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MENU PLANNING:

COMMERCIAL MENU

INTRODUCTION:
It is a strategic document that defines the
purpose of the foodservice establishment and
every phase of its operation.
A good menu should lead patrons to food and
beverage selections that satisfy both their
dining preferences and the mMENU- is a list,
often presented with some fun fare, showing
the food and drink offered by a restaurant,
cafeteria, club, or hotel.
erchandising necessities of the operator

MENU PLANNERS MUST:


1. Must know both operation and the
potential market.
2. Must a great deal about foods; how they
are combined in recipes, their origin,
seasonal preparation, presentation and
description.
3. Must also understand how various recipes
can be combined- how menu items go
together and do not.

(CONT.)
4. Must be aware of how operational constraints
such as costs, equipment availability, and the
skills of the available labor force,
5. Must be able to visualize how the menu will
appear graphically.
6. Must be skilled at communicating successfully
with patrons through the menu.

MENU STRUCTURE
Issues

to consider in menu structure:

Location

of foodservice
Name of the foodservice (what it says to a
customer)
Primary target audience
Menu priorities
Capabilities of the staff

(CONT.)

Balancing labor & food cost is challenge


Menu planner concerns:
Adding variety to seasonal menus
Keeping cycle menus exciting
Offsetting high-priced items with low priced

TOOLS NEEDED FOR MENU


PLANNING
A quiet room
Large desk table
Historical records on the performance of
past menus
Menu reminder list
File of menu ideas
Sales mix data including which item may
draw patrons away from specials the
operation wants to sell

(CONT.)
List of special occasion and holiday
menu.
Cost and seasonality of possible menu
items.

MENU PLANNING

Responsibility of team rather than an


individual.
General Considerations:
Quantity.
Quality.
Price.
Brand names.
Product identification.

(CONT.)
Points of origin.
Merchandising terms.
Means of preservation.
Food preparation.
Verbal and visual presentation.
Dietary or nutritional claims.

PLANNING PROCESS
General principles applicable to onsite and commercial foodservice
operations
More variety needed in on-site
foodservice
Person eating out often goes to
restaurant for particular menu item

STEPS IN MENU PLANNING:


1)
2)

3)

4)
5)

Plan dinner meats or other entres for entire


cycle.
Select luncheon entres or main dishes,
avoiding those used on dinner menu.
Decide on starch item appropriate to serve
with entre. Plan desserts for both lunch &
dinner.
After luncheon & dinner meals have been
planned, add breakfast & any others.
Evaluate if clientele, government regulations,
& managerial considerations have been met.

THE COMMERCIAL MENU: COMPARE AND


CONTRAST

RESTAURANT MENU:

The menu sets the tone for the


restaurant. However, creating a restaurant
menu involves a lot of work and research.
Before you begin writing your menu, you
must have a definite concept in mind, as
well as a general price range. Finally, the
look and layout of your menu is just as
important as what it says.

RESTAURANT MENU DESCRIPTIONS

You menu description should make a guests


mouth water.
Dont be afraid to explain what is in a dish, and
use ethnic names if they fit, to add a bit of
authentic flair to the menu description.
For example, Chicken Margarita sounds
better than Chicken topped with spicy
tomatoes. You can explain what is in the dish
(spicy tomatoes) in the description itself.

(CONT.)

Incorporating geography or local history into a menu


item name is also a way to make your restaurant
menu unique.
For example, Maine Lobster Roll sounds
inviting, whether you eating it in Maine or somewhere
else, as does Texas Barbequed Ribs and Georgia
Peach Pie.
Avoid making descriptions too long.
If they have more questions, their server should be
able to give further information about a dish or
recommend a house favorite.

