Module 10

Intermediate TCP/IP

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TCP Protocol

Three Functions: •Flow Control •Reliability by sequence numbers and acknowledging •Synchronization

Two Protocols: •TCP •connection oriented •UDP (tftp, DNS, SNMP)

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Three-Way Handshake
This handshake establishes a round trip connection between sender and receiver before data is transferred

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Denial of Service Attacks
• Designed to deny services to legitimate hosts attempting to establish connections. • Commonly used by hackers - hacker initiates a synchronization but spoofs the source IP address (nonexistent IP address) • Administrators should guard against by – Decreasing the connection timeout period – Increase the connection queue size
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With a window size of 1, each segment has to be acknowledged before another segment is sent. Inefficient use of bandwidth.
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TCP Sliding Windows

Communicating devices negotiate the amount of unacknowledged data that can be sent.

With windowing, data can be sent without an acknowledgment when sending a TCP segment.
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Sequencing Numbers
TCP applies sequence numbers to the data segments it is transmitting so that the receiver will be able to properly reassemble the bytes in their original order. If TCP segments arrive out of order, the segments may be reassembled incorrectly. Sequencing numbers indicate to the destination device the correct order in which to put the bytes when they are received

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Sequencing Numbers:
• • • • • • • Act as reference numbers so that the receiver will know if it has received all of the data Identify the missing data pieces to the sender so it can retransmit the missing data The sender only needs to re-transmit the missing segments instead of the entire set of data Each TCP segment is numbered before transmission At the receiving station, TCP uses the sequence numbers to reassemble the segments into a complete message If a sequence number is missing in the series, that segment is retransmitted Positive Acknowledgment & Retransmission (PAR) ensures that the number of data segments sent by one host are received by another host before other segments are sent

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• Connectionless Layer 4 protocol • Non-guaranteed • UDP segments do not contain sequence or acknowledgement fields, so checksum is used to determine if the data or header has been transferred without corruption

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Multiple Conversations and Port Numbers

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Port Numbers
• The three categories of port numbers are wellknown ports, registered ports, and dynamic or private ports. • The first 1023 ports are well-known ports. • Registered ports range from 1024 to 49151. • Ports between 49152 and 65535 are defined as dynamic or private ports. • End systems use port numbers to select proper applications • Port numbers in the range of 0-1023 are controlled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) • Well known ports (23, 21, 80) and dynamic port numbers are represented in the header of TCP & UDP segments

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Port Numbers
TCP Examples: FTP-DATA - Port 20 FTP - Port 21 Telnet - Port 23 SMTP - 25 UDP Examples: DNS - Port 53 TFTP - Port 69 SNMP - Port 161

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Port numbers, MAC, & IP Addresses are included during encapsulation
Port numbers Transport Layer

IP addresses

Network Layer

MAC addresses

Data Link Layer

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