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Prepared by Soumit Dey, Arinab Dev Roy Anubhav Mazumdar, Rishov Khan Sourav Dutta, Subhankar Das

Electric Charges
 Matter is made of atoms, which in turn are made of electrons, protons, and neutrons.  Electrons have a negative charge, and protons have a positive charge. Neutrons have no charge.  Electrons can move from one atom to another, but protons cannot move .  When an atom has gained electrons, it has more electrons than protons, and it is negatively charged.  When an atom has lost electrons, it has more protons than electrons, and it is positively charged.  Rule of Charge: Opposite charges attract, like charges repel.

Types of Circuits
 A circuit in which the current must  A circuit in which the current can pass through all of the resistors on travel through more than one path only one path is called a series is called a parallel circuit. circuit.




Series Circuits
 An electrical circuit with only one path for the electrical current to follow

.Parallel Circuits  An electrical circuit that provides more than one path for the electrical current to follow.

or AC. this is called direct current. or DC.. .  When the electrons flow in only one direction. this is called alternating current. then back again.  Current from generating plants that powers our homes and businesses is alternating current.  When electrons first go in one direction.  Current from batteries is always direct current. then reverse.Types of Current  There are two types of electric current--AC and DC current.

 When neutral objects are rubbed together and charges are rearranged.Charge and Force  Electrons can be rubbed off of one  object and onto another. and  they stick together. and unlike charges attract each other. . Charged balloon sticks to charged area of a wall. The electric field is strongest when you are closest to the charge. Like charges repel each other. The objects then get a static charge. The area around a charge where you can feel force is called the electric field. the objects get unlike charges.

 An electroscope can be used to  Charging by friction happens when tell detect a static charge.  Charging by induction happens when a charged object is held close to another object and that causes charges to be rearranged.Static Electricity  A neutral object can build up a  Static electricity can be caused in static charge by gaining or 3ways: friction. . positive or negative. induction. or losing electrons.  Charging by conduction happens when a charged object touches another object and electrons are transferred. It objects rub together and electrons are cannot tell if the charge is transferred. conduction.

KILOWATT-HOURS OF ELECTRICITY. AMPERES OF ELECTRICITY. . Example: STATIC ELECTRICITY. . . COULOMBS OF ELECTRICITY. Examples: PRICE OF ELECTRICITY. Examples: CHARGES OF ELECTRICITY."Electricity" means electrical energy. .."Electricity" is a class of phenomena involving electric charges.. Examples: BIOELECTRICITY."Electricity" means electric charge.What is “Electricity”? . ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY .ETC."Electricity" refers to the amount of imbalance between quantities of electrons and protons. . THERMOELECTRICITY."Electricity" refers to the flowing motion of electric charge. Examples: CURRENT ELECTRICITY. TRIBOELECTRICITY. PIEZOELECTRICITY.

involves the flow of electrons in a conductor  . usually by rubbing or brushing Current Electricity .involves electrons that are moved from one place to another. which are the fundamental cause of electricity  Static Electricity .Electricity?  Electricity is all about electrons.

electrons have a negative charge The charges of protons and electrons are equal and opposite     .Quick Review of the Atom Matter is made up of atoms Atoms are made of nucleons (called protons and neutrons) and electrons Protons have a positive charge. neutrons have no charge.

Atoms Are Everywhere  Electrons move in and out of fixed pathways around the nucleus  Changing the number of electrons in a particular type of atom creates an ion of that atom .

Materials through which electrons cannot move easily are called insulators. Wood. Charges can build up on the surface of good insulators. and stays there as a static charge.”  Acids. sea water .  Most metals are good conductors  because of their metallic bonds and their “sea of electrons. Distilled water does not conduct electricity.Conductors and Insulators  Materials through which electrons  can move easily are good conductors. and tap water  are also good conductors of electricity. Electrons are tightly bound to the atoms of good insulators and cannot move around. glass. ceramic. rubber. . and many plastics are good insulators.

a charged area on the winds.charge . conduction. water and dust  When a highly charged cloud is particles are rubbed together by over land.Lightning!  During a storm. Charges are now separated!  Charged areas touch other areas of  Lightning is caused by the the clouds. and some charges are discharge (equalization) of these transferred within clouds by separate static electric charges. clouds because of this friction.charge . .charge . Charges build up in the ground is produced by induction.charge + charge + charge .

potential difference or voltage. called a circuit.Electric Current  Electric current happens when electrons  Electrochemical cells and flow through a wire or another thermocouples cause the conductor. you need a closed continuous path. voltage that makes electrons flow.  There are two kinds of electrochemical cells---wet  You also need a difference in charge cells such as a car battery from one end of the wire to the other that and dry cells like flashlight pushes the electrons.  For electricity to flow. . This is called batteries.

