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# STOICHIOMETRY TUTORIAL

oleh :
Trisna Kumala Dhaniswara,S.T.,M.T

## Instructions: This is a work along tutorial. Each time you click

the mouse or touch the space bar on your computer, one step of
the problem solving occurs. Pressing the PAGE UP key will
backup the steps.
Get a pencil and
paper, a periodic
table and a
calculator, and
lets get to work.

## (1-2-3) General Approach For Problem Solving:

1. Clearly identify the Goal or Goals and the UNITS involved. (What
are you trying to do?)

## 2. Determine what is given and the UNITS.

3. Use conversion factors (which are really ratios) and their UNITS to
CONVERT what is given into what is desired.

View Complete Slide Show
Sample problem 1
Sample problem 2
Converting grams to moles
Mole to Mole Conversions
Gram-Mole and Gram-Gram Problems
Solution Stoichiometry Problems
Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :
4

## Sample problem for general problem solving.

Sam has entered into a 10 mile marathon. Use ALL of the following
conversions (ratios) to determine how many inches there are in the
race.
5280 ft = 1 mile; 12 inches = 1 ft
1. What is the goal and what units are needed?
Goal = ______ inches
2. What is given and its units?
10 miles
3. Convert using factors (ratios).
10 miles
Given

5280 ft
1 mile

12 inches
1 ft

Units match
= 633600 inches
Goal

Convert

## Sample problem #2 on problem solving.

A car is traveling at a speed of 45 miles per hr (45 miles/hr).
Determine its speed in kilometers per second using the following
conversion factors (ratios). 1 mile = 5280 ft; 1 ft = 12 in; 1 inch = 2.54
cm; k = 1 x 103; c = 1 x 10-2; 1 hr =60 min; 1 min = 60 s
Goal

Given
-2
k
hr min
45 mi 5280 ft 12 in 2.54 cm 1 x 10
mi
hr
1 ft
c
1 x 10 3 60 min 60 s
1 in

c cancels c
m remains

This is
the
same as
putting
k over k

= 0.020

km
s

Units Match!
6

## Converting grams to moles.

Determine how many moles there are in 5.17 grams of Fe(C 5H5)2.
Given
5.17 g Fe(C5H5)2

## Use the molar mass

to convert grams to
moles.

Goal

units match

mol
185.97 g

= 0.0278

moles Fe(C5H5)2

Fe(C5H5)2
2 x 5 x 1.001 = 10.01
2 x 5 x 12.011 = 120.11
1 x 55.85 = 55.85

185.97 g
mol

## Stoichiometry (more working with ratios)

Ratios are found within a chemical equation.
2HCl + 1Ba(OH)2 2H2O + 1 BaCl2

## 2 moles of HCl react with 1 mole of Ba(OH)2 to form 2 moles of H2O

and 1 mole of BaCl2

## Mole Mole Conversions

When N2O5 is heated, it decomposes:

## 2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

a. How many moles of NO2 can be produced from 4.3 moles of N2O5?

## 2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

4.3 mol
? mol Units match

4mol NO 2
2mol N 2O 5

= 8.6

moles NO2

4.3 mol

1mol O 2
2mol N 2O 5

? mol

= 2.2

mole O2
9

## When N2O5 is heated, it decomposes:

2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
a. How many moles of N2O5 were used if 210g of NO2 were produced?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
? moles
210g

210 g NO2

mol NO 2
46.0g NO 2

Units match

2mol N 2O 5
4mol NO 2

= 2.28

moles N2O5

b. How many grams of N2O5 are needed to produce 75.0 grams of O2?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
75.0 g
? grams
75.0

g O2

mol O 2
32.0 g O 2

2mol N 2O 5
1mol O 2

108g N 2O 5
mol N 2O 5

10

## Gram to Gram Conversions

Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid
produces hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of
aluminum chloride can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are
reacted with an excess of hydrochloric acid?
2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3(aq) +

3 H2(g)

equation.

11

## Gram to Gram Conversions

Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid
produces hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of
aluminum chloride can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are
reacted with an excess of hydrochloric acid?
2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3(aq) +
? grams
3.45 g

3 H2(g)

## Now lets get organized.

Write the information
below the substances.
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## gram to gram conversions

Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid
produces hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of
aluminum chloride can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are
reacted with an excess of hydrochloric acid?
2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3(aq) +
? grams
3.45 g

3 H2(g)
Units match

3.45 g Al

mol Al
27.0 g Al

## 2 mol AlCl 3 133.3 g AlCl 3

mol AlCl 3
2 mol Al

We
Now
Now
Lets
must
use
use
work
the
always
themolar
the
molar
problem.
convert
mass
ratio.to
convert
moles.
to grams.

