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# QUANTITATIVE HYDROLOGY

Chapter 3
3.1 Basin Recharge and Runoff 3.2 Hydrograph Analysis
Estimating Volume of Runoff 3.3 Runoff Coefficients 3.4 Infiltration 3.5 Infiltration Indices 3.6 Rainfall-runoff Correlations 3.7 Moisture-accounting Procedures 3.8 Long-period runoff relations Runoff from Snow 3.9 Physics of Snowmelt 3.10 Snowmelt Computation

Basin Recharge

Direct Runoff

Effluent Streams

Groundwater

Influent Streams

## Intermittent streams (can go dry because of time elapses between rain)

Rain

Overland Flow

Nearest Channel

THREE PATHS TO
A

Rain

Interflow

Nearest Channel

STREAM
Rain
Percolation Groundwater/Soil Moisture

## WITHHELD AS BASIN RECHARGE

N = Number of days for recovery after the peak
Ad = drainage area in square miles

HYDROGRAPH ANALYSIS

Theoretical Formula
R=PLG
Where: R -Runoff P - Precipitation L - Basin Recharge G - Groundwater Accretion

## ESTIMATING VOLUME OF RUNOFF

In the design of storm drains and water-control projects, runoff volume is commonly assumed to be a percentage of rainfall

## Table 3.1 Values of Runoff Coefficients k for various surfaces

R = kP
Where: R Runof k runoff coefficient P - Precipitation

Urban Residential Simple Houses Garden Apartments Commercial and Industrial Parks Asphalt or concrete pavement

## 0.20 0.30 0.90 0.05-0.30 0.85-1.0

Table 1: Runoff Coefficients Soil Groups A and B are sandier and Soil Groups C and D are more clayey. These soil classifications would be found in a county soil survey available at any Soil and Water Conservation District office or North Carolina Cooperative Extension center.

## Step 2: Obtain Runoff Coefficient

Using the provided table (Table 1), look up the runoff coefficient that most closely resembles your site. In this case it is 0.98 Volume Runoff = Surface Area x Runoff Coefficient x Rainfall Depth Volume Runoff = 200ft2 x 0.98 x 0.083ft = 16.3ft3
Note: Make sure that Surface Area and Rainfall Depth are in the same units. It doesnt matter what you use, just stay consistent measurements in feet or meters are generally easiest.

## Step 3: Do the Math

Most people have trouble thinking about water volume in Step 4: cubic feet so we will convert to gallons multiplying by Convert if 7.48gal/ft3. Volume Runoff = 16.3ft3 x 7.48 gal/ft3 = Necessary 121.gallons

E X A M P L E

INFILTRATION
PPT\Infiltration.ppt

## 3.6 Rainfall-Runoff Correlation

Plot of average rainfall versus resulting runoff

PaN = bPaN-1 + PN
PaN Atecedent-Precipitation Index at the end of Nth day PaN-1 Precipitation index on previous day b ranges from 0.85-0.95 When there is no rain for t days,

PaN-1 = PaNbt

## 3.9 Physics of Snowmelt

Factors Affecting Snowmelt
Solar Radiation Depends on Reflectivity or Albedo Heat from warm Air Turbulence resulting to speedy wind bringing large quantities of warm air Rainfall

## Heat from warm Air

Heat of Condensation of Water

Rainfall

## Where: Ms amount of melt in inches or millimeter P - Rainfall or precipitation Tw Wet-bulb temperature

Degree-day factors defined as a departure of 1 degree in mean daily temperature above 32F. Depth of water melted from the snow in inches or millimeter per degree-day may be determined by dividing the volume of stream flow produced by melting snow within a given time period by the total degree days for the period. Usually ranging from 0.05-0.15in/degree-F with an average value of 0.08in/degree-F Ranges from 2-7mm/degree-C day.

## SNOWMELT IN BASINS WITH LITTLE RANGE IN ELEVATION

The area-elevation distribution in a basin on the board. The average snow line is at 5000 ft and the temperature index station is at 6000 ft. Assume a temperature decrease of 3F per 1000ft increase in elevation and a degree-day factor of 0.10. Compute the snowmelt in second-foot days for a day when the mean daily temperature at the index station is 44F
Solution: With a temperature of 44F at 6000 ft the freezing level is at
6000 + {[(44-32)/3]*1000} = 10,000 ft

The area between the snowline (5000 ft) and the freezing level is 305 sq.mi. from the figure, the average temperature over this area is:
0.5(47+32) = 39.5F And the average degree days above 32F is 39.5 32 = 7.5 degree days The total melt therefore: 7.5*0.10*305 = 229 sq.mi. inches 26.9*229 = 6150

E x a m p l e

sfd

## Did I make myself clear?

Maraming Salamat!

## Kristian Carlo M. Bola

BS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING VA