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North and South poles of a magnet are the ends
where objects are most strongly attracted
Like poles repel each other and unlike poles
attract each other
Magnetic poles cannot be isolated
o If a permanent magnetic is cut in half repeatedly, you will still
have a north and a south pole

Magnetic Effects of Electrons

Electrons have spin
o The electrons spin like tops

Electrons usually pair up with

opposite spins, so their fields
cancel each other
o Why most materials are not
naturally magnetic

In some materials, the spins

do not naturally cancel
o Called ferromagnetic


Large groups of atoms in which the spins are aligned

are called domains
Random alignment (a) shows an unmagnetized material
An external field is applied, the amount of domains
aligned with B grow (b)



Magnetic Fields
A vector quantity (magnitude & direction)
Symbolized by B
A compass can be used to show the direction of the
magnetic field lines (a)
A sketch of the magnetic field lines (b)

Magnetic Field Lines




Earths Magnetic Field

The Earths geographic
north pole corresponds to
a magnetic south pole
o Just north of Hudson Bay in

The Earths geographic

south pole corresponds
to a magnetic north pole

Magnetic Field/Force
When moving through a magnetic field, a

charged particle experiences a magnetic

oThis force has a maximum value when the
charge moves perpendicularly to the magnetic
field lines

Units of Magnetic Field

The SI unit of magnetic field is the Tesla

T= Wb = N
= N
m2 C*(m/s) A*m
Wb is a Weber

The cgs unit is a Gauss (G)

o1 T = 104 G

Magnetic Fields
Long Straight Wire
A current-carrying wire produces a
magnetic field
The compass needle deflects in
directions tangent to the circle
o The compass needle points in the
direction of the magnetic field produced
by the current

B=o I

o = 4 x 10-7 T.m / A
o o is called the permeability of free

Direction of the Field of a Long

Straight Wire
Right Hand Rule #1
o Grasp the wire in your

right hand
o Point your thumb in the

direction of the current

o Your fingers will curl in

the direction of the field

Magnetic Field of a Current

The strength of a magnetic field

produced by a wire can be

enhanced by forming the wire
into a loop
2nd Right Hand Rule
o Fingers wrap around the loop in
direction of the current

o Thumb points in the direct on of the

North Pole of the magnet

Magnetic Field of a Current

Loop Equation
The magnitude of the magnetic field at the
center of a circular loop with a radius R
and carrying current I is

B=o I
With N loops in the coil, this becomes

B= N o I

Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

(Coil of Wire)
The field inside the solenoid is nearly
uniform and strong
o The exterior field is nonuniform, weaker,
and the opposite direction to the field

The field lines of the solenoid

resemble those of a bar magnet
Magnetic Field in a Solenoid
o B = o n I
n is the number of turns per unit length
n = N / (number of loops / meter)

Magnetic Force on a Current

Carrying Conductor
A force is exerted on a current-

carrying wire placed in a magnetic

3rd Right Hand Rule
o Place your fingers in the direction of B
o Your Thumb points in the direction that
the positive charge is moving, v

o Your palm points in the direction of the

force, F , on a positive charge

Force on a Wire
3rd right hand rule
o B is into the page (fingers)
o The current is up the page (thumb)
o The force is to the left (palm)

F = B I sin
o is the angle between B and the
direction of I

o The direction is found by the right hand

rule, placing your fingers in the direction
of I instead of v

Force on a Charged Particle in

a Magnetic Field
A particle moving in a magnetic
field so that its velocity is
perpendicular to the field
The magnetic force causes a
centripetal acceleration, changing
the direction of the velocity of the

F = qvB = mv2

Magnetic Force Between Two

Parallel Conductors
The force on wire 1 is due to

the current in wire 1 and the

magnetic field produced by
wire 2
The force per unit length is:
B=o I2

F = B I1 sin

Force Between Two

Conductors, cont
Parallel conductors carrying currents in

the same direction attract each other

Parallel conductors carrying currents in

the opposite directions repel each other

A Few Typical B Values

Conventional laboratory magnets
o 25000 G or 2.5 T

Superconducting magnets
o 300000 G or 30 T

Earths magnetic field

o 0.5 G or 5 x 10-5 T

30.14 An ion (q= +2e) enters a magnetic field of 1.2 Wb/m2 at a velocity of 2.5 x
105 m/s perpendicular to the field. Determine the force on the ion. Ans. 9.6 x 10 -14
30.15 Calculate the speed of ions that pass undeflected through crossed E and B
fields for which E = 7.7 kV/m and B = 0.14 T. Am. 55 km/s
30.18 An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 3750
V. It enters a region where B = 4.0 x 10-3 T perpendicular to its velocity. Calculate
the radius of the path it will follow. Ans. 5.2 cm
31.11 Compute the flux density in air at a point 6.0 cm froth a long straight wire
carrying a current of 9.0 A. Ans. 30T

31.12 A closely wound, fiat, circular coil of 25 turns of wire has a
diameter of 10 cm and carries a current of 4.0 A. Determine the value of
B at its center. Ans. 1.3 x 10-3 Wb/m2

31.13 An air-core solenoid 50 cm long has 4000 loops wound on it.

Compute B in its interior when a current of 0.25 A exists in the winding.
Ans. 2.5 mT
31.15 Two long parallel wires are 4 cm apart and carry currents of 2 A
and 6 A in the same direction. Compute the force between the wires per
meter of wire length. Ans. 6 x l0-5 N/m, attraction

31.16 Two long fixed parallel wires, A and B, are 10 cm apart in air and carry 40 A and 20 A
respectively, in opposite directions. Determine the resultant field (a) on a line midway
between the wires and parallel to them and (b) on a line 8.0 cm from wire A and 18 cm from
wire B. (c) What is the force per meter on a third long wire, midway between A and B and in
their plane, when it carries a current of 5.0 A in the same direction as the current in A? Ans.
(a) 2.4 x10-4 T; (b) 7.8 x10-5 T; (c) 1.2 x10-3 N/m, toward A
31.18 A certain electromagnet consists of a solenoid (5.0 cm long with 200 loops) wound on
a soft-iron core that intensifies the field 130 times. (We say that the relative permeability of
the iron is 130.) Find B within the iron when the current in the solenoid is 0.30 A. Ans. 0.20 T
30.21 A straight wire 15 cm long, carrying a current of 6.0 A, is in a uniform field of 0.40 T.
What is the force on the wire when it is (a) at right angles to the field and (b) at 30 to the
field? Ans. (a) 0.36 N; (b) 0.18 N