The unit for resistance is measured in electrons per second or the Ohm (Ω) Amperes or amps (A).  Ohm’s Law says: I= V/R V I R . Current is resistance. to their flow.Ohm’s Law  The “push” behind electrons in a  Ohm’s Law relates the push behind circuit is called voltage. The letter V electric current to the number of stands for voltage. The letter R stands for stands for current. The unit for electrons flowing and to the resistance voltage is Volts (V).  The force opposing the flow of  The rate of electrons flowing through electrons through a circuit is called a circuit is called current. The letter I resistance.

This can cause a short P E circuit. .  Never use electric appliances V I P t near water.  P = V I Power = (voltage)(current)  Never overload circuits or  E=Pt Energy = (power)(time) replace burned out fuses with pennies. because tap water is a conductor!  Stay away from windows and electrical appliances during thunder storms.Electric Power and Safety  Electric power and electric energy Be safe when using electricity! can be calculated using the  Never remove the ground wire following formulas: from a plug. which could start a fire.

known in 600 BC that a rubbed piece of amber will attract a bit of straw  Study of magnetism goes back to the observation that certain naturally occurring stones attract iron  The two sciences were separate until 1820 when Hans Christian Oersted saw the connection between them…an electric current in a wire will affect a compass needle .Electricity and Magnetism  The science of electricity has its roots in observation.

This strange effect remained a mystery for over 2000 years. it would attract particles of straw.The Shocking History of Electricity Around 600 BC Greeks found that by rubbing a hard fossilized resin (Amber) against a fur cloth. .

. studied magnetic phenomena and demonstrated that the Earth itself was a huge magnet. William Gilbert. by means of his "terrella" experiment. and named it the "electric" attraction.Two Thousand Years Later Around 1600. From that came the word "electricity" and all others derived from it. He also studied the attraction produced when materials were rubbed. a physician who lived in London at the time of Queen Elizabeth I and Shakespeare.

He won the Nobel Prize in 1906 for his discovery.J. ."  When J.Birth of “Electronics”  During the 1800s it became evident that electric charge had a natural unit. and in 1891 Johnstone Stoney proposed to name it "electron. which could not be subdivided any further. Thomson discovered the particle which carried that charge. the name "electron" was applied to it.

When lightening flashed. a tiny spark jumped from the key to his wrist. This story is a familiar one. which he flew during a thunderstorm. .Benjamin Franklin In 1752. but was extremely dangerous . Franklin proved that lightning and the spark from amber were one and the same thing. while holding the end of the kite string by an iron key.he could easily have been killed. The experiment proved Franklin's theory. in which Franklin fastened an iron spike to a silken kite.

another Italian scientist.Galvani and Volta In 1786. Volta showed that when moisture comes between two different metals. . Galvani thought that the muscles of the frog must contain electricity. the leg twitched violently. an Italian professor of medicine. disagreed: he realized that the main factors in Galvani's discovery were the two different metals the steel knife and the tin plate . By 1792. Alessandro Volta. Luigi Galvani. the voltaic pile. which he made from thin sheets of copper and zinc separated by moist pasteboard. This led him to invent the first electric battery. electricity is created.upon which the frog was lying. found that when the leg of a dead frog was touched by a metal knife.

a new kind of electricity was discovered. . is named after him. The unit of electrical potential. the Volt. Volta showed that electricity could be made to travel from one place to another by wire. electricity that flowed steadily like a current of water instead of discharging itself in a single spark or shock. thereby making an important contribution to the science of electricity.Volta…continued In this way.

Michael Faraday The credit for generating electric current on a practical scale goes to the famous English scientist. If electricity could produce magnetism. Faraday was greatly interested in the invention of the electromagnet. why couldn't magnetism produce electricity? . but his brilliant mind took earlier experiments still further. Michael Faraday.

