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Fundamentals of

Distance Protection
GE Multilin

Outline
Transmission line introduction
What is distance protection?
Non-pilot and pilot schemes
Redundancy considerations
Security for dual-breaker
terminals
Out-of-step relaying
Single-pole tripping
Series-compensated lines
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June 14, 2016

Transmission Lines
A Vital Part of the Power System:
Provide path to transfer power between generation
and load
Operate at voltage levels from 69kV to 765kV
Deregulated markets, economic, environmental
requirements have pushed utilities to operate
transmission lines close to their limits.

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June 14, 2016

Transmission Lines
Classification of line length depends on:
Source-to-line Impedance Ratio (SIR),
and
Nominal voltage
Length considerations:
Short Lines: SIR > 4
Medium Lines: 0.5 < SIR < 4
Long Lines: SIR < 0.5
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June 14, 2016

Typical Protection Schemes


Short Lines

Current differential
Phase comparison
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip
(POTT)
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)

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June 14, 2016

Typical Protection Schemes


Medium Lines

Phase comparison
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Unblocking
Step Distance
Step or coordinated overcurrent
Inverse time overcurrent
Current Differential
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June 14, 2016

Typical Protection Schemes


Long Lines

Phase comparison
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Unblocking
Step Distance
Step or coordinated overcurrent
Current Differential
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June 14, 2016

What is distance protection?


Intended
REACH point
F1
Z

I*Z
V=I*ZF
I*Z V

RELAY (V,I)

For internal faults:


> IZ V and V approximately
in phase (mho)
> IZ V and IZ approximately
in phase (reactance)
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June 14, 2016

What is distance protection?


F2

Intended
REACH point

I*Z
V=I*ZF
I*Z V

RELAY (V,I)

For external faults:


> IZ V and V approximately
out of phase (mho)
> IZ V and IZ approximately
out of phase (reactance)
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June 14, 2016

What is distance protection?


Intended
REACH point

RELAY

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June 14, 2016

Source Impedance Ratio,


Accuracy & Speed
Relay
Lin
e

System

VR VN
Voltage at the relay:

f LOC [ PU ]
f LOC [ PU ] SIR

Consider SIR = 0.1


Fault
location

Voltag
e (%)

Voltage
change (%)

75%

88.24

2.76

90%

90.00

0.91

100%

90.91

N/A

110%

91.67

0.76
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June 14, 2016

Source Impedance Ratio,


Accuracy & Speed
Relay
System

Lin
e
VR VN
Voltage at the relay:

f LOC [ PU ]
f LOC [ PU ] SIR

Consider SIR = 30
Fault
location

Voltag
e (%)

Voltage
change (%)

75%

2.4390

0.7868

90%

2.9126

0.3132

100%

3.2258

N/A

110%

3.5370

0.3112
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June 14, 2016

Challenges in relay design

High Voltage Line

C1

30
20
voltage, V

> Transients:
High frequency
DC offset in currents
CVT transients in voltages

10
0

-10
3

-20
2

Secondary Voltage
Output

C2

steady-state
output

-30
0

CVT output

2
3
power cycles

4
8
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June 14, 2016

Challenges in relay design

High Voltage Line

C1

60
40
voltage, V

> Transients:
High frequency
DC offset in currents
CVT transients in voltages

steady-state
output

20
0

-20
3

CVT
output

-40
2

Secondary Voltage
Output

C2

-60
0

2
3
power cycles

4
8
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June 14, 2016

Challenges in relay design


80

vA

vB

100

vC

60

20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

-0.5

0.5

1.5

SPOL

Sorry Future (unknown

-50

-100

SOP
-0.5

0.5

1.5

power cycles

>In-phase = internal fault


>Out-of-phase = external fault

iB, iC

-1
-2
-3

50

iA

Current [A]

Voltage [V]

40

Reactance comparator [V]