RESTAURANT CONCEPTS

2. TAKE AWAY MENU


Refers to prepared meals or other food items,
purchased at a restaurant, that the purchaser
intends to eat elsewhere.
A concept found in many ancient cultures,
take-out found is now common worldwide,
with a number of different cuisines and dishes
on offer.
Take-out or takeout ((in North
American and Philippine English); also carryout (in U.S. and Scottish English)

take-away (in
the
United
Kingdom, Australia, New
Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong,
and Ireland)
parcel (in Indian English and Pakistani
English

3. BANQUETS AND EVENTS MENU


Each menu item should be listed out in the
order it will be served (e.g. appetizers, then
dinner, then dessert, then coffee) regardless
of whether you are having a buffet or plated
meal. Vegetarian options and children's
menus should also be included.

4. FINE DINING MENUS


The restaurant dining room, whether it is
formal or casual, is the most important
area in the front of the house.
Fine dining is what many people imagine
when they think of opening a new restaurant.
Crisp tablecloths, violins in the background
and seven course meals are few things that
come to mind. But todays fine dining has
evolved into an eclectic blend of cuisines and
dining concepts.

If you strive to create a fine dining atmosphere at


your restaurant, here are 10 THINGS YOU

SHOULD KNOW:
1. Restaurant fine dining requires attention to
detail.
2. Fining dining servers are the best.
3. Fine dining customer service goes above
and beyond.
4. Fine dining restaurants often feature prix
fixe menus.
5. Reservations are a good idea for a fine
dining restaurant.

6. Fine dining doesnt always include


tablecloths
7. Fine dining restaurants should never
include paper or plastic.
8. Fine dining restaurants offer top shelf liquor
and spirits.
9. Fine dining restaurants offer top shelf liquor
and spirits.
10. Fine dining restaurants stay abreast of
trends.

5. FOOD TRUCK MENU


A food truck is like restaurant on wheels.
It has several distinct advantages over a
traditional eat-in restaurant.
A food truck can go to where the customers
are.
Requires far less staff.

PROBLEMS THEY ENCOUTER IN FOOD


TRUCK SERVICE:
slow seasons, bad weather, and sluggish

economy.

10 COOL FOOD TRUCK THEMES


1) Barbeque. BBQ is a great restaurant because it
combines low cost food with high appeal.
2) Cupcakes. This is one food trend that still has
staying power. Gourmet cupcakes can be served
up plain and simple or decadent.
3) Ethnic Fusion. Blending one or more ethnic
cuisines results in some tasty ideas.
4) Panini Sandwiches. Sandwiches go gourmet.
Paninis require minimal equipment (a Panini
press or two) and offer a huge variety of dining
options, ideal for the lunch crowd.

( CONT.)
5) Organic/ Local Fare. Local foods doesnt
mean just salads.
6) European Flavors. The Old World makes
resurgence via food trucks.
7) Regional Cuisine. Red Hook Lobster food
truck brings Maine lobster to New York City.
8) Waffles.
9) Burgers. Always popular. Always a favorite.
10) Ice Cream. The original food truck theme. An
American classic.

RESTAURANT CONCEPT AND


CURENT TRENDS
Like fashion, restaurant operations have
trends and fads that ebb and flow with
time- recall the roller-skating waitresses
at drive-in diners during the 1950s.
LISTED
BELOW
ARE
SOME
POPULAR RESTAURANT TRENDS
that arent likely to disappear for a while
yet.

RESTAURANT CONCEPT AND


CURENT TRENDS
Popular Restaurant Trends:

1. LOCALLY SOURCED EVERYTHING


The hottest trend NRA identified: Locally sourced
meats and seafood, followed closely by locally grown
produce. Major restaurant chains are already featuring
local sourcing in their marketing. Chipotle created a
game that raised awareness of the fast-Mexican
chain's local-sourcing initiatives, and Panera Bread's
campaign "Live Consciously, Eat Deliciously"
promoted its food sourcing. Expect more restaurants
to trumpet their local purchasing and expand localsourcing efforts next year.

2. VEGGIES GALORE
Though most Americans still eat meat, the
vegan movement is affecting restaurant
menus.
A
new
study
from Data
essential found one-third of restaurant
chains now have at least one vegetarian
entree. That's done so that a group eating
out won't veto their eatery because there's
nothing for the vegetarian in the group to
eat.

