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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

Berk

Chapter 1
History, Theory, and
Research Strategies

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

Developmental Science
The study of constancy
and change throughout
the lifespan

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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

Basic Issues
in Development
 Continuous or discontinuous?
 One course of development or many?
 Relative influence of nature and
nurture?

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1 .Basic Issues: Continuous or Discontinuous Figure 1.

2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Berk Contexts of Development Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances can result in different paths of change © xanirakx/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. 2011.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. . Inc.

2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Inc. 2011.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Nurture Nature  Hereditary information  notes Nurture  Physical and social forces  notes Copyright © 2014. . Berk Basic Issues Nature vs.

Inc. 2011. . interacting forces © Intellistudies/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. All Rights Reserved.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Lifespan Perspective Development is  lifelong  multidimensional and multidirectional  highly plastic  influenced by multiple. 2008 by Pearson Education.

. 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Inc. 2011. Berk Stability and Plasticity Stability  notes Plasticity  notes Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

Berk Periods of Development Prenatal Conception to birth Infancy and toddlerhood Birth–2 years Early childhood 2–6 years Middle childhood 6–11 years Adolescence 11–18 years Early adulthood 18–40 years Middle adulthood 40–65 years Late adulthood 65 years–death Copyright © 2014. . All Rights Reserved. 2008 by Pearson Education. Inc. 2011.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

Inc. 2008 by Pearson Education.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. . 2011.2 Copyright © 2014. Berk Major Domains of Development Figure 1. All Rights Reserved.

. 2011. All Rights Reserved.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Inc. Berk Influences on Development Multiple. interacting forces: Age-graded History-graded Nonnormative © auremar/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. 2008 by Pearson Education.

. 2011. All Rights Reserved. Inc.3 Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. 2008 by Pearson Education. Berk Lifespan View of Development Figure 1.

Berk Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud and Erikson  notes  Differences between the two theories? © szefei/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. All Rights Reserved. . 2008 by Pearson Education. 2011. Inc.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

inferiority 6–11 years Identity vs. mistrust Birth–1 year Autonomy vs. role confusion Adolescence Intimacy vs. shame/doubt 1–3 years Initiative vs. guilt 3–6 years Industry vs. isolation Early adulthood Generativity vs. 2011. 2008 by Pearson Education. Inc. despair Late adulthood Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. stagnation Middle adulthood Integrity vs. . Berk Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Basic trust vs. All Rights Reserved.

2011. Berk Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Classical conditioning Stimulus–response Operant conditioning Reinforcers and punishments Social learning theory Social-cognitive approach Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. . All Rights Reserved. 2008 by Pearson Education. Inc.

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Inc. 2011. Berk Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory  Contributions:  notes  Limitations:  notes Copyright © 2014. . 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved.

.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. 2008 by Pearson Education.  Mental structures adapt to better fit with environment.  Development moves through four broad stages. Copyright © 2014. Inc. Berk Piaget’s CognitiveDevelopmental Theory  Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and exploring their world. All Rights Reserved. 2011.

Inc. 2011. . 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Berk Piaget’s Stages     Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational © Odua Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

. Berk Information Processing  View of the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system  Development as a continuous process  Use of rigorous research methods  Little insight into creativity or imagination Copyright © 2014. 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. 2011. Inc.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

4 .Information-Processing Flowchart Figure 1.

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. All Rights Reserved. 2008 by Pearson Education. 2011. Inc. Berk Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  Relationship of brain changes to cognitive processing and behavior patterns  notes Copyright © 2014. .

. Berk Ethology  Adaptive value and evolutionary history of behavior  Acquisition of adaptive behaviors:  critical period  sensitive period © Nick Biemans/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. 2011. 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Inc.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Berk Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory  Transmission to the next generation of a culture’s     values beliefs customs skills  notes © Andresr/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. Inc. 2011. .Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

2011. 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. . Inc. Berk Ecological Systems Theory Figure 1.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.5 Copyright © 2014.

All Rights Reserved. Berk Ecological Systems Theory  Layers of the environment:     microsystem mesosystem exosystem macrosystem © Zurijeta/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Inc. 2008 by Pearson Education. 2011. .

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. or case study. Berk Common Research Methods  Systematic observation:  notes  Self-reports:  notes  Clinical. All Rights Reserved. method Copyright © 2014. 2008 by Pearson Education. Inc. 2011. .

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. 2008 by Pearson Education. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Berk Systematic Observation Naturalistic Observation Structured Observation notes notes Copyright © 2014. . 2011.

Berk Self-Reports Clinical Interview Structured Interview notes notes Copyright © 2014.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. 2011. All Rights Reserved. Inc. 2008 by Pearson Education. .

Berk General Research Designs Correlational Experimental  Reveals relationships between participants’ characteristics and behavior  notes  Participants randomly assigned to treatment conditions  notes Copyright © 2014. Inc.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. 2011. All Rights Reserved. . 2008 by Pearson Education.

Berk Experimental Design Independent Variable Dependent Variable Manipulated by experimenter notes Measured. by experimenter notes Copyright © 2014. All Rights Reserved. 2008 by Pearson Education.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. 2011. . but not manipulated. Inc.

Berk Random Assignment  Unbiased procedure used to assign participants to treatment conditions  Increases chances that characteristics will be equally distributed across conditions © iofoto/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. All Rights Reserved. 2011. 2008 by Pearson Education.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. . Inc.

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Modified Experiments Field Experiment Conducted in natural settings notes Natural/QuasiExperiment Compares existing differences in treatment notes Copyright © 2014. . Inc. 2008 by Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. 2011.

Berk Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal Same group studied at different times Cross-sectional Different groups studied at the same time Sequential Compares similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (sequences) Copyright © 2014. . All Rights Reserved. Inc. 2011. 2008 by Pearson Education.Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E.

Research Methods .

Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. . All Rights Reserved. Inc. 2008 by Pearson Education. Berk Problems in Conducting Longitudinal Research  Participant dropout  Practice effects  Cohort effects © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014. 2011.

Problem in Conducting Cross-Sectional Research  Not intra-individual development  Cohort effects .