You are on page 1of 12

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF

BIOGAS DIGESTER

Presented by: T.Rohit Kumar (09881A0220)

WHAT IS BIOGAS?

Its a mixture containing 50-70% methane 30-40% carbon dioxide

CH4 CO2

Its a gaseous fuel used for cooking and producing electricity.


Biogas is produced by the breakdown of organic waste by bacteria without oxygen (anaerobic digestion or fermentation).

What

Type of Waste Produces Biogas?

Any

organic waste can produce biogas

Human,

animal, fruit and vegetable waste

What

Type of Waste Does NOT Produces Biogas?

Fiber

rich waste such as wood, leaves, etc. are difficult to digest.


metal

Heavy

Inorganic

materials in high concentration (Nitrate, Sodium,Potassium,Calcium,Magnesium etc)

WHAT IS A BIOGAS DIGESTER?

A device in which biogas is produced from anaerobic decay(decay that occur without oxygen).

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN A BIODIGESTER

Digester is fed with a mixture of water and waste called a slurry

First of all, the slurry containing complex compounds is broken down to digestible organic matter by Hydrolysis.
Digestible organic matter is broken down by acid-producing bacteria By-products are then broken down by methane-producing bacteria to CH4 and CO2.

CLASSIFICATION OF BIOGAS PLANTS

Biogas plants are mainly classified as:

Floating-drum biogas plant Fixed-dome biogas plant Balloon biogas plant

FLOATING-DRUM BIOGAS PLANT

Consists of two main parts


Digester Gas collector

Digested well is divided into compartments. Two pipes, one serves as inlet and other as outlet. Gasholder is cylindrical drum in shape with conical top. Gas holder is made up of mild steel. Most expensive component of the plant.

FIXED-DOME BIOGAS PLANT


Working is same as floating-drum plant. It has Dome-shaped digester. Floating drum is replaced by fixed dome roof. Gas holder and digester are combined. Gas stored in upper part of the digester.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF


FLOATING DRUM PLANT

Advantages:

Simple and easily understood operation Constant gas pressure Higher gas production Volume of the gas stored is visible from the position of gas holder

Disadvantages:
Rusting and cost of the gas holder are the main drawbacks of this plant Life span of the plant is less due to corrosion Frequent painting of Gas holder is required

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FIXED-DOME PLANT

Advantages:
Simple in construction Low cost compare to Floating-drum plant Heat insulation is better No maintenance Life span of the plant is more

Disadvantages:
Not easy to build Labor-sensitive Variable gas pressure Poorly constructed roof generally leads to gas leakage from top.

BALLOON BIOGAS PLANT


Most simple & cheapest to construct. Consist of large common plastic bag Inlet and outlet are attached directly to the plastic skin of the balloon It has relatively less life span If gas pressure exceeds the limit it may damage the skin

CONCLUSION
It creates source of fuel for cooking. Provide a fertilizer. Leads to improvement in the environment, and sanitation and hygiene. Biogas plants significantly lower the greenhouse effects on the earths atmosphere. As India is agro-based country ,biogas can be produced in large scale.