THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A COMPOUND AND A MIXTURE

COMPOUND

DIFFERENT ASPECTS By a chemical Method of reaction formation Yes Formation of new substance The new Properties of substance has original different substance properties

MIXTURE By physical means No

Each element retains its original properties

COMPOUND

Can only be separated by chemical reaction Elements Combination combined by a specific ratio Heat is absorbed or released Energy changes

DIFFERENT ASPECTS Separation of substance

MIXTURE Can be separated by physical means Elements do not combine by a specific ratio No heat is absorbed or released

THE NAME OF ELEMENTS AND THE SIMPLE CHEMICAL FORMULA

BASIC COMPETENCE
To

explain the name of element and the simple chemical formula

INDICATORS
After this lessons, students are able to :
 Write

the names of some elements given their symbols  Write the names of some simple chemicals formula

Atom

Introduction of Atom
 Atom,

tiny basic building block of matter. All the material on Earth is composed of various combinations of atoms.  Atoms are the smallest particles of a chemical element that still exhibit all the chemical properties unique to that element.

The structure of atom
Atoms are made of smaller particles, called electrons, protons, and neutrons.  An atom consists of a cloud of electrons surrounding a small, dense nucleus of protons and neutrons.  Electrons and protons have a property called electric charge, which affects the way they interact with each other and with other electrically charged particles.  Electrons carry a negative electric charge, while protons have a positive electric charge.

The model of atom

The model of atom

The model of atom

The model of atom
elektron proton neutron

orbit Inti atom nukleus

Electron
Electron, negatively charged particle found in an atom.  The electrons form the outer layer or layers of an atom, while the neutrons and protons make up the nucleus, of the atom.  Electrons, neutrons, and protons are elementary particles—that is, they are among the smallest parts of matter that scientists can isolate.

Proton
 elementary

particle that carries a positive electric charge and.  Protons and neutrons are the building blocks of the atomic nucleus, the center of the atom.

Neutron
 electrically

neutral elementary particle that is part of the nucleus of the atom.

ELEMENTS

Element is substance that contains only one kind of atom.  92 of the 108 element are nature.  Element is substances that cannot be decomposed or broken into more elementary substances by ordinary chemical means.  Elements were at one time believed to be the fundamental substances but are now known to consist of a number of different elementary particles

Symbol and name of element
 Chemist

element  The symbol use one or two letters, taken from their old Latin or Greek names  Example

use symbol to give name of

– Iron used to be called ferum, symbolizes by Fe

 OXYGEN

Names and symbols of elements
O H N  Fe  Cu S  Na  Au

 HYDROGEN  NITROGEN  IRON  COPPER  SULPHUR  SODIUM  GOLD

The model of element

H

H

H

O

O

H

O

CHEMICAL FORMULA
A

substance can be represented by its chemical formula. The chemical formula tell us the number and types of atoms in one molecule of the substance.  To understand the chemical formula of substance, you must first be familiar with chemical symbols.

the chemical formulae used to represent them
Nitrogen Gas N2 Two Nitrogen Atoms Each molecule of nitrogen gas is made up of two nitrogen atoms

Carbon monoxide gas
CO One Carbon Atom One oxygen Atom

Each molecule of Carbon monoxide gas is made up of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom

Water
H2 O

Two Hydrogen Atoms

One oxygen atom

Each molecule of water is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

Ammonia gas
NH3 One Nitrogen Atom Three Hydrogen Atoms

Each molecule of Ammonia gas is made up of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms

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