100

-0.5

0.5

1.5

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June 14, 2016

Transient Overreach
Fault current generally contains dc
offset in addition to ac power frequency
component
Ratio of dc to ac component of current
depends on instant in the cycle at which
fault occurred
Rate of decay of dc offset depends on
system X/R
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June 14, 2016

Zone 1 and CVT Transients


Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs) create
certain problems for fast distance relays applied to
systems with high Source Impedance Ratios (SIRs):
> CVT-induced transient voltage components may
assume large magnitudes (up to 30-40%) and
last for a comparatively long time (up to about 2
cycles)
> 60Hz voltage for faults at the relay reach point
may be as low as 3% for a SIR of 30
> the signal may be buried under noise

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June 14, 2016

Zone 1 and CVT Transients


CVT transients can cause distance relays to
overreach. Generally, transient overreach may be
caused by:
> overestimation of the current (the magnitude of
the current as measured is larger than its actual
value, and consequently, the fault appears closer
than it is actually located),
> underestimation of the voltage (the magnitude of
the voltage as measured is lower than its actual
value)
> combination of the above

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June 14, 2016

Distance Element Fundamental

Z1

End Zone

XL

R
XC

15

15
34

Reactance[ohm]
[ohm]
Reactance

10

10

30
5

30

34

42

42

44

Actual
ActualFault
Fault
Location
Location

44

dynami
c mho
dynamic
mho
zone
extended
zone extended
forforhigh
highSIRs
SIRs

Line
Line
Impedance
Impedance
18

18
22

0
26

-5

-5

-10
-10

-5

-5

Resistance [ohm]
Resistance [ohm]

22

Trajectory
Trajectory
(msec)
(msec)

26

5
10
5
10
Impedance
locus
may
Impedance
locus
maypass
pass
below
belowthe
theorigin
originof
ofthe
theZ-plane
Z-plane-this
thiswould
wouldcall
callfor
foraatime
timedelay
delay
to
toobtain
obtainstability
stability
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June 14, 2016

CVT Transient Overreach


Solutions

>apply delay (fixed or adaptable)


>reduce the reach
>adaptive techniques and better filtering
algorithms

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June 14, 2016

CVT Transients Adaptive


Solution

> Optimize signal filtering:


currents - max 3% error due to the dc
component
voltages - max 0.6% error due to CVT transients
> Adaptive double-reach approach
filtering alone ensures maximum transient
overreach at the level of 1% (for SIRs up to 5)
and 20% (for SIRs up to 30)
to reduce the transient overreach even further
an adaptive double-reach zone 1 has been
implemented

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June 14, 2016

CVT Transients Adaptive


Solution
The outer zone 1:
> is fixed at the actual reach
> applies certain security delay to cope with CVT
transients
The inner zone 1:

> has its reach


dynamically controlled
by the voltage
magnitude
> is instantaneous

X
Delayed
Trip

Instantaneous
Trip

R
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June 14, 2016

Desirable Distance Relay


Attributes
Filters:
> Prefiltering of currents to remove dc decaying
transients
Limit maximum transient overshoot (below 2%)
> Prefiltering of voltages to remove low frequency
transients caused by CVTs
Limit transient overreach to less than 5% for an
SIR of 30
> Accurate and fast frequency tracking algorithm
> Adaptive reach control for faults at reach points

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June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Operating


Times

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June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Operating


Times
35ms
25ms

30ms

20ms

15ms

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June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Operating


Times
SLG faults

LL faults

3P faults

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June 14, 2016

Actual
Actualmaximum
maximumreach
reachcurves
curves
100
100

Relay 4

90
90

Relay 3

MaximumRach
Rach[%]
[%]
Maximum

80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40

Relay 2

30
30
20
20

Relay 1

10
10
00
00

55

10
10

15
15
SIR
SIR

20
20

25
25

30
30

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June 14, 2016

Maximum Torque Angle


Angle at which mho element has
maximum reach
Characteristics with smaller MTA will
accommodate larger amount of arc
resistance

