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Magnets

North and South poles of a magnet are the ends

where objects are most strongly attracted

Like poles repel each other and unlike poles

attract each other

Magnetic poles cannot be isolated

o If a permanent magnetic is cut in half repeatedly, you will still

have a north and a south pole

Electrons have spin

o The electrons spin like tops

opposite spins, so their fields

cancel each other

o Why most materials are not

naturally magnetic

do not naturally cancel

o Called ferromagnetic

Domains

are called domains

Random alignment (a) shows an unmagnetized material

An external field is applied, the amount of domains

aligned with B grow (b)

(a)

(b)

Magnetic Fields

A vector quantity (magnitude & direction)

Symbolized by B

A compass can be used to show the direction of the

magnetic field lines (a)

A sketch of the magnetic field lines (b)

Bar

Magnet

Unlike

Poles

Like

Poles

The Earths geographic

north pole corresponds to

a magnetic south pole

o Just north of Hudson Bay in

Canada

south pole corresponds

to a magnetic north pole

Magnetic Field/Force

When moving through a magnetic field, a

force

oThis force has a maximum value when the

charge moves perpendicularly to the magnetic

field lines

oF=qvBsin

The SI unit of magnetic field is the Tesla

(T)

T= Wb = N

= N

m2 C*(m/s) A*m

Wb is a Weber

o1 T = 104 G

Magnetic Fields

Long Straight Wire

A current-carrying wire produces a

magnetic field

The compass needle deflects in

directions tangent to the circle

o The compass needle points in the

direction of the magnetic field produced

by the current

B=o I

2R

o = 4 x 10-7 T.m / A

o o is called the permeability of free

Straight Wire

Right Hand Rule #1

o Grasp the wire in your

right hand

o Point your thumb in the

o Your fingers will curl in

Loop

The strength of a magnetic field

enhanced by forming the wire

into a loop

2nd Right Hand Rule

o Fingers wrap around the loop in

direction of the current

North Pole of the magnet

Loop Equation

The magnitude of the magnetic field at the

center of a circular loop with a radius R

and carrying current I is

B=o I

2R

With N loops in the coil, this becomes

B= N o I

2R

(Coil of Wire)

The field inside the solenoid is nearly

uniform and strong

o The exterior field is nonuniform, weaker,

and the opposite direction to the field

inside

resemble those of a bar magnet

Magnetic Field in a Solenoid

o B = o n I

n is the number of turns per unit length

n = N / (number of loops / meter)

Carrying Conductor

A force is exerted on a current-

field

3rd Right Hand Rule

o Place your fingers in the direction of B

o Your Thumb points in the direction that

the positive charge is moving, v

force, F , on a positive charge

Force on a Wire

3rd right hand rule

o B is into the page (fingers)

o The current is up the page (thumb)

o The force is to the left (palm)

F = B I sin

o is the angle between B and the

direction of I

rule, placing your fingers in the direction

of I instead of v

a Magnetic Field

A particle moving in a magnetic

field so that its velocity is

perpendicular to the field

The magnetic force causes a

centripetal acceleration, changing

the direction of the velocity of the

particle

F = qvB = mv2

r

Parallel Conductors

The force on wire 1 is due to

magnetic field produced by

wire 2

The force per unit length is:

B=o I2

2R

F = B I1 sin

Conductors, cont

Parallel conductors carrying currents in

Parallel conductors carrying currents in

Conventional laboratory magnets

o 25000 G or 2.5 T

Superconducting magnets

o 300000 G or 30 T

o 0.5 G or 5 x 10-5 T

Problems

30.14 An ion (q= +2e) enters a magnetic field of 1.2 Wb/m2 at a velocity of 2.5 x

105 m/s perpendicular to the field. Determine the force on the ion. Ans. 9.6 x 10 -14

N

30.15 Calculate the speed of ions that pass undeflected through crossed E and B

fields for which E = 7.7 kV/m and B = 0.14 T. Am. 55 km/s

30.18 An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 3750

V. It enters a region where B = 4.0 x 10-3 T perpendicular to its velocity. Calculate

the radius of the path it will follow. Ans. 5.2 cm

31.11 Compute the flux density in air at a point 6.0 cm froth a long straight wire

carrying a current of 9.0 A. Ans. 30T

Problems

31.12 A closely wound, fiat, circular coil of 25 turns of wire has a

diameter of 10 cm and carries a current of 4.0 A. Determine the value of

B at its center. Ans. 1.3 x 10-3 Wb/m2

Compute B in its interior when a current of 0.25 A exists in the winding.

Ans. 2.5 mT

31.15 Two long parallel wires are 4 cm apart and carry currents of 2 A

and 6 A in the same direction. Compute the force between the wires per

meter of wire length. Ans. 6 x l0-5 N/m, attraction

Problems

31.16 Two long fixed parallel wires, A and B, are 10 cm apart in air and carry 40 A and 20 A

respectively, in opposite directions. Determine the resultant field (a) on a line midway

between the wires and parallel to them and (b) on a line 8.0 cm from wire A and 18 cm from

wire B. (c) What is the force per meter on a third long wire, midway between A and B and in

their plane, when it carries a current of 5.0 A in the same direction as the current in A? Ans.

(a) 2.4 x10-4 T; (b) 7.8 x10-5 T; (c) 1.2 x10-3 N/m, toward A

31.18 A certain electromagnet consists of a solenoid (5.0 cm long with 200 loops) wound on

a soft-iron core that intensifies the field 130 times. (We say that the relative permeability of

the iron is 130.) Find B within the iron when the current in the solenoid is 0.30 A. Ans. 0.20 T

30.21 A straight wire 15 cm long, carrying a current of 6.0 A, is in a uniform field of 0.40 T.

What is the force on the wire when it is (a) at right angles to the field and (b) at 30 to the

field? Ans. (a) 0.36 N; (b) 0.18 N

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