3. HEALTHIER KIDS' MEALS


Parents are fighting back against childhood
obesity, and want healthy restaurant
choices. Healthful kids' meals was one of the
top-10 trends identified in the National
Restaurant Association's "What's Hot in
2014" survey. Watch for more sides of
apples, yogurt, and baked fries instead of
French fries in 2014.

4. GLUTEN FREE
If you were hoping the gluten-free craze was
burning out, sorry to disappoint. Gluten-free cuisine
was a top-five trend identified in the National
Restaurant Association's "What's Hot in 2014"
survey, identified by more than three-quarters of
chefs as a niche they planned to do more with next
year. Don't just think packaged goods or gluten-free
brownies, either. You'll see the desire to avoid
wheat gluten drive more use of pasta noodles
made from buckwheat and other grains.
Also, expect more ancient, super-nutritious grains
such as quinoa and amaranth to pop up in dishes
that might once have used wheat flour.

5. INSTANT ICE CREAM


Our love of instant gratification and
artisanal, handcrafted foods combine
in Smitten Ice Cream's new 90second, made-while-you wait frozen
treats. The 2-year-old San Francisco
company has two stores open and two
more are already planned.

6. NUTS
High-protein, healthy nuts and seeds are
valued by carbo -cutting diners for a healthy
energy boost.

7. BETTER-QUALITY PIZZA
The era of cheap pizza with low-quality ingredients
is ending, with the rise of artisan, gourmet pizza
chains such as Blaze Fast-Fired Pizza, MOD Pizza,
Patxi's, and many more.Most of these chains are
expanding through selling franchises, a fast-growth
model that will see many more neighborhoods get
their own upscale pizza joint in 2014. And some have
big backers that will help their brands expand -Buffalo Wild Wings is behind Los Angeles-based
PizzaRev, and Smashburger founders Tom Ryan and
Rick Schaden are the brains behind Denver's Live
Basil.

When the industry forms a support


group -- as the National Restaurant
Association did this year with the
Pizzeria Industry Council -- you know a
trend is taking off.

8. CHICKEN WINGS
Once only seen as bar food, chicken wings
have become so ever-present that the
National Chicken Council found 13.5 billion
chicken wings were marketed in 2012, not
counting the ones still attached to whole
chickens.

9. UPSCALE COMFORT FOOD


In 2014, watch for old-time comfort
foods done with more upscale
ingredients -- such as this mac-andcheese update Italian style with
sauteed salami, garlic, peppers, sundried tomatoes, and onions.

10. MASHUP DISHES


Ever had a dessert pizza, like the coconutchocolate-with-strawberries pie shown here,
or tasted one of 2013's breakout foods, the
croissant-doughnut hybrid cronut? These
sort of "mutan morsels" will be all the rage
in 2014, forecasts San Francisco hospitality
consulting firm Andrew Freeman &
Co. Gaining buzz: A burger served on a
griddled ramen-noodle bun, created by New
York-based chef Keizo Shimamoto. Freeman
says imitators are already cropping up.

11. UMAMI
The savory "fifth taste" is popping up in
sauces, salts, and burgers, at fast-growing
L.A.-based franchise chain Umami Burger. In
2014, watch for scores of other restaurants to
jump on the umami trend, too.

12. BISCUITS
Move over, pretzel and
croissant buns. Biscuits are riding the
comfort-food trend to become the
next "it" ingredient to hold
sandwiches and burgers together,
forecasts San Francisco hospitality
consulting firm Andrew Freeman &
Co.

POPULAR RESTAURANT TRENDS


Offering Discounts and Coupons
Social Media for Restaurants
Sustainability and Local Foods
Public Health Concerns

THE 5 IN 5
A LOOK AT THE FIVE SEGMENTS
EVERYONE WILL BE TALKING ABOUT IN
2017 ABOUT MENU INNOVATIONS
The world of 2017 will be a different place. Better
burgers will be more eco-friendly, and theyll be
ordered via touch screen. Upscale Asian
restaurantspossibly even some from Asiawill
grab more market share. And as time pressure
builds, fresher-than-fresh juice will become a graband-go commodity. If all the progress seems like a
blur, theres a reason for that. Trends arent just
taking holdtheyre taking hold faster than ever.