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June 14, 2016

Mho Characteristics
Traditional

Directional
angle
slammed

Directional
angle lowered
and
slammed

Both MHO and


directional
angles
slammed
(lens)
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June 14, 2016

Load Swings
+XL

Reac
h

+ = LOOKING INTO
LINE normally
considered forward

Load
Trajectory
Operate
area

+R

No Operate
area
Typical load
characteristic
impedance
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June 14, 2016

Load Swings

Lenticular
Characterist
ic
Load swing

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June 14, 2016

Load Encroachment
Characteristic

The load encroachment element responds to


positive sequence voltage and current and can
be used to block phase distance and phase
overcurrent elements.

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June 14, 2016

Blinders
Blinders limit the operation of distance
relays (quad or mho) to a narrow region
that parallels and encompasses the
protected line
Applied to long transmission lines,
where mho settings are large enough to
pick up on maximum load or minor
system swings
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June 14, 2016

Quadrilateral Characteristics

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June 14, 2016

Quadrilateral Characteristics

Ground Resistance
(Conductor falls on ground)
Resultant impedance outside of
the mho operating region

XL

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June 14, 2016

Distance Characteristics Summary


Mho
Lenticula
Quadrilat
r

JX

eral

R
Standard for
phase elements

Used for phase


elements with long
heavily loaded lines
heavily loaded

Better coverage
for ground faults
due to
resistance
added to return
path

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June 14, 2016

Distance Element
Polarization
The following polarization quantities are
commonly used in distance relays for
determining directionality:
Self-polarized
Memory voltage
Positive sequence voltage
Quadrature voltage
Leading phase voltage
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June 14, 2016

Memory Polarization
> Positive-sequence memorized voltage is used for
polarizing:
Mho comparator (dynamic, expanding Mho)
Negative-sequence directional comparator (Ground
Distance Mho and Quad)
Zero-sequence directional comparator (Ground
Distance MHO and QUAD)
Directional comparator (Phase Distance MHO and
QUAD)
> Memory duration is a common distance settings (all
zones, phase and ground, MHO and QUAD)

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June 14, 2016

Memory Polarization
jX
ZL

Static MHO characteristic (memory not


established or expired)

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a rever

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a forw

Impedance During Close-up Faults

R
ZS
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June 14, 2016

Memory Polarization
jX
ZL

Static MHO characteristic (memory not


established or expired)

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a forwa

RL
R
ZS

Memory PolarizationImproved Resistive


Coverage

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June 14, 2016

Choice of Polarization
In order to provide flexibility modern
distance relays offer a choice with
respect to polarization of ground
overcurrent direction functions:
Voltage polarization
Current polarization
Dual polarization
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June 14, 2016

Ground Directional Elements


> Pilot-aided schemes using ground mho distance relays
have inherently limited fault resistance coverage
> Ground directional over current protection using either
negative or zero sequence can be a useful supplement to
give more coverage for high resistance faults
> Directional discrimination based on the ground quantities
is fast:
Accurate angular relations between the zero and
negative sequence quantities establish very quickly
because:
During faults zero and negative-sequence currents
and voltages build up from very low values
(practically from zero)
The pre-fault values do not bias the developing
fault components in any direction
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June 14, 2016

Distance Schemes
Pilot Aided
Schemes

Non-Pilot Aided
Schemes
(Step Distance)

Communication
between Distance
relays

No Communication
between Distance
Relays
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June 14, 2016

Step Distance Schemes


Zone 1:
Trips with no intentional time delay
Underreaches to avoid unnecessary operation for faults beyond
remote terminal
Typical reach setting range 80-90% of Z L
Zone 2:
Set to protect remainder of line
Overreaches into adjacent line/equipment
Minimum reach setting 120% of ZL
Typically time delayed by 15-30 cycles
Zone 3:
Remote backup for relay/station failures at remote terminal
Reaches beyond Z2, load encroachment a consideration

