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**Mirrors, lenses, light, and image
**

formation

Geometric Optics

Understanding images and image

formation, ray model of light, laws of

reflection and refraction, and some

simple geometry and trigonometry

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION AT

A PLANE SURFACE

Reflection and refraction on plane mirrors

Key terms

• Anything from which light rays radiate

– Object

• Anything from which light rays radiate

that has no physical extent

– Point object

• Real objects with length, width, and

height

– Extended objects

Key terms

Specular

reflection

Reflection on a

plane surface where

reflected rays are in

the same directions

Diffused

reflection

Relfection on

a rough

surface

Key terms

Virtual

image

Image formed if

the outgoing rays

don’t actually

pass through the

image point

Real image

Image formed if

the outgoing

rays actually

pass through

the image point

Image formation by a Plane mirror

Image formation by a Plane mirror

• a diagram that traces the path

that light takes in order for a

person to view a point on the

image of an object

Ray

Diagrams

• suggests that in order to view

an image of an object in a

mirror, a person must sight

along a line at the image of the

object.

Line of Sight

Principle

Reflection at a Plane Surface

Image formation by a Plane mirror

V

θ

θ

θ

θ

s

s’

M

M’

Image formation by a Plane mirror

• M is the object and M’ is the virtual

image

• Ray MV is incident normally to the

plane mirror and it returns along its

original path

• s= object distance

• s’= image distance

• s=-s’

Image formation by a Plane mirror

• Sign rules

For the object distance:

–When the object is on the same side of the

reflecting or the refracting surface as the

incoming light, s is positive

For the image distance:

–When the image is on the same side of the

reflecting or the refracting surface as the

outgoing light, s’ is positive

Image of an extended object

V’

V

θ θ

θ θ

s s’

y

M M’

Q

Q’

θ

y’

Image of an extended object

• Lateral magnification

–Ratio of image height to object

height

–M=y’/y

• Image is erect

• m for a plane mirror is always +1

• Reversed means front-back

dimension is reversed

REFLECTION AT A SPHERICAL

SURFACE

Reflection on Concave and Convex mirrors

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

P P’

C

V

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

•Radius of curvature R

•Center of curvature

•The center of the sphere of

which the surface is a part

C

•Vertex

•The point of the mirror surface

V

•Optic axis

CV

IMAGE FORMATION ON

SPHERICAL MIRRORS

Graphical Methods for Mirrors

Graphical Method

• Consists of finding the point of

intersection of a few particular rays

that diverge from a point of the object

and are reflected by the mirror

• Neglecting aberrations, all rays from

this object point that strike the

mirror will intersect at the same

point

Graphical Method

• For this construction, we

always choose an object point

that is not on the optic axis

• Consists of four rays we can

usually easily draw, called the

principal rays

Graphical Method

A ray parallel to the axis, after

reflection passes through F of

a concave mirror or appears

to come from the (virtual) F

of a convex mirror

A ray through (or

proceeding toward)

F is reflected

parallel to the axis

A ray along the radius

through or away from C

intersects the surface

normally and is reflected

back along its original path

A ray to V is reflected

forming equal angles

with the optic axis

Object is at F

Object is between F and Vertex

Object is at C

Object is between C and F

Positions of objects for concave

mirrors

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

If α dec, θi

is nearly

parallel

Rays nearly

parallel or

close to R

Paraxial

rays

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

If α inc, P’

is close to

V

Image is

smeared

out

Spherical

Aberration

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

F

C

V

s at infinity s’= R/2

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

• All reflected rays converge on

the image point

• Converging mirror

• If R is infinite, the mirror

becomes plane

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

The incident parallel

rays converge after

reflecting from the

mirror

They converge at a F

at a distance R/2

from V

F is Focal point,

where the rays are

brought to focus

f is the focal length,

distance from the

vertex to the focal

point

f= R/2

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

F

C

V

s’ at infinity s= R/2

Reflection at a Concave Mirror

The object

is at the

focal point

s=f=R/2

1/s +1/s’= 2/R

1/s’=0; s’ at

infinity

1/s+ 1/s’= 1/f

Object image relation, spherical

mirror

Image of an Extended Object

m= y’/y

Lateral

magnification

m= y’/y= -s’/s

Lateral

magnification for

spherical mirrors

Example

• A concave mirror forms an image, on a wall

3.00m from the mirror, of the filament of a

headlight lamp 10.0cm in front of the

mirror.

a. What is the radius of curvature and focal

length of the mirror?

b. What is the height of the image if the

height of the object is 5.00mm?

c. R=19.4cm; f= 9.7cm; m= -30.0; y’= 150mm

Example

• An object, 1cm high, is 20cm from

the vertex of a concave mirror

whose radius of curvature is 50cm.