17.0 g AlCl3

13

Molarity
Molarity is a term used to express concentration. The units of molarity are
moles per liter (It is abbreviated as a capital M)

## When working problems, it

is a good idea to change M
into its units.

moles
moles
M

Liter 1000 mL
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Solutions

## A solution is prepared by dissolving 3.73 grams of AlCl3 in

water to form 200.0 mL solution. A 10.0 mL portion of the
solution is then used to prepare 100.0 mL of solution.
Determine the molarity of the final solution.
What type of
problem(s) is
this?

Molarity
followed by
dilution.
15

Solutions

## A solution is prepared by dissolving 3.73 grams of AlCl3 in

water to form 200.0 mL solution. A 10.0 mL portion of the
solution is then used to prepare 100.0 mL of solution.
Determine the molarity of the final solution.
1st:

3.73 g

mol
= 0.140 mol
133.4 g 200.0 x 10-3 L
L
molar mass of AlCl3

2nd:

M1V1 = M2V2

dilution formula

## (0.140 M)(10.0 mL) = (? M)(100.0 mL)

0.0140 M = M2 final concentration
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Solution Stoichiometry
50.0 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4 (battery acid) were spilled and
solid NaHCO3 (baking soda) is to be used to neutralize the
acid. How many grams of NaHCO3 must be used?
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaHCO3 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g)

17

Solution Stoichiometry
50.0 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4 (battery acid) were spilled and
solid NaHCO3 (baking soda) is to be used to neutralize the
acid. How many grams of NaHCO3 must be used?
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaHCO3 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g)
50.0 mL
? g Our Goal
6.0 M

=
6.0 mol
L

Look!
A conversion
factor!

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Solution Stoichiometry
50.0 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4 (battery acid) were spilled and
solid NaHCO3 (baking soda) is to be used to neutralize the
acid. How many grams of NaHCO3 must be used?
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaHCO3 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g)
50.0 mL
? g Our Goal
6.0 M

=
6.0 mol
L
H2SO4

## 50.0 mL 6.0 mol H 2SO 4

1000mL
H 2 SO 4

NaHCO3
2 mol
1 mol
H2SO4

NaHCO3

84.0 g
= 50.4 g NaHCO3
mol
NaHCO3
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Solution Stoichiometry:
Determine how many mL of 0.102 M NaOH solution are needed to
neutralize 35.0 mL of 0.125 M H2SO4 solution.
2
1 2SO4
____NaOH
+ ____H

2 2O
____H

1 2SO4
____Na

## First write a balanced

Equation.

20

Solution Stoichiometry:
Determine how many mL of 0.102 M NaOH solution is needed to
neutralize 35.0 mL of 0.125 M H2SO4 solution.
2
1 2SO4
____NaOH
+ ____H
0.102 M mol
L
? mL
Our Goal

2 2O
____H

1 2SO4
____Na

35.0 mL
0.125 mol 0.125 mol

L
1000 mL
Since 1 L = 1000 mL, we can use
this to save on the number of conversions

## Now, lets get organized. Place

numerical Information and
accompanying UNITS below each
compound.
21

Solution Stoichiometry:
Determine how many mL of 0.102 M NaOH solution is needed to
neutralize 35.0 mL of 0.125 M H2SO4 solution.
2
1 2SO4
____NaOH
+ ____H

2 2O
____H

1 2SO4
____Na

0.102 M mol
35.0 mL
L
0.125 mol 0.125 mol

? mL
sho
1000mL
rtcu L
t
Units Match
H2SO4
H2SO4
NaOH
35.0 mL
2 mol
1000 mL NaOH = 85.8 mL NaOH
0.125 mol
1 mol
0.102 mol NaOH
1000 mL
H2SO4
H2SO4

## Now lets get to work

converting.

22

Solution Stoichiometry

## What volume of 0.40 M HCl solution is needed to

completely neutralize 47.1 mL of 0.75 M Ba(OH)2?