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June 14, 2016

Step Distance Schemes


Local

BU
S

BU
S

Z1

Z1
Remot
e
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June 14, 2016

Step Distance Schemes


Local
End
Zone

End
Zone

BU
S

BU
S

Z1

Z1
Remot
e
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June 14, 2016

Step Distance Schemes


Local

Breake
r
Closed

Breake
r
Trippe
d

BU
S

BU
S

Z1

Z1
Remot
e
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June 14, 2016

Step Distance Schemes


Local

Z2 (time
delayed)

BU
S

BU
S

Z1

Z1
Z2 (time
delayed)
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Remot
June 14, 2016

Step Distance Schemes

Z3 (remote
backup)
Z2 (time
delayed)

BU
S

BU
S

Z1

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June 14, 2016

Step Distance Protection

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June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Coordination


Over Lap
Local Relay Z2

Remote Relay Z4

Local Relay

Remote Relay

Zone 2 PKP

Zone 4 PKP

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June 14, 2016

BU
S

BU
S

Need For Pilot Aided Schemes

Local
Relay

Remote
Relay
Communication
Channel
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June 14, 2016

Pilot Communications
Channels

Distance-based pilot schemes traditionally utilize


simple on/off communications between relays, but can
also utilize peer-to-peer communications and GOOSE
messaging over digital channels
Typical communications media include:
Pilot-wire (50Hz, 60Hz, AT)
Power line carrier
Microwave
Radio
Optic fiber (directly connected or multiplexed
channels)

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June 14, 2016

Distance-based Pilot
Protection

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June 14, 2016

Pilot-Aided Distance-Based Schem


DUTT Direct Under-reaching Transfer
Trip
PUTT Permissive Under-reaching
Transfer Trip
POTT Permissive Over-reaching
Transfer Trip
Hybrid POTT Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip
DCB Directional Comparison Blocking
Scheme
DCUB Directional Comparison
Unblocking Scheme

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June 14, 2016

Direct Underreaching
Transfer Trip (DUTT)
Requires only underreaching (RU) functions which
overlap in reach (Zone 1).
Applied with FSK channel
GUARD frequency transmitted during normal
conditions
TRIP frequency when one RU function operates
Scheme does not provide tripping for faults
beyond RU reach if remote breaker is open or
channel is inoperative.
Dual pilot channels improve security
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June 14, 2016

DUTT Scheme

Zone 1

Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

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June 14, 2016

Permissive Underreaching
Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Requires both under (RU) and
overreaching (RO) functions
Identical to DUTT, with pilot tripping
signal supervised by RO (Zone 2)

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June 14, 2016

PUTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

To protect end of
line
Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

Rx PKP
Zone 2

&

Local Trip

OR

Zone 1
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June 14, 2016

Permissive Overreaching
Transfer Trip (POTT)
Requires overreaching (RO) functions (Zone
2).
Applied with FSK channel:
GUARD frequency sent in stand-by
TRIP frequency when one RO function
operates
No trip for external faults if pilot channel is
inoperative
Time-delayed tripping can be provided
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June 14, 2016

POTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1
Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

(Z1)

Tx

Zone 1

(Z1)

OR

Rx
AND

Zone 2

Trip
Line
Breakers

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June 14, 2016

POTT Scheme
POTT Permissive Over-reaching
Transfer Trip

BU
S

BU
S

End
Zone

Communication
Channel

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June 14, 2016

POTT Scheme
Local

Local
Relay FWD
IGND
Local Relay Z2

Remote
Relay
FWD IGND

Remote Relay Z2
Communicat
ion Channel

TRIP

POTT RX

Local

Relay 2 PKP
ZONE
OR
Ground Dir OC
Fwd

POTT TX

ZONE 2
PKP
OR

Remote
Relay

Ground Dir OC Fwd

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June 14, 2016

POTT Scheme

POTT RX 2
POTT RX 3
POTT RX 4

Local Relay

Communications
Channel(s)

