of crude oil from sea water by combining the - DAI Dyna-Aqua high adsorbent specialized alumina, and Hobbs Bonded Fibers' specialized cotton.
Used for removing oil floating on water. 1. Weir skimmers function by allowing the oil floating on the surface of the water to flow over a weir.. 2. Oleophilic skimmers: function by using a rotating element such as a drum, to which the oil adheres. The oil is wiped from the surface of the drum and collected.
Vacuum and centrifuge:
oil us sucked up along with the water, then a centrifuge is used to separate the oil from the water.
Oil skimmer machine used to suck oil from the surface of the water
MAJOR OIL SPILLS OF THE WORLD
The Gulf War Oil Spill
Persian Gulf 1991 - 136,000 to 1,500,000 tonnes.
The oil was spilled purposefully during wartime. A study conducted after the oil spill found that the spill probably did very little damage in the long-term due to the fact that most of the oil evaporated and millions of barrels were able to be recovered. In the short-term, the impact on wildlife living in Kuwait and Iraq was devastating.
Gulf of Mexico: 2010 – 172 million gallons
It is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. Occurred on April 20, 2010 after methane gas was somehow put under extremely high pressure, which then caused it to travel up the drill column and eventually ignite. The ship burned for about 36 hours, after efforts to calm the fire failed, and sank on April 22, 2010.
Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989
The Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil.It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters. The Valdez spill was the largest ever in U.S. waters until the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released.
OIL SPILL DISASTER IN MUMBAI
The 2010 Mumbai oil spill occurred after two Panamian- flagged ships, MSC Chitra and MV Khalijia-III collided off the coast of India. Msc chitra had a cargo of 1,219 containers holding 2662 tonnes of fuel, 283 tonnes of diesel and 88040 litres of lubricant oil. Thirty-one containers had pesticide in them. The Chitra tilted sharply under the impact of the collision, resulting in the oil spill, containers of pesticide bobbing off on the sea.
•The Indian coast guard worked on the cleaning of the spilled oil. •The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) volunteered to clean up the oil spill through a bioremediation process with its indigenously developed and patented formula of bacteria called as 'Oil Zapper'(a mixture of five bacterial strains and corn cobs). •The bacteria eats hydrocarbon compounds found in oil and sludge and turns them into CO2 and water.
Innovative solutions for oil spills
SOP IT UP WITH MUSHROOMS AND HAIR
Mats made from the mixture of mushroom and hair offer a totally organic and effective way to sop up oil on water. The technique was utilized in the Cosco Busan oil spill of ‘07
SOAK IT UP WITH HYPER ABSORBANT PEAT MOSS
A Norwegian company has come up with a totally natural way to soak up oil slicks – peat moss! The super absorbent moss can be scattered on the spill to absorb the oil, and then scooped right out of the water along with the oil.
OIL ABSORBING MATS OUT OF PET HAIR
San Francisco-based non-profit Matter of Trust is asking dog and cat owners and groomers to donate their pets’ locks to stuff inside of used pantyhose to create mats and booms that are perfect for soaking up oil.
LIMITATIONS OF CURRENT OIL SPILL CLEAN-UP TECHNOLOGY
Little research for new findings
no financial incentive
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