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You are on page 1of 41

FOR WIRELESS.

SCS 207.

Number Systems and Codes

By

Mr. Isaac Kuma Yeboah.

1

Chapter Objectives

Determine the weighting factor of each digit

position in the decimal, binary, octal, and

hexadecimal numbering systems.

Convert any number among the four number

systems, and its equivalent value in any of

the remaining three numbering systems.

Describe binary coded decimal (BCD)

numbers.

Translate alphanumeric data to and from

ASCII using the ASCII code translation table.

Digital

represented using

0s and 1s (respectively).

Analog

Continuously varying

Examples: temperature, pressure,

velocity

Discussion Points

analog and digital signals.

Describe some applications for

digital technology.

What are the benefits of using

digital systems?

Are there any problems associated

with digital systems?

6

Digital vs.

Analog

Digital Representations

of Analog Quantities

Audio Recording

Video Recording

analog video and audio signals

and Their Digital

Equivalents

Digital-to-Analog and

Back Again

Why Digital

Systems Are

Immune to Analog

Noise

Digital Representations of

Alternative Energy Sources

of the efficiency of their energy

collection systems.

Naturally occurring quantities like

solar, wind, and temperature are

analog quantities and must be

digitized before a computer can

understand them.

Number of Systems.

There are four systems of arithmetic which

are often used in digital circuits. These

systems are:

1. Decimal- it has a base or radix of 10 that is it

uses 10 different symbols to represent

numbers.

2. Binary-it has a base of 2, that is it uses only

two different symbols.

3. Octal-it has a base of 8, that is uses eight

different symbols.

4. Hexadecimal- it has a base of 16, that it uses

sixteen different symbols.

quantities which are outside the digital system.

Base or Radix-the number of different digits

which can occur in each position in the number

system.

This system has a base of 10 and is a positionvalue system and decimal system uses power of

10.

10 possible digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9

Least-significant position is on the right end

Most-significant position is on the left end

Weighting factor of 10

10

(Base 2)

digital systems like digital computers

which operate on binary information.

Radix or base is two because it uses

only two digits 0 and 1.

Only two possible digits: 0 and 1

Weighting factor of 2

Conversion techniques

Digit times weighting factor

Successive division

11

Decimal-to-Binary

Conversion

Integers: Such conversion can be achieved

or divide-by-two methods.

Subtracting weighting factors: This is

performed in a manner similar to that used

in decimal subtraction.

Successive division: In this method, we

progressively divide the given decimal

number by 2 and write down the remainders

after each division.

First remainder is the Least-Significant Bit (LSB)

Last remainder is the Most-Significant Bit (MSB)

12

(Base 8)

which means that it has eight

distinct counting digits.

Eight allowable digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,

5, 6, and 7

Weighting factor of 8

13

Octal Conversions

Binary to octal

Group binary positions in groups of

three

Write the octal equivalent

Octal to binary

Octal to decimal

Multiply by weighting factors

Decimal to octal

Successive division

14

Hexadecimal Numbering

System

(Base 16)

16 allowable digits.

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and

F

See Table 1-3

bits

8 bits are called a byte

4 bits are called a nibble

15

Hexadecimal Numbering

System

Hexadecimal Conversions

Binary-to-hexadecimal

conversion

Group

Write the equivalent hex digit

Hexadecimal-to-binary

Reverse

conversion

the process

16

Hexadecimal Conversions

Hexadecimal-to-decimal

conversion

Multiply

by weighting factors

Decimal-to-hexadecimal

conversion

Successive

division

17

Binary-Coded-Decimal

System

(BCD)

represented by its 4-bit binary

equivalent.

Decimal-to-BCD conversion

binary code

BCD-to-Decimal conversion

18

Information Interchange (ASCII)

Represents alphanumeric data

Uses 7 bits

(see Table 1-5)

3-bit group is most significant

4-bit group is least significant

20

21

Numbering System

Applications

with 1s and 0s, learning the different

numbering systems is important.

Which system is used is determined

by how the data were developed and

how they are to be used.

Several numbering system

applications follow.

22

Application 1-1

The four chemical storage tanks

shown are monitored for

temperature (T) and pressure (P).

22

interpret the following:

If the computer reads a binary

string of 0010 1000 what problems

exist?

This indicates that the pressure in

tanks C and B are too high.

22

interpret the following:

If the computer reads a hex value of

55H what problems exist?

Since 55H =0101 0101 This

indicates that all tank temperatures

are too high.

22

interpret the following:

If the temperature and pressure in

tanks B and D are too high, what

hex value is read by the computer?

computer

This condition would produce a

digital output of 1100 1100 = CCH.

22

the following:

Assume that tanks A and B are shut

down and all sensors are tied high (1s).

What is the lowest decimal value that

indicates a problem in the other two

tanks?

With the four low-order bits tied high,

the lowest value that indicates a

problem is 0001 111 or 3110.

22

interpret the following:

what octal value indicates tank B has

both temperature and pressure

problems?

The binary output would be 001 1002 =

148.

22

Application 1-2

A CD player converts 12-bit signals

from a CD into equivalent analog

values.

What are the largest and smallest hex

values that can be used in this system?

00016.

be represented?

4096 unique values.

22

Application 1-3

Typically, digital thermometers

use BCD to drive their displays.

displays

How many BCD bits are

required to drive a 3-digit

display?

digit.

What 12 bits represent 147F?

0001 (1), 0100 (4), and 0111 (7).

22

Application 1-4

Most PC-compatible computer

systems use a 20-bit address code

to identify each of over 1 million

memory locations.

locations

How many hex characters are

required to identify the address of

each memory location?

Five

each hex character represents 4 bits.

22

memory location?

000C8H = 20010, but 00000H is the

first memory location, so we must

subtract 1. The answer is C8 1 = C7.

If 50 memory locations are used for data

storage starting at location 000C8H,

what is the location of the last data

item?

is 24910 = F9H.

22

Application 1-5

computer memory. List the binary contents of its

memory locations?

6 = 011 0110

5 = 011 0101

1 = 011 0001

- = 010 1101

M = 100 1101

Grouping the binary bits in eights, this string

represents 5 hex memory locations:

011 0110 011 0101 011 0001 010 1101 100 1101

36

35

31

2D

4D

22

Application 1-6

utility to find an error in a BASIC

program. The utility shows the ASCII

code as hex 474F5430203930.

Assume that the leftmost bit of each

ASCII string is padded with a zero.

The program segment is translated as

GOT0 90.

The error is that a zero (0) was

typed instead of the letter O.

22

Summary

in analog form but must be

converted to digital form to be used

by computers or digital circuitry.

The binary numbering system is

used in digital systems because the

1s and 0s are easily represented by

ON or OFF transistors, which output

0 V for 0 and +5 V for 1.

28

Summary

decimal by multiplying each digit by its

weighting factor.

The weighting factor for the least

significant digit in any number system is

always 1.

Binary numbers can be converted to

octal by forming groups of 3 bits and to

hexadecimal by forming groups of 4 bits.

29

Summary

be used to convert from decimal to

binary, octal, or hexadecimal

The binary-coded-decimal system

uses groups of 4 bits to drive decimal

displays such as those in a calculator.

ASCII is used by computers to

represent all letters, numbers and

symbols in digital form.

30

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