POTT RX 1

POTT TX 1 A to G
POTT TX 2 B to G
POTT TX 3 C to G
POTT TX 4 Multi Phase

Remote Relay

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June 14, 2016

POTT Scheme
Current reversal example
TRIP

Local Relay

GND
GNDDIR
DIROC
OCFWD
REV

Timer
Start Communication
Timer
Expire
Channel
POTT RX

POTT TX

Remote Relay

ZONE
2 OC
ORREV
GND
DIR
GND DIR OC FWD

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June 14, 2016

POTT Scheme
Echo example
Remote FWD
IGND

Open

Remote Z2

OPEN

Communication
Channel

POTT RX

Local Relay

POTT TX

TRIP

POTT TX

POTT RX

Communication
Channel

Remote Relay
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June 14, 2016

Hybrid POTT
Intended for three-terminal lines and
weak infeed conditions
Echo feature adds security during weak
infeed conditions
Reverse-looking distance and oc
elements used to identify external faults

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June 14, 2016

Hybrid POTT
Zone 2

Zone 1
Remote

Local
Weak
system

Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 4

Zone 2

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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)
Requires overreaching (RO) tripping and blocking
(B) functions
ON/OFF pilot channel typically used (i.e., PLC)
Transmitter is keyed to ON state when
blocking function(s) operate
Receipt of signal from remote end blocks
tripping relays
Tripping function set with Zone 2 reach or greater
Blocking functions include Zone 3 reverse and
low-set ground overcurrent elements
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June 14, 2016

DCB Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1
Remote

Local
Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)

BUS

BUS

End Zone

Communication Channel

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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)
Internal FaultsLocal Relay Z2

FWD IGND

TRIP Timer
Start
Expired

TRIP

Zone 2 PKP
OR

NO

Local Relay GND DIR OC Fwd

Dir Block RX

Remote Relay
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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)
External FaultsLocal Relay Z2

FWD IGND
TRIP Timer
Start

Remote Relay Z4
REV IGND

No TRIP
Dir Block RX

Local Relay

Zone 2 PKP
OR

DIR BLOCK TX

Communication
Channel

GND DIR OC Fwd

Zone 4 PKP

Remote Relay

OR

GND DIR OC Rev

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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Applied to Permissive Overreaching (POR)
schemes to overcome the possibility of carrier signal
attenuation or loss as a result of the fault
Unblocking provided in the receiver when signal is
lost:
If signal is lost due to fault, at least one
permissive RO functions will be picked up
Unblocking logic produces short-duration TRIP
signal (150-300 ms). If RO function not picked
up, channel lockout occurs until GUARD signal
returns
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June 14, 2016

DCUB Scheme
Forward

Bus

Bus
Line

Forward

(Un-Block)

(Block)

Trip
Line
Breakers

Tx1

Tx2

Forward

(Block)

Rx2

AND
AND

(Un-Block)

AND
o

AND

Rx1

Lockout

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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)

BUS

BUS

End Zone

Communication Channel

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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Normal conditions

Load Current

FSK Carrier
GUARD1 RX

FSK Carrier
GUARD1 TX

Local Relay
NO Loss of Guard
NO Permission

GUARD2 TX

Communication
Channel

GUARD2 RX

Remote Relay
NO Loss of Guard
NO Permission
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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Normal conditions, channel failure

Load Current

Loss of Channel
FSK Carrier
GUARD1
NO
RX RX

FSK Carrier
GUARD1 TX

Local Relay
Loss of Guard
Block Timer Started
Expired

Block DCUB
until Guard OK

GUARD2 TX

Communication
Channel

GUARD2
NO
RX RX

Remote Relay

Loss of Guard

Block Timer Expired


Started

Block DCUB 79 /
GE /
until Guard
OK
June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Internal fault, healthy
Local Relay channel
Z2