1. THE ECO-BURGER
Epic Burger will claim the moral high
ground in the next five years with fewer
preservatives and a strong sustainability
message.

2. JUICE: THE NEXT STEP IN FRESH


One key element of the new juice craze will be togo offerings. Ready-to-go drinks and foods like
those offered by Evolution Fresh will continue to
gain in popularity, even in locations not traditionally
associated with healthy eating.

3. BUILD-YOUR-OWN EVERYTHING
From drive-thru speakers to high-efficiency fryers
to touch-screen POS systems, quick-serve
restaurants have long been the earliest adopters of
new restaurant technology. But the restaurants of
2017 will put even todays tech-savvy restaurateurs
to shame. Robotics, touch-screen ordering, and
customized-to-the-max orders will become
increasingly established parts of the quick-serve
experience.

4. INTERNATIONAL INVASION
As the economy rebounds, the American market
will be increasingly saturated with foreign-based
brands, experts say.
Philippines-based Jollibee offers hamburgers,
spaghetti, and chicken alongside more exotic fare
like breakfast pork-and-rice platters or Fiesta
Noodles with shrimp and hardboiled egg. It has 26
stores in the U.S., and recently opened one in
Anaheim, California. South African chicken
restaurant Nandos has several U.S. locations, as
does Guatemalas Pollo Campero.

TYPES OF MENU
1) A LA CARTE food items priced individually
An outline of the menu item categories for each meal
(appetizers, entres, and desserts).
Number of menu item choices in each can vary
according to the goals of the foodservice operation.
One of three basic types of menus used.
The literal meaning of the French phrase is "by the
card," although it's used in both languages to
mean "according to the menu." The opposite of
a la carte is a table d'hte, or "meal served at a
fixed price."

LA CARTE
la carte can also refer to a menu in which the
items are thus presented. The diner would then
be free to order side dishes such as
vegetables and potatoes separately. You will
often see this kind of menu at high-end
steakhouses.
This is the opposite arrangement of a prix fixe
(pronounced "pree feeks") menu, where a
diner might order a pre-set array of courses,
such as appetizer, main course and dessert,
for a set price.

LA CARTE BREAKFAST
Fewer people eat breakfast than lunch
or dinner, accounts for ~20% of daily
restaurant traffic.
Commercial and on-site foodservice
operations usually offer traditional
breakfast items and light and healthful
options.

LA CARTE LUNCH

Difficult meal to deliver to customers.


More complicated than those served at
breakfast.
Must be produced faster than dinner items.
Meal most eaten away from home.
60% of individuals consume a commercially
prepared meal at least once a week.

LA CARTE

LA CARTE DINNER
Traditionally includes entre, potato,
vegetable, & salad
Supper lighter or late evening meals,
menu similar to breakfast, brunch, lunch
Menus getting shorter, but appetizer
section is getting longer
Ethnic cuisines impact menus
Desserts commonly included on menu

LA CARTE DINNER

2. DU JOUR MENU
a menu listing dishes available on a
particular day.
made for a particular day used of
an item not specified on the regular
menu

3. SMALL PLATE MENU

Grazing eating small amounts of food


throughout the day
Grazing = flexibility + frequency + food
The expression is used in two main culinary
contexts either for the style of serving several
small courses of food at a meal instead of two
or three large courses (which in turn relates to
a gastronomic activity now often widely
described as grazing, i.e. eating at least five or
six small courses)a generic reference to small
but appetizing dishes familiar in many world
cuisines, such as Spanish tapas

4. PRIX FIXE MENU


Fixed menus offer you the same foods
every day.
You will find fixed menus in most
commercial restaurants and fast food
establishments.

