MICROBIOLOGY

AND

AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY I

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THE SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY

DEFINITION
Azospirillum

Fungi

virus

algae protozoa

CELL

Cell is the basic structural unit of life

Characteristic of biological system

1665

History of Cell
Robert Hooke Linnaeus

Honeycomblike (ruang rumah madu) structure in a thin slice of cork (gabus)

1707-1778 1765 ± 1877 1838-1839 1837 ± 1897 1866

Biology classification: plant and animal Controversion on GENERATIO SPONTANEA (ABIOGENESIS)

Schleiden & Schwann L Pasteur Haeckel

Similar structure of cells Basic structural & functional unit of organism Fermentation Proposed 3rd Kingdom: Protista (setelah tanaman dan hewan) Lower protist: Bacteria Higher protist: algae, fungi, protozoa Germ Theory: Koch postulat Living material of a cell Reveal intracellular organization; membrane bound structures Procaryotic & eucayotic Molecular genetics

1876

Koch Protoplasm Electron microscope

1940s

1941 ± 1985

Distinguishing procaryotic & eucaryotic
Features
Size range Genetic system Location Structure of nucleus Nucleoid, chromatin body, or nuclear material Not bound by nuclear membrane One circular chromosome Nucleolus absent Zygote nature is partial diploid Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts Bounded by nuclear membrane More than one chromosome Nucleolus present Zygote is diploid

Procaryotic
1-2 x 1-4 µm

Eucaryotic
> 5 µm

Sexuality Outer cellstructures Cytoplasmic membrane Cell wall Locomotor organelle Metabolic mechanism DNA base ratio (guanine+cytosine)

Sterol -; part of respiratory & photosynthetic apparatus Peptidoglycan + Simple fibril Anaerobic reaction; fix nitrogen gas; accumulate poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate 28-73

Sterol +; no respiratory & photosynthetic apparatus Peptidoglycan Multifibrilled with microtubules Anaerobic reaction (glycolysis) + 40

Distinguishing procaryotic & eucaryotic
continued
Features Cytoplasmic nature and structure Cytoplasmic Streaming (aliran sitoplasma) Gas vacuoles Mesosome Ribosome's Mitochondria Chloroplasts Golgi structure Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane-bound vacuoles Procaryotic Eucaryotic

+/+
70S

+ 80S

-

+
In Some Cells

+ + +

CLASSIFICATION
Algae
‡ Simple organism ‡ Complex structures with particle function ‡ Contains chlorophyll ‡ Small non-cellular ‡ Can be cultivated ‡ Can be seen by electron microscope

Viruse s

‡ Unicellular prokaryotic Bacteria ‡ Multiplication: binary fission

Protozo a

‡ Unicellular eukaryotic ‡ Causes disease in human and animal

Fungi

‡ Eukaryotic plants ‡ Contains chlorophyll ‡ Varied single celledgiant mushroom

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APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
Field
Medical Microbiology Aquatic Microbiology Aeromicrobiolog y Food Microbiology Agricultural Microbiology Industrial Microbiology

Applied Areas
Causative agents of disease, diagnostic procedures, preventive measures Water purification, microbiological examination, biological degradation of waste, ecology Contamination and spoilage; dissemination of disease Food preservation & preparation; foodborne disease and prevention Soil fertility; plant and animal disease Production of medical products: antibiotics, vaccine; fermented beverages; industrial chemicals; genetic enginering: production of proteins & hormones

Exomicrobiology Exploration for life in outer space Geochemical Microbiology Coal, mineral & gas formation; prospecting for deposits of coal, mineral & gas; recovery of minerals from low grade ores

THE HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY

HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY

15th-18th:
‡ Similar postulat by ‡ Fracastoro ‡ Von Plenciz ‡ Kircher: invisible worm¶ decaying bodies, meat, milk etc

13th :
‡ Bacon: Disease is caused by invisible living creature

1665: Hooke: founder of cells¶ confirmed Aristotle¶s (4th BC) description: animals & plants are yet composed of a few elementary parts frequently repeated

1683: Leeuwenhoek: described very little animal¶ in water drops using Microscope

SPONTANEUS GENERATION VS BIOGENESIS
SPONTANEUS GENERATION BIOGENESIS

Gooseneck: leher angsa Bees: kumbang Maggot: belatung

MICROBIOLOGY BEYOND THE BASICS
Von Plenciz 1762
‡ Living agent are the cause of diseases ‡ Different germ were responsible for different disease

John Tyndall 1820-1893:
‡ specially design box to prevent dust that carried the germ to enter ‡ TYNDALIZATION

Louis Pasteur
‡ Fermentation was brought about by microbes ‡ Found different sort of microbe in different batch¶ ‡ PASTEURIZATION kills undesirable microbes

Medical Practice
‡ Holmes 1842: Puerperal fever was caused by a germ carried by midwives and physicians ‡ Semmelweis 1861: pioneer in using antiseptics in obstetrical practice ‡ Lister 1890: the importance of antiseptics in medical practice

Agricultural Industry
‡ Pasteur: silkworm disease; isolation of anthrax ‡ Koch : infecting healthy animal by injection of anthrax microbes POSTULATE KOCH¶S