Remote Relay Z2

TRIP

TRIP Z1

FSK Carrier

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP
Loss of Guard
Permission

FSK Carrier

GUARD1
TRIP1
RXRX

GUARD1
TRIP1 TX
TX

GUARD2
TRIP2
TX TX

GUARD2
TRIP2
RXRX

Communication
Channel

Remote Relay
ZONE 2 PKP
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June 14, 2016

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Internal fault, channel
failure
Local Relay Z2

Remote Relay Z2
Loss of Channel

TRIP
FSK Carrier

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP

TRIP Z1
FSK Carrier

GUARD1
NO
RX RX

GUARD1
TRIP1 TX
TX

GUARD2
TRIP2
TX TX

GUARD2
NO
RX RX

Loss of Guard
Block Timer Started
Duration Timer Started
Expired

Remote Relay
ZONE 2 PKP
Loss of Guard

Communication
Channel

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June 14, 2016

Redundancy Considerations
Redundant protection systems increase dependability of

the system:
Multiple sets of protection using same protection
principle and multiple pilot channels overcome individual
element failure, or
Multiple sets of protection using different protection
principles and multiple channels protects against failure
of one of the protection methods.
Security can be improved using voting schemes (i.e., 2out-of-3), potentially at expense of dependability.
Redundancy of instrument transformers, battery systems,
trip coil circuits, etc. also need to be considered.

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June 14, 2016

Redundant Communications

BUS

BUS

End Zone

AND Channels:
POTT Less Reliable
DCB Less Secure

OR Channels:
Communication Channel 1
Communication Channel 2

More Channel Security

POTT More Reliable


DCB More Secure
More Channel Dependability

Loss of Channel 2

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June 14, 2016

Redundant Pilot Schemes

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June 14, 2016

Pilot Relay Desirable


Attributes

Integrated functions:
weak infeed
echo
line pick-up (SOTF)
Basic protection elements used to key the
communication:
distance elements
fast and sensitive ground (zero and
negative sequence) directional IOCs with
current, voltage, and/or dual polarization

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June 14, 2016

Pilot Relay Desirable


Attributes
Pre-programmed distance-based pilot schemes:
Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip (DUTT)
Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (POTT)
Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (HYB
POTT)
Blocking scheme (DCB)
Unblocking scheme (DCUB)

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June 14, 2016

Security for dual-breaker


terminals

Breaker-and-a-half and ring bus terminals are


common designs for transmission lines.
Standard practice has been to:
sum currents from each circuit breaker
externally by paralleling the CTs
use external sum as the line current for
protective relays
For some close-in external fault events, poor
CT performance may lead to improper operation
of line relays.
87 /
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June 14, 2016

Security for dual-breaker


terminals

Accurate CTs preserve the


reverse current direction
under weak remote infeed

88 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Security for dual-breaker


terminals

Saturation of CT1 may


invert the line current as
measured from
externally summated
CTs

89 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Security for dual-breaker


terminals
Direct measurement of
currents from both circuit
breakers allows the use of
supervisory logic to prevent
distance and directional
overcurrent elements from
operating incorrectly due to
CT errors during reverse
faults.
Additional benefits of direct
measurement of currents:
independent BF
protection for each circuit
breaker
independent
90 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Security for dual-breaker


Supervisory logic should:
terminals

not affect speed or sensitivity of protection elements


correctly allow tripping during evolving external-tointernal fault conditions
determine direction of current flow through each
breaker independently:
Both currents in FWD direction internal fault
One current FWD, one current REV external fault
allow tripping during all forward/internal faults
block tripping during all reverse/external faults
initially block tripping during evolving external-tointernal faults until second fault appears in forward
direction. Block is then lifted to permit tripping.
91 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Single-pole Tripping
Distance relay must correctly identify a
SLG fault and trip only the circuit breaker
pole for the faulted phase.
Autoreclosing and breaker failure functions
must be initiated correctly on the fault event
Security must be maintained on the
healthy phases during the open pole
condition and any reclosing attempt.
92 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Out-of-Step Condition
For certain operating conditions, a
severe system disturbance can cause
system instability and result in loss of
synchronism between different
generating units on an interconnected
system.