## 1st write out

a balanced chemical
equation

23

Solution Stoichiometry

## What volume of 0.40 M HCl solution is needed to

completely neutralize 47.1 mL of 0.75 M Ba(OH)2?
2HCl(aq) +

Ba(OH)2(aq)

0.40 M

47.1 mL
0.75 M

? mL
Ba(OH)2
47.1 mL

0.75mol Ba(OH)2

2H2O(l) +

BaCl2

Units match
HCl
2 mol

Ba(OH)2

HCl
1000 mL
0.40 mol
HCl

= 176 mL HCl

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## Solution Stochiometry Problem:

A chemist performed a titration to standardize a barium hydroxide
solution. If it took 23.28 mL of 0.135 M hydrochloric acid to neutralize
25.00 mL of the barium hydroxide solution, what was the concentration of
the barium hydroxide solution in moles per liter (M)?
2
____HCl(aq)
23.28 mL
0.135 mol
L

1
2
1
____Ba(OH)
2(aq) ____H2O(l) + ____BaCl2(aq)
25.00 mL
? mol
L

## First write a balanced

chemical reaction.
25

## Solution Stochiometry Problem:

A chemist performed a titration to standardize a barium hydroxide
solution. If it took 23.28 mL of 0.135 M hydrochloric acid to neutralize
25.00 mL of the barium hydroxide solution, what was the concentration of
the barium hydroxide solution in moles per liter (M)?
2
____HCl(aq)
23.28 mL
0.135 mol
L

1
2
1
____Ba(OH)
2(aq) ____H2O(l) + ____BaCl2(aq)
25.00 mL
Units match on top!
? mol
L

23.28 mL HCl
25.00 x 10-3 L
Ba(OH)2

## 0.135 mol HCl l mol Ba(OH) 2

= 0.0629 mol Ba(OH)2
1000 mL HCl 2 mol HCl
L

Ba(OH)2

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## 48.0 mL of Ca(OH)2 solution was titrated with 19.2

mL of 0.385 M HNO3. Determine the molarity of the
Ca(OH)2 solution.

We must first
write a balanced
equation.

27

## 48.0 mL of Ca(OH)2 solution was titrated with 19.2

mL of 0.385 M HNO3. Determine the molarity of the
Ca(OH)2 solution.
Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) 2 H2O(l) + Ca(NO3)2(aq)
48.0 mL
19.2 mL
0.385 mol
0.385 M
?M
L
HNO3
19.2 mL

HNO 3

## 0.385 mol 1mol Ca(OH) 2

=0.0770 mol(Ca(OH)
1000 mL 2mol HNO 3 48.0 x 10-3L
L (Ca(OH) )

2)

HNO 3

units match!
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## Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :

Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

Nowthe
place
First copy down
numerical the
the BALANCED
information below
equation!
the compounds.

29

## Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :

Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.

0.15 mol
? moles
0.10 mol
Hide

Two starting
amounts?
Where do we
start?

one

30

## Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :

Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.

0.15 mol
? moles
Hide
0.10
mol
Based on:
0.15 mol KO2
KO2

3mol O 2
4mol KO 2

= 0.1125 mol O2

31

## Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :

Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.

0.15
mol
? moles
Hide
0.10 mol
Based on:
0.15 mol KO2
KO2

3mol O 2
4mol KO 2

H2O

3mol O 2
2mol H 2O

= 0.1125 mol O2
= 0.150 mol O2
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## Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :

Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
Determine the limiting reactant.

0.15 mol
? moles
0.10 mol
Based on:
0.15 mol KO2
KO2
Based on:
H2 O

3mol O 2
4mol KO 2

## H2O = excess (XS) reactant!

3mol O 2
2mol H 2O

= 0.1125 mol O2
It was limited by the
amount of KO2.

= 0.150 mol O2

## What is the theoretical yield?

Hint: Which is the smallest
amount? The is based upon the
limiting reactant?

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## Theoretical yield vs. Actual yield

Suppose the theoretical yield for an
experiment was calculated to be
19.5 grams, and the experiment
was performed, but only 12.3
grams of product were recovered.
Determine the % yield.

## Theoretical yield = 19.5 g based on limiting reactant

Actual yield = 12.3 g experimentally recovered

actual yield
% yield
x 100
theoretical yield
% yield

12.3
x 100 63.1% yield
19.5

34

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

If a reaction vessel contains 120.0 g of KO2 and 47.0 g of H2O,
how many grams of O2 can be produced?

?g
120.0 g
47.0 one
g
Hide

KO2

## mol 3mol O 2 32.0g O 2

71.1g 4mol KO 2 mol O 2

= 40.51 g O2

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## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

If a reaction vessel contains 120.0 g of KO2 and 47.0 g of H2O,
how many grams of O2 can be produced?

?g
120.0
47.0 g
Hideg

KO2

## mol 3mol O 2 32.0g O 2

71.1g 4mol KO 2 mol O 2

mol H 2O
3 mol O 2 32.0g O 2
Based on: 47.0 g H2O
18.02 g H 2O 2 mol H 2O mol O 2
H2 O

= 40.51 g O2

= 125.3 g O2

Question if only 35.2 g of O2 were recovered, what was the percent yield?

actual
35.2
x 100
x 100 86.9% yield
theoretical
40.51

36

## If a reaction vessel contains 120.0 g of KO2 and 47.0 g of H2O,

how many grams of O2 can be produced?

