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QUANTITATIVE HYDROLOGY

Chapter 3
3.1 Basin Recharge and Runoff 3.2 Hydrograph Analysis
Estimating Volume of Runoff 3.3 Runoff Coefficients 3.4 Infiltration 3.5 Infiltration Indices 3.6 Rainfall-runoff Correlations 3.7 Moisture-accounting Procedures 3.8 Long-period runoff relations Runoff from Snow 3.9 Physics of Snowmelt 3.10 Snowmelt Computation

3.1 BASIN RECHARGE AND RUNOFF

Basin Recharge

Interception together with depression storage and soil moisture

Direct Runoff

Overland flow and interflow

Effluent Streams

Groundwater

Influent Streams

Intermittent streams (can go dry because of time elapses between rain)

Rain

Overland Flow

Nearest Channel

THREE PATHS TO
A

Rain

Interflow

Nearest Channel

STREAM
Rain
Percolation Groundwater/Soil Moisture

FOR WATER NOT

WITHHELD AS BASIN RECHARGE

N = Ad0.2
N = Number of days for recovery after the peak
Ad = drainage area in square miles

HYDROGRAPH ANALYSIS

Theoretical Formula
R=PLG
Where: R -Runoff P - Precipitation L - Basin Recharge G - Groundwater Accretion

ESTIMATING VOLUME OF RUNOFF

In the design of storm drains and water-control projects, runoff volume is commonly assumed to be a percentage of rainfall

Table 3.1 Values of Runoff Coefficients k for various surfaces

R = kP
Where: R Runof k runoff coefficient P - Precipitation

Urban Residential Simple Houses Garden Apartments Commercial and Industrial Parks Asphalt or concrete pavement

0.20 0.30 0.90 0.05-0.30 0.85-1.0

Table 1: Runoff Coefficients Soil Groups A and B are sandier and Soil Groups C and D are more clayey. These soil classifications would be found in a county soil survey available at any Soil and Water Conservation District office or North Carolina Cooperative Extension center.

Step 1: Assess Site Conditions

In this example we will use a 200 ft2 patio

Step 2: Obtain Runoff Coefficient

Using the provided table (Table 1), look up the runoff coefficient that most closely resembles your site. In this case it is 0.98 Volume Runoff = Surface Area x Runoff Coefficient x Rainfall Depth Volume Runoff = 200ft2 x 0.98 x 0.083ft = 16.3ft3
Note: Make sure that Surface Area and Rainfall Depth are in the same units. It doesnt matter what you use, just stay consistent measurements in feet or meters are generally easiest.

Step 3: Do the Math

Most people have trouble thinking about water volume in Step 4: cubic feet so we will convert to gallons multiplying by Convert if 7.48gal/ft3. Volume Runoff = 16.3ft3 x 7.48 gal/ft3 = Necessary 121.gallons

E X A M P L E

INFILTRATION
PPT\Infiltration.ppt

3.6 Rainfall-Runoff Correlation


Plot of average rainfall versus resulting runoff

PaN = bPaN-1 + PN
PaN Atecedent-Precipitation Index at the end of Nth day PaN-1 Precipitation index on previous day b ranges from 0.85-0.95 When there is no rain for t days,

PaN-1 = PaNbt

RUNOFF FROM SNOW

3.9 Physics of Snowmelt


Factors Affecting Snowmelt
Solar Radiation Depends on Reflectivity or Albedo Heat from warm Air Turbulence resulting to speedy wind bringing large quantities of warm air Rainfall

Heat from warm Air


Heat of Condensation of Water

Heat of Fusion of Ice

Therefore, 1073/144= 7.5 units

Thus, in 1 unit of moisture on snow, 7.5 of water will melt

Rainfall

Where: Ms amount of melt in inches or millimeter P - Rainfall or precipitation Tw Wet-bulb temperature

Degree-day factors defined as a departure of 1 degree in mean daily temperature above 32F. Depth of water melted from the snow in inches or millimeter per degree-day may be determined by dividing the volume of stream flow produced by melting snow within a given time period by the total degree days for the period. Usually ranging from 0.05-0.15in/degree-F with an average value of 0.08in/degree-F Ranges from 2-7mm/degree-C day.

SNOWMELT IN BASINS WITH LITTLE RANGE IN ELEVATION

The area-elevation distribution in a basin on the board. The average snow line is at 5000 ft and the temperature index station is at 6000 ft. Assume a temperature decrease of 3F per 1000ft increase in elevation and a degree-day factor of 0.10. Compute the snowmelt in second-foot days for a day when the mean daily temperature at the index station is 44F
Solution: With a temperature of 44F at 6000 ft the freezing level is at
6000 + {[(44-32)/3]*1000} = 10,000 ft

The area between the snowline (5000 ft) and the freezing level is 305 sq.mi. from the figure, the average temperature over this area is:
0.5(47+32) = 39.5F And the average degree days above 32F is 39.5 32 = 7.5 degree days The total melt therefore: 7.5*0.10*305 = 229 sq.mi. inches 26.9*229 = 6150

E x a m p l e

sfd

Did I make myself clear?

Maraming Salamat!

Kristian Carlo M. Bola


BS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING VA