TECHNIQUES AND PURE CULTURE
Pure Culture
‡ The growth of mass of cells of the same species in a laboratory vessel ‡ Introduced by Lister in 1878

Colonies
‡ Isolated growth of organism ‡ Each contains millions of individual bacterial cells packed tightly together

Vaccine
‡ virulence ‡ Attenuated bacteria ‡ Production of antibodies to protect against subsequent exposure to virulent organism

APPLICATION OF MICROBIOLOGY
‡ Winogradsky: the importance of bacteria in taking nitrogen from atmosphere & combine it with other element ‡ Hellriegel & Wifarth: symbiotic of bacteria and leguminous plants ‡ Beijerink: Azotobacter in promoting soil fertility

Soil Microbiology

Industrial Microbiology

‡ Hansen: pure culture study of yeast and bacteria in vinegar manufacture (STARTER) ‡ Adamet: pure culture in Cheese manufacturing ‡ Conn & Weigmann: starter for butter production

Plant pathology

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Burril: fire blight disease in pears is caused by bacteria Mayer: mottling disease in tobacco plant Transmission of disease by budding, insect Virus can also be a cause of disease in plant

MODERN BIOLOGY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN BACTERIA AND HIGHER LIVING FORM

KNOWLEDGE ON BACTERIA CHARACTERISTIC

NEW TECHNIQUES & EXPERIMENTA L PROCEDURES

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY The program of interpreting the specific structures and functions of organisms in term of molecular structure

MICROBIOLOGY AND SOCIETY

Development of basic biological science Importance of microbiology

Applied areas of public health, medical, agriculture, industry, environment

GENETIC ENGINERING alteration of DNA structure recombination

Production of : ‡ new substance: insulin ‡ improved agriculture crops

IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISM

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROORGANISM
Morphological characteristics

Ecological characteristics

Chemical composition

Pathogenicity

Cultural characteristics

Genetic characteristics

Metabolic characteristics

Antigenic characteristics

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROORGANISM
Morphological characteristics
‡ Cell shape, size, structure, cell arrangement ‡ Staining reaction, motility, flagellar arrangement ‡ By studying individual cell in pure culture

Chemical characteristics

‡ Qualitative & quantitative difference in chemical composition ‡ Major distinction among viruses: RNA or DNA

Cultural characteristics

‡ Nutritional requirements and physical conditions required for growth: CULTURE MEDIUM ‡ Characteristics of colony

Metabolic characteristics

‡ The way in which cell: ‡ obtain and use their energy: Absorbing light; oxidation ‡ carry out chemical reaction: enzymes uses ‡ Regulate all the process

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROORGANISM
Antigenic Characteristics
‡ Chemical compound that will be recognized by the host¶s immune system and produce antibody ‡ Antibody is highly specific rapid identification of disease

Genetic characteristics

‡ DNA base composition: moles % G+C value (23-75) ‡ Sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA: unique for each kind of organism ‡ Plasmid DNA: replicate autonomously

Pathogenicity

‡ The ability to cause disease in human, plants, animal or other microorganism ‡ Bacteriophage

Ecological characteristics

‡ Habitat of the microorganism ‡ Distribution of the organism in the nature ‡ Interaction between and among species in natural environment

TAXONOMIC GROUP
Strai n S ci s
‡ S ffici ntl si ilar t t ‡ Mainl as n NA ‡ L ss niv rsal a r ‡ V r s j ctiv ¶ t l nt f t crit ria strain

G n s Fa il Or r

GOALS OF CLASSIFICATION
Sta ilit
‡Classificati n ar s j ct t fr q nt, ra ical c an s c nf si n ‡Mainl in r c an s n w inf r ati n

Class ivisi n

Pr Kin

icta ilit

‡C aract ristics f r wit in t r s l v r si ilar

CLASSIFICATION METHODS
Intuitive Method Numerical Taxonomy Genetic Relatedness
the most reliable method

‡ Depends on expertise of Microbiologist ‡ Very subjective, but proved to be useful

‡ More objective by determining 100-200 characteristics ‡ Calculate the % of similarity to every other strain

‡ DNA homology: by forming heteroduplexs of DNA strands ‡ Ribosomal RNA homology & oligunucleotide cataloging: rRNA changed more slowly in evolution

PHYLOGENETIC CLASSIFICATION: reflect the ancestral relationship Divided into: 1. Eubacteria: traditional group 2. Archaeobacteria: methane producers; extreme halophiles; thermoacidophiles

NOMENCLATURE
y y

One organism has only ONE OFFICIALLY ACCEPTED NAME According to the rules set down in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria
Each distinct kind of organism is designated as a species Binomial with Latin grammar:
x x First: genus name, capitalized Second: specific ephitet, not capitalized

Bergey¶s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology.

IDENTIFICATION

NOMENCLATURE

IDENTIFIED
Combination of characteristic must occur only in the particular kind of organism Chosen characteristic should be easy to determine

CLASSIFIED

Selamat Mempelajari Mikrobiologi dan Bioteknologi: Jalan menuju Pertanian yang Berkelanjutan

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