?g
120.0 g
47.0 g

KO2

## mol 3mol O 2 32.0g O 2

71.1g 4mol KO 2 mol O 2

= 40.51 g O2

mol H 2O
3 mol O 2 32.0g O 2
Based on: 47.0 g H2O
18.02 g H 2O 2 mol H 2O mol O 2
H2 O

= 125.3 g O2

## Determine how many grams of Water were left over.

The Difference between the above amounts is directly RELATED to the XS H2O.
125.3 - 40.51 = 84.79 g of O2 that could have been formed from the XS water.
84.79 g O2

## mol O 2 2 mol H 2O 18.02 g H 2O

32.0 g O 2 3 mol O 2 1 mol H 2O

31.83 g XS H2O
37

Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 25.6 grams
of Al(NO3)3 in 455 mL of solution.

## After you have

worked the
problem, click
here to see

25.6 g mole
mol
0.264
-3
213 g 455 x 10 L
L
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Chemistry: Stoichiometry
Unifying Theme: Constancy, Change, and Measurement
Why

What

How

Enduring
Understandings

Essential Questions

## Major Indicators, Prioritized

Assessment Examples

## The mole is basic unit of

measurement in chemistry
contains 6.02 x 1023
particles.
The mole is the bridge
between microscopic and
macroscopic world and is
used in unit analysis.
Stoichiometry is used to
predict quantities in
chemical reactions.
Products are limited by the
amount of reactants such as
natural resources and the
limitation can be predicted.
Mass of 1 mole substance
can be determined based on
the atomic mass in the
Periodic Table.

## How is the mole used in

chemical calculations?
How is quantity of materials
predicted in a chemical
reaction?
How do available materials
limit the amount of products?
How is molar mass calculated

Essential
HS4.4.5.1 use the coefficients of a balanced
equation to predict amounts of reactants and
products.
quantities of reactants will affect the amounts
of products formed.
number and the mole concept operationally
and conceptually.
HS4.4.A.B utilize dimensional analysis to
perform mole to mole, mass to mass, particle
to mole, and mole to particle calculations.
HS4.4.A.D use formula mass to calculate
percent composition of a compound.
HS.4.4A.F solve problems involving
quantitative relationships in equations
including stoichiometric concepts of mole to
mole, particle to particle, mass to mass, mole
to volume and volume to mole.
HS4.4.A.G manipulate the limiting reagent
concept qualitatively to conclude that the
starting materials of the chemical industry
such as petroleum, are limited resources and
consumption.
HS1.6.4 manipulate quantities and/or
numerical values in algebraic equations.
HS1.7.4 recognize mathematics as an
integral part of the scientific process.
HS4.4.1.5 calculate the molecular weight of
a compound given in the Periodic Table.

Pre-assessment
-Brainstorm the collective terms such as
dozen, pairs, gross, etc, and conversions
between the terms and their numerical
values.
Formative Assessment
-Develop a creative concept map to
illustrate the relationships among mole,
mass, volume and number of particles.
Summative Assessment
-Competition: Students are given a
specific amount of iron filing and copper
sulfate. They are required to return exact
one gram of elemental copper after the
reaction is completed.
-Write an article for your school paper
Be sure to include the stoichiometric
analysis.

39

Chemistry: Stoichiometry
How
Suggested Instructional Sequence
Introduction of mole concept.
- What is mole?
- Determine the number of rice grains in a given container.
Guided practice in calculation of atomic mass, molar mass, and formula mass.
Utilize dimensional analysis to convert among mole, gram, volume and number of particles.
- Lab Galvanized Iron: determine number of atoms of Zn coated on a piece of galvanized iron.
- Guided practice: mole conversions using mole concept map.
Percent of composition;
- Lab percent of water in popcorn
- Lab determining an Empirical formula such as copper sulfate hydrates.
Introduction of Stoichiometry
- Demonstration: electrolysis of water to illustrate the mole ratio.
- Lab Use stoichiometric relationship to analyze the amount of silver replaced from silver nitric
solution with the copper.
Introduction of limiting reagent
- Using manipulation to demonstrate limiting reagents (cake recipe)
- A research project about the limitation of a natural resource, such as petroleum, copper.

Differentiation Examples
Challenge
-Design a lab to synthesize a
quantitative product when given
a variety of reactants
-Design a lab to determine the
empirical formula for a given
hydrate compound.
Predict the volume of carbon
dioxide that would be produced