5. TABLE D HOTE
food items grouped together & sold for
one price
In a restaurant, a menu is a presentation
of food and beverage offerings. A menu
may be la carte which guests use to
choose from a list of options or table
d'hte, in which case a pre-established
sequence of courses is served.

Table d'hote = a menu with


multiple courses, but only a
few choices (e.g. 3 starters, 3
mains, 3 deserts), usually
charged at a fixed price.

6. SEASONAL MENU
refers to the times of year when a given type
food is at its peak, either in terms of harvest or
its flavor. This is usually the time when the
item is the cheapest and the freshest on the
market. The food's peak time in terms of
harvest usually coincides with when its flavor
is at its best. There are some exceptions; an
example being sweet potatoes which are best
eaten quite a while after harvest.

7. DESSERT MENU
the sweet, usually last course
of meal fruit, dates, nuts, etc.,
served at the end of a meal

9. KIDS MENU
The kids' meal or children's meal is
a fast food combination meal tailored to
and marketed to children. Most kids'
meals come in colorful bags or
cardboard boxes with activities on the
bag or box and a toy inside. The
standard kids' meal comprises a burger,
a side, and a soft drink

REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES


TITLE: HOW MAJOR RESTAURANT CHAINS PLAN THEIR
MENUS- The Role of Profit, Demand, and Health
AUTHORS: Karen Glanz, PhD, Ken Resnicow, PhD, Jennifer
Seeymor, PhD, Kathy Hoy, EdD, Hayden Stewart, PhD,
Mark Lyons, MS, Jeanne Goldberg, PhD (American Journal
of Preventive Medicine, Elsevier, 2007)
OBJECTIVES: Increased
away-from-home eating is
associated with lower diet quality, and may contribute to the
increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Healthier
food choices in restaurants may help mitigate the rise in
obesity and improve diet quality. This study sought to
understand the views of executives at major U.S. restaurant
chains regarding the process, motivation for, and
challenges of offering healthier options on their menu.

METHODS: The Healthy Menu Study


used in depth structured telephone
interviews with 41 senior menu
development and marketing executives
leading casual dining and fast-food
restaurant chains. The interview guide
covered menu trends, influences on
introduction and continuation of menu
items, and barriers to adding healthy
foods. Data analysis included tabulation
of responses, identification of themes,
and
examination
of
subgroup
differences.

RESULTS: Growing sales and increasing


profits
are
the
most
important
considerations, mentioned by 61% of
respondents; health and nutrition were
noted as important by 21%. Restaurants
may try to avoid losing groups with a health
seeker by offering healthier foods (low in
fat and calories, more fruits and vegetables)
(27% of chains), but operators believe
demand of healthier foods is not
widespread.
Additional
obstacles
to
including healthier menu items are short
shelf life of produce (46%), increased
preparation time, low sales, and high labor
costs.

CONCLUSION: Not surprisingly, profit


margins are the primary determinants of
why restaurant do or do not add and
continue to serve healthier food options.
Without an increase to consumer
demand, it is unlikely the restaurant
industry will increase their offering of
healthy food choices. Insight into the
restaurant industry perspective is
important for developing promising
strategies to encourage healthier eating
patterns.

RECOMMENDATION: People want taste and


health, but are often faced with a choice
between the two. Health and culinary
professionals have begun to work together
to demonstrate that taste and health can
coexist at an affordable price and these
efforts should be expanded. The growing
numbers of individuals who are both
nutrition professionals and chefs are
potential resource that can
assume a
leadership role by building their reputations,
at least in part, on menu items that
emphasize fruits and vegetables that are
delicious as well as nutritious.

Government policies that offer chain


restaurants incentives to offer more
healthy options, including fruits and
vegetables, on their menus should be
evaluated.
Requirements that chain restaurants
provide nutritional information at the
point of purchase- thus removing the
exemption of restaurants from nutrition
labeling- might motivate consumers and
provide compelling reason to develop
more appealing and nutritious options.