93 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Out-of-Step Relaying
Out-of-step blocking relays
Operate in conjunction with mho tripping relays to
prevent a terminal from tripping during severe
system swings & out-of-step conditions.
Prevent system from separating in an indiscriminate
manner.
Out-of-step tripping relays
Operate independently of other devices to detect outof-step condition during the first pole slip.
Initiate tripping of breakers that separate system in
order to balance load with available generation on
any isolated part of the system.

94 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Out-of-Step Tripping
When the inner
characteristic is
entered the
element is ready
to trip

The locus must


stay for some
time between the
outer and middle
characteristics

Must move and


stay between the
middle and inner
characteristics

95 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Power Swing Blocking


Applications:
> Establish a blocking signal for stable power swings
(Power Swing Blocking)
> Establish a tripping signal for unstable power swings
(Out-of-Step Tripping)
Responds to:
> Positive-sequence voltage and current

96 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
Benefits of series capacitors:
Reduction of overall XL of long lines
Improvement of stability margins
Ability to adjust line load levels
Loss reduction
Reduction of voltage drop during severe
disturbances
Normally economical for line lengths > 200 miles
E

Xs

SC

XL

Infinte
Bus

97 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
SCs create unfavorable conditions for protective
relays and fault locators:
Overreaching of distance elements
Failure of distance element to pick up on lowcurrent faults
Phase selection problems in single-pole tripping
applications
Large fault location errors
E

Xs

SC

XL

Infinte
Bus

98 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
Series Capacitor with MOV

99 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines

100 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control

101 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for External Faults

102 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for External Faults

103 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for Internal Faults

104 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Distance Protection Looking


Through a Transformer
Phase distance elements can be set to see
beyond any 3-phase power transformer
CTs & VTs may be located independently on
different sides of the transformer
Given distance zone is defined by VT location
(not CTs)
Reach setting is in sec, and must take into
account location & ratios of VTs, CTs and
voltage ratio of the involved power transformer
105 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Transformer Group
Compensation

Depending on location of VTs and CTs, distance relays


need to compensate for the phase shift and magnitude
106 /
change caused by the power transformer
GE /
June 14, 2016

Setting Rules
Transformer positive sequence impedance must
be included in reach setting only if transformer lies
between VTs and intended reach point
Currents require compensation only if transformer
located between CTs and intended reach point
Voltages require compensation only if transformer
located between VTs and intended reach point
Compensation set based on transformer
connection & vector group as seen from CTs/VTs
toward reach point

107 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Desirable


Attributes
> Multiple reversible distance zones
> Individual per-zone, per-element characteristic:
Dynamic voltage memory polarization
Various characteristics, including mho, quad, lenticular
> Individual per-zone, per-element current supervision (FD)
> Multi-input phase comparator:
additional ground directional supervision
dynamic reactance supervision
> Transient overreach filtering/control
> Phase shift & magnitude compensation for distance
applications with power transformers

108 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Desirable


Attributes
> For improved flexibility, it is desirable to have the
following parameters settable on a per zone basis:
Zero-sequence compensation
Mutual zero-sequence compensation
Maximum torque angle
Blinders
Directional angle
Comparator limit angles (for lenticular
characteristic)
Overcurrent supervision

109 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

Distance Relay Desirable


Attributes
> Additional functions
Overcurrent elements (phase, neutral, ground,
directional, negative sequence, etc.)
Breaker failure
Automatic reclosing (single & three-pole)
Sync check
Under/over voltage elements
> Special functions
Power swing detection
Load encroachment
Pilot schemes

110 /
GE /
June 14, 2016

111 /
GE /
June 14, 2016