Compute the position and size of

the image. Is it real or virtual?

Upright or inverted?

• s’=-100cm; y’=5cm, m is pos.,

erect, virtual

Reflection at a Convex Mirror

F

C

s or s’ at infinity

s’ or s= R/2

Image formation on spherical

mirrors

• Sign rules

For the object distance:

–When the object is on the same side

of the reflecting or the refracting

surface as the incoming light, s is

positive; otherwise, it is negative

Image formation on spherical

mirrors

• Sign rules

For the image distance:

–When the image is on the same side

of the reflecting or the refracting

surface as the outgoing light, s’ is

positive; otherwise, it is negative

Image formation on spherical

mirrors

• Sign rules:

For the radius of curvature of a

spherical surface:

–When the center of curvature C is

on the same side as the outgoing

light, the radius of curvature is

positive, otherwise negative

Reflection at a Convex Mirror

• The convex side of the spherical

mirror faces the incident light

• C is at the opposite side of the

outgoing rays, so R is neg.

• All reflected rays diverge from the

same point

• Diverging mirror

Reflection at a Convex Mirror

Incoming rays are

parallel to the optic

axis and are not

reflected through F

Incoming rays diverge,

as though they had

come from point F

behind the mirror

F is a virtual focal

point

s is positive, s’ is

negative

Example

• Santa checks himself for soot, using his

reflection in a shiny silvered Christmas tree

ornament 0.750m away. The diameter of

the ornament is 7.20cm. Standard reference

work state that he is a “right jolly old elf,” so

we estimate his height to be 1.6m. Where

and how tall is the image of Santa formed

by the ornament? Is it erect or inverted?

• s’= -1.76cm; m= 2.34x10

-2

; y’= 3.8cm

REFRACTION AT A SPHERICAL

SURFACE

Refraction at spherical interface

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

V

C

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

n

a

/s + n

b

/s’= (n

b

-n

a

)/R

Object-image

relation, spherical

refracting surface

m=y’/y= -(n

a

s’/n

b

s)

Lateral

magnification,

spherical

refracting surface

n

a

/s + n

b

/s’=0

At a plane refracting

surface

Example

A cylindrical glass rod in air has an index of

refraction 1.52. and one end is ground to a

hemispherical surface with radius R=2.00cm.

a.) find the image distance of a small object on

the axis of the rod, 8cm to the left of the vertex.

b.) find the lateral magnification.

n=1.00

s’= 11.3cm

m= -0.929

Example

A ray of light in air makes an angle of

incidence of 45° at the surface of a sheet

of ice. The ray is refracted within the ice at

an angle of 30°

A. What is the critical angle for the ice?

B. A speck of dirt is embedded 3/4in

below the surface of the ice. What is it’s

apparent depth when viewed at normal

incidence?

A. θcrit= 45°

B. s’= -0.53in or 0.53in below

GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR

LENSES

Biconcave and biconvex thin lenses

Lenses

Lenses

Biconvex

lens;

converging

Biconcave

lens;

diverging

Lenses

Only F is

needed

for the

ray

diagram

Chief ray

through

the center

is

undeviated

Ray parallel is

refracted in such a

way that it goes

through F on

transmission

through the lens

Focal ray is parallel

to the axis of

transmission

For concave lens, the

rays appear to have

passed through F on

the object’s side of the

lens

Lenses

An object is placed 30cm from a biconcave lens

with a focal length of 10cm. Determine the

image characteristics graphically.

ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR

THIN LENSES

Lens maker's equation

Equations for thin lenses

1/s + 1/s’= 1/f

Object-image

relation, thin

lenses

m=y’/y= -s’/s

Lateral

magnification,

thin lenses

1/f=(n-1) [(1/R

1

)- (1/R

2

)]

Lensmaker’s equation

Example

• A biconvex lens is made of glass with n

= 1.65 and has radii of curvature

R=R1=R2= 42 cm. Determine its focal

length.

• f=32cm

• A biconcave lens is made of glass with

n = 1.65 and has radii of curvature

R=R1=R2= 42 cm. What is its focal

length?

• f=-32cm

Example

An object is placed 30cm from a biconcave lens

with a focal length of 10cm. Determine the

image characteristics analytically.

s’=-7.5cm

m=0.25

Virtual, upright, half the size of the

object

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