TITLE: INNOVATION IN THE SPANISH FOOD


AND DRINK INDUSTRY
AUTHOR: Marian Garcia Martinez and Julian
Briz (International Food and Agribusiness
Management Review,2010)
OBJECTIVE: This article examines the
innovative performance of the Spanish Food
and Drink Industry. It highlights the
evolutionary rather than revolutionary
nature of innovation activities in the Spanish
Food and Drink Industry. It describes the
technological level of Spanish Food and Drink
Industry in order to set up the framework,
which will help to understand the results
presented in this paper.

To discuss the research


methodology
and
the
innovative
activities in the Spanish Food and Drink
Industry by looking its main objectives of
innovations, as well as the main factors
impeding innovation at company level.
Lastly, to examine the innovative
performance of surveyed Food and
Drink firms through the analyses of their
innovation output, and clusters firms
according
to
their
innovative
performance.

METHODS: This paper presents the results of


quantitative research design to analyze the
innovative performance of the Spanish Food
and Drink Industry using postal innovation
questionnaires. Limitations in the use of
traditional measures of technological change
have encouraged researchers to develop new
innovation output indicators. The data used in
this paper come from two innovation surveys
designed according to the recommendations
laid down by the Oslo Manual which makes
this study suitable
for international
comparisons with existing and future studies
into the Food and Drink Industry or/ and other
manufacturing industries.

The postal innovation questionnaires were sent to


Spanish Food and Drink companies randomly
selected according to their structural characteristics in
order to be representative of all size classes across
15 Food and Drink sectors.
RESULT: Completed questionnaires from 149 Food and
Drink companies. Out of 149 respondents, 134 firms
indicated that they perform innovation activities, either
product
or
process
innovation.
Completed
questionnaires were received from 54 Food and Drink
innovating companies, giving a response rate of
40.3%. This is an important response rate given the
reduced sample size and in particular, the complexity
of the questions involved. While not representative of
the Spanish Food and Drink Industry as a whole,
answers provide valuable information on inputs to,
and outputs innovation process.

86% of respondents were firms less


than 500 employees and 64% indicated
that export activities accounted for less
than a tenth of their sales. In terms of
capital ownership, 75% of respondents
were national private companies and, to
a large presence in the Spanish Food
and Drink Industry. Empirical results
indicate that the product innovation
objectives are the primary goal for most
Spanish innovating Food and Beverage
firms.

CONCLUSION: While process innovation is


clearly the most common type of innovative
activity within manufacturing industries, in the
case of Food and Drink Industry, its impact is
probably less relevant than product
innovation. For major manufacturer of
branded products, innovation strategies
should be and integral component of any
action to keep ahead of the retailers own
label developments.
Innovating Food and Drink companies
largely concentrate their product- oriented
activities toward differentiation or incremental
innovation.

As a result, many food product


introduction fail as they do not offer any
apparent consumer- relevant advantage.
Food and Drink companies tend to see
consumers as a target audience instead
of listening to what they want and that
trying to meet their demand. In this
regard, it is worth nothing that, overall,
economic consideration rather than
factors related to the firms innovation
potential emerged as the main obstacles
to innovation in the Spanish Food and
Drink Industry.

RECOMMENDATION: The findings clearly reveal


the need for government intervention through
industrial policies aiming to encourage
innovation activities to improve firms attitudes
towards innovation. The need to foster an
environment where innovation is encouraged
and nurtured has been recognized by the
European Union policy makers as a means to
ensure sustainable economic and employment
growth. And recognize firms capacity to
innovate and support from authorities are
essential for maintaining and strengthening
competitiveness and employment

THANK YOU!

