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Various Types of Engine

Mech Efficiency
mech= BHP/IHP
Hence it caters for Loss of power in friction
Mech efficiency of an Engine depends upon: -
Design of Engine
Cooling Conditions
Method and quality of Lub
Accuracy used in MFR , fitting and assembly of
parts & their alignment as well.
Mech/Frictional Losses in an Engine

Part of IHP is consumed in terms of IHP

Frictional/Mech losses BHP


15 to 30% less
than IHP

Power needed to drive auxiliaries Resistance of Air to fly

Friction b/w cyl & piston ring Fuel pump wheel
Friction b/w gears Lub pump
Friction on acct of valves Water pump for Radiators etc
A/C Compressor
Volumetric Efficiency
A measure of Breathing capability of an Engine.
Greater is the mass of the charge inducted/ in hailed > Engine
power / Out put
This mean an engine must be able to take as much of charge / Air as

Range of Volumetric
For naturally aspirated Engine
SI - 80-85%
CI - 85-90%
For super charged / Turbo Charged Engines:
v - will be as close as 100%
Volumetric Efficiency (v)
Ratio of actual volume of Free Air inhailed during suction
stroke to the swept volume of the piston.
v = Volume of Air inhailed at STP
Swept volume of Piston @

Diff b/w Swept volume & Actual volume of charge admitted

at STP is due to Restriction at IV

@Actual Geometrical Configuration of Engine

v = Volume of Air inhailed actually during
suction stroke to the swept volume of piston.

Charge/Air fuel mix entering the Cyl depends upon


If V > (more) v will be lesser due to

excessive friction at inlet passage.
Hence a compromise is required to suit these two
Factors Contributing Reduction of v

Very high speed

Leakage past the piston

Obstacle at IV

Over heating of air through contacts with hot cylinder wall.

Too high clearance volume

Methods of Improving v
To cool incoming charge / fuel so that its density will not

By removing the restriction / obstacle encountered for the

flow of incoming charge.

By super charging / turbo charging.

Combustion Efficiency
comb = Heat Liberated
Theortical heat in the fuel

Amount of heat liberated < Theortical value

Why? Cal Value of Fuel

Incomplete Combustion
(Lack of oxygen)

Engine required Adjustment/Tunning

Properly well adjusted / Tunned Engine - comb (92% to 97%)

Scavenging Efficiency
A term somewhat similar to the purity & expresses as the
measure of success in clearing the Cyl from residual gases.
largely controls by:
Shape of Combustion chamber
Piston head shape
Scavenging arrangement provided in the
Engine. (Cross, hoop, uniflow etc)
Volumetric v
v = Mass of air inhailed per cyl per cycle
Mass of Air to occupy swept volume

v = Volume of ambient density (in) per cyl/cycle

Cyl swept volume

v = Va & N= N= 2x Stroke Engine

Vs N N= N/2 = 4x Stroke Engine
Va = volume flow rate of air with ambient Vs = Swept Volume