.continued In 1831. Faraday found the solution. but he had discovered the first method of generating electricity by means of motion in a magnetic field. a tiny electric current flows through the wire.Faraday…. Of course. Electricity could be produced through magnetism by motion. Faraday's electric generator was crude (and provided only a small electric current). He discovered that when a magnet was moved inside a coil of copper wire. by today's standards.

Electric Interaction at a Distance Faraday also realized that the electric force is transmitted by a electric field. .

In 1878 Joseph Swan. a British scientist. invented the incandescent filament lamp and within twelve months Edison made a similar discovery in America. .Edison and Swan Nearly 40 years went by before a really practical DC (Direct Current) generator was built by Thomas Edison.

other scientists in Europe and America recognized that DC brought major disadvantages.although he was convinced of the merits of DC for generating electricity. .Edison and Swan…continued Swan and Edison later set up a joint company to produce the first practical filament lamp. Prior to this. in September 1882. electric lighting had been crude arc lamps. Edison's successes were not without controversy. Edison used his DC generator to provide electricity to light his laboratory and later to illuminate the first New York street to be lit by electric lamps. however .

Westinghouse and Tesla Westinghouse was a famous American inventor and industrialist who purchased and developed Nikola Tesla's patented motor for generating alternating current. . The work of Westinghouse and Tesla gradually persuaded Americans that the future lay with AC rather than DC (Adoption of AC generation enabled the transmission of large blocks of electrical. Today the unit of measurement for magnetic fields commemorates Tesla's name. which would have been impossible otherwise). power using higher voltages via transformers.

the Scottish inventor of the steam condensing engine. the Watt.James Watt When Edison's generator was coupled with Watt's steam engine. James Watt. . was born in 1736. starting in 1769 and his name was given to the electric unit of power. His improvements to steam engines were patented over a period of 15 years. large scale electricity generation became a practical proposition.

. was the first to explain the electro-dynamic theory. A permanent memorial to Ampere is the use of his name for the unit of electric current. a French mathematician who devoted himself to the study of electricity and magnetism.Andre Marie Ampere Andre Marie Ampere.

was a college teacher in Cologne when in 1827 he published. but his research was recognized in Britain and he was awarded the Copley Medal in 1841. His theories were coldly received by German scientists. "The Galvanic Circuit Investigated Mathematically". Voltage = Current x Resistance . a German mathematician and physicist.Ohm George Simon Ohm. His name has been given to the unit of electrical resistance.

Electromagnetism   James Clerk Maxwell (1831 .1879) developed the laws of electromagnetism in the form we know them today: Maxwell’s Equations Maxwell’s Equations are to electromagnetism what Newton’s Laws are to gravity Note: It was Maxwell who realized the light is electromagnetic in nature .

On the Move    Electrons in the outer rings or shells of atoms are bound more loosely to the nucleus Such electrons tend to break free from the nucleus and wander around amongst other nearby atoms Such electrons are called free electrons .

Current = Conduction  Such movement of these free electrons creates an electric current  Materials with large numbers of free electrons are called electrical conductors. They conduct electrical current.  Movement of the electrons physically from one place to another is slow. . Transfer of the energy from one electron to another happens fast.

In insulators. electric charges are free to move through the material. they are not. outer electrons of the atoms do not remain attached to individual atoms but become free to move throughout the volume of the material .Conductors and Insulators   In conductors. In conductors:  The charge carriers are called free electrons  Only negative charges are free to move  When isolated atoms are combined to form a metal.

Other Types of Conductors  Electrolytes  Both negative and positive charges can move Semiconductors  In-between conductors and insulators in their ability to conduct electricity  Conductivity can be greatly enhanced by adding small amounts of other elements  Requires quantum physics to truly understand how they work  .

 .Simple Circuits Don’t let the name fool you  Bottom line: For electric current to flow. there has to be a complete pathway for it…a complete circuit.

so no current flows Now.Closed and Open Circuits  Closed Circuit .a circuit with a break in the conductive path. let’s play… “Know Your Electrical Symbols!” .an unbroken path of conductors through which electric current flows  Open Circuit .

Know Your Symbols  Battery or Power Supply  Resistor  Capacitor  Switch  Conductive Wire .