THE END

MANPOWER PLANNING
2. QUANTITATIVE PRODUCTION
MANPOWER REQUIREMENT
- Ensures that workload can be handled
by the team
- Cost of labor kept to a minimum
FACTORS AFFECTING THE
QUANTITATIVE MANPOWER
REQUIREMENT:

MANPOWER PLANNING
Job

description and workload


Sales volume
Type and rate of service
Equipment
Layout
Production method
Hours of operation

MANPOWER PLANNING
Staff

needs

Production Scheduling
Time

sequencing of events required to


produce a meal.
Planning stage:
Forecasts are converted into the quantity of each
menu item to be prepared.
Distribution of food production to supervisors in
each work center.

Action

stage:

Supervisors prepare a production schedule.


Items are assigned to specific employees.

Production Schedule
Should

include:

Employee assignments
Preparation time schedule
Menu item
Over- & underproduction
Quantity to prepare: forecast amount for each menu
item.
Substitutions
Actual yield: portion count produced by the recipe.
Additional assignments
Special instructions & comments
Pre-preparation

Production Meetings
Should

be held daily with employees in


the production unit.
Employees encouraged to discuss the
effectiveness of the schedule.
Free discussion of work loads.
Conclude with discussion of the
production schedule for the following
three meals.

Ingredient Control
Begins

with purchasing, receiving, &


storage of foods.
Continues through forecasting &
production.
Ingredient assembly area designed for
measuring ingredients.
Standardized recipes provides
assurance that standards of quality will
be consistently maintained.

Advantages of Centralized
Ingredient Assembly
Contributes

to the cost reduction &


quality improvement.
Redirection of cooks skills away from
collecting, assembling, & measuring
ingredients to production, garnishing, &
portion control.
More efficient use of labor.

Centralized Ingredient Control


Control

of unused portions is facilitated


because storage is located centrally
rather than in various work units.
Ability to combine tasks for two or more
recipes using similar ingredients.

Function of the Ingredient Room


Primary

function is to coordinate
assembly, pre-preparation, measuring, &
weighing of the ingredients.
Availability of appropriate equipment will
help determine the activities to be
performed.

Ingredient Room Organization


Should

be located between the storage


& production areas.
Necessary equipment includes:
Refrigeration
Water

supply
Trucks or carts for assembly & delivery
Worktable or counter
Scales

Ingredient Room Staffing


Employees

must be:

Literate
Able

to do simple arithmetic
Familiar with storage facilities
Responsible

for receiving, storage, &


ingredient assembly.

Ingredient Room Staffing


Ingredient

assembly personnel considerations:

Size of operation
Frequency & time of deliveries
Size of ingredient room & location of other storage
areas
Type, number, & complexity of menu items
Number of workstation to be supplied
Schedule for delivery of ingredients to production &
serving areas
Extent of pre-preparation performed in ingredient
assembly area

Future of Ingredient Rooms


Centralized

or food factories are being


used for procurement & production.
Prepared menu items are distributed to
several remote areas for final
preparation.

Recipe
Formula

by which weighed & measured


ingredients are combined in a specific
procedure to meet predetermined
standards.
Written communication tool that passes
information from the foodservice
manager to the ingredient room &
production employees.
Quality & quantity control tool.

Recipes
Recipes

include:

Name of food item


Total yield
Portion size & number of portions
Cooking time & temperature
List of ingredients in order of use
Amount of each ingredient by weight, measure or
count
Procedures
Panning or portioning information
Food safety (HACCP) guidelines.

Standardization
Ideal

to have recipes that consistently


deliver the same quantity & quality
product when followed precisely.
Recipe standardization process of
tailoring a recipe to suit a particular
purpose in a specific foodservice
operation.
Requires repeated testing.

Justification
Advantages

for using standardized

recipes:
Promote

uniform quality of menu items.


Promote uniform quantity of menu items.
Encourage uniformity of menu items.
Increase productivity of cooks.
Increase managerial productivity.
Save money by controlling overproduction.

Justification
Advantages
Save

(cont.):

money by controlling inventory levels.


Simplify menu item costing.
Simplify training of cooks.
Introduce a feeling of job satisfaction.
Reduce anxiety of customers with special
dietary needs.

Three Phases of Recipe


Standardization
Standardized
Developed

recipes:

for use by a foodservice

operation.
Found to produce consistent results & yield
each time prepared.

Three Phases of Recipe


Standardization

Recipe Verification
Review

components of the recipe

Recipe

title
Recipe category
Ingredients
Weight/measure for each ingredient
Preparation instructions
Cooking temperature & time
Portion size
Recipe yield
Equipment to be used

Recipe Verification
Make

the recipe
Verify the recipe yield
Record changes to the recipe

Product Evaluation
Informal
Visual

Evaluation:

appearance

Flavor
Ability

to obtain ingredients
Cost per serving
Labor time
Availability of equipment
Employee skill

Product Evaluation
Formal

Evaluation

Select group of staff members & customers as a


taste panel.
Choose or develop an evaluation instrument.
Prepare sample recipe.
Set up sampling area.
Sampling & evaluation of products.
Summarize results.
Determine future plans for the recipe.

Quantity Adjustment
Methods

include:

Factor

method
Percentage method
Direct reading measurement tables
Computer

software also available

Adapting Home-Size Recipes


Special
Know

considerations are necessary:

exactly what ingredients are used & in


what quantity.
Make the recipe in original home-size
quantity.
Evaluate the product for acceptability.
Proceed in incremental stages in expanding
the recipe.

Adapting Home-Size Recipes


Special

considerations are necessary:

Determine

handling or cooking losses (5%8% loss is typical).


Check ingredient proportion against a
standard large quantity recipe.
Evaluate products using taste panels.

Quantity Food Production


Involves:
Control

of ingredients
Production methods
Quality of food
Labor productivity
Energy consumption.
Sweet

Spot point of best value at


lowest cost.

Objectives of Food Production


Primary

reasons to cook food:

Destruction

of harmful microorganisms
Increased digestibility
Change & enhancement of flavor, form,
color, texture, & aroma
Adjust budgetary requirements

Heat Transfer
Conduction

the transfer of heat


through direct contact from one object to
another.

Convection

distribution of heat by the


movement of liquid or vapor.

Heat Transfer
Radiation

generation of heat energy


by wave action within an object.

Induction

use of electrical fields to


excite the molecules of metal cooking
surfaces.

Moist Heat
Use

of water or steam for the cooking process.

Simmering or stewing cooking in a liquid that is


boiling gently (185-205 F).
Poaching cooking in a small amount of liquid that
is hot but not bubbling (160-180 F).
Blanching cooking an item partially & briefly.
Braising cooking food in a small amount of liquid,
usually after browning it.
Steaming cooking food by exposing them to
direct steam.

Dry Heat
Use

of dry air, hot metal, radiation, or a


minimum amount of hot fat for the
cooking process.
Includes:
Broilers

heat source 3-6 from food.


Deep Fat Fryers food immersed in tank of
oil heated by gas or electricity.
Ovens combination of conduction,
convection, & radiation.

Multifunction Equipment
Combination

of several pieces of
equipment to increase space in
production area.
Combi-oven

includes convection and/or

steam
Tilting skillet combines range, griddle,
kettle, stock pot, & frying pan.
Convection/microwave oven - includes
convection and/or microwave

Production Controls
Quality

control assuring day-in, dayout consistency in each product.


Quantity control producing exact
amount needed.
Controls:
Time

& Temperature Control


Product Yield
Portion Control

Energy Use
Direct

energy energy expended to


produce & serve menu items.

Indirect

energy energy expended to


facilitate functions that use direct energy.

Energy Conservation
ENERGY

STAR: partnership which promotes


energy efficiency in buildings & homes.
Energy conservation checklist:
Food Preparation
Refrigeration
Lighting
HVAC
Sanitation & water
Office & Administration

Energy Management
Should

include:

Record-keeping

system for tracking utility


costs & monitoring equipment use.
Employee training
Use of energy efficient equipment

SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION
PRACTICES

SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION
PRACTICES

SCARCITY ON SUPPLIES

SCARCITY ON SUPPLIES