MICROPROCESSOR AND ITS APPLICATIONS (ECE-351

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Evolution of Microprocessor Or History of Microprocessor

It uses NMOS technology and was faster and compatible with TTL families. Many other companies also introduced 4-bit microprocessor such as PPS-4 by Rockwell International. In 1973. In 1972. . 4-bit Microcontrollers based on 4-bit microprocessors were widely used in Instrumentation. After this. intel introduced the first 8-bit Microprocessor-Intel 8008. The drawback of 8080 was that it required three power supplies. Intel 4004. The Microprocessor which uses PMOS technology were slow and not compatible with TTL circuit.Evolution of Microprocessor ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The first microprocessor. which was an enhanced version of Intel 4004. Intel developed an improved 4-bit Microprocessor-Intel 4040. Commercial Appliances. Intel introduced a more powerful 8-bit microprocessor-Intel 8080. a 4-bit microprocessor was introduced by Intel Corporation in 1971. The microprocessors developed so far uses PMOS technology. The NMOS technology also offers higher density than PMOS technology. toys. T3472 by Toshiba etc.

Zilog¶s Z80 and Z800. National Semiconductor¶s PACE and INS 8900. which requires only one +5V power supply. Intel introduced an improved 8-bit microprocessor-Intel 8085. 12-bit microprocessors have also been developed. Fairchild 9440. Intel 80286 Intel 8088. 68010 and 68012. It was an enhanced version of Intel 8080. zilog¶s Z8000. Some others 8-bit microprocessors are : Motorola¶s MC 6800 and MC 6809. MOS technology¶s 6500 series National Semiconductor¶s NSc 800 and Rockwell International¶s PPS-8 and RCA COSMAC (used CMOS technology) In 1978. Intel 80188. Some examples are : Intersile¶s IM6100.. Some others 16-bit microprocessors are : Intel 80186. Toshiba¶s T3190 etc. Intel introduced a 16-bit microprocessor-Intel 8086. . Motorola¶s 68000.‡ o o o o o o o o o In 1975. which became very popular and is still used in the laboratory for student training. Texas Instruments¶ TMS 9900 series and so on««.

Zilog¶s Z80000 etc. Intel and Motorola have also introduced 32-bit RISC microprocessors: Intel 80960. Pentium III.K7. Advanced Microdevices¶ (AMD¶s) K5. Some other 32-bit microprocessors are: Intel 486. 68030 and 68040. Motorola. Motorola 88100 etc. In short it is called Intel 386 microprocessor.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Intel 8088bwas very popular and was widely in cheaper personal computers :PC/XTs. Since 1980s. Intel 80286 was also very popular and was used in costlier and more powerful personal computers: PC/ATs. Intel introduced a more powerful 32-bit microprocessor: Intel 80386. Power PC603 and power PC 604. Intel 80186 and 80188 were not popular for general purpose computers. Pentium IV. 686 and 6x86MX. Inmos¶ T414 and T800. many 32-bit microprocessors have been introduced. Pentium. Intel introduced its first 32-bit microprocessor: iAPX432. Pentium Pro. Cyrix¶s 586. It became very popular and was widely used for desktop computers. . K6. IBM and Apple have jointly developed 32-bit RISC processors: Power PC601. In 1985. but were used for Industrial control. Motorola¶s 68020. National Semiconductors 32032. Motorola 68000 was very popular and was used in minicomputers. Pentium II. 32332 and 32C532. which did not become popular and was eventually discontinued.

Intel i860 (1989) was a 64. a 32-bit microprocessor (CISC) for embedded control applications. MIPs¶ R4000. Power PC 620. The Intel 80960 is used for embedded control applications. . 68030 and 68040 were very popular and were used to build minicomputers. Motorola¶s 68020. Earlier. Some examples are: SUN¶s ULTRASPARC. Pentium IV. After this 64-bit microprocessors have also been developed. R10000 and R12000. Dual Core. Intel PA 8000( jointly developed by Intel and Hewlett-Packard) etc. R5000. Pentium III. Now. but it did not become popular for general purpose computers.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Intel 486 was very popular and was widely used for Desktop computers. It was used for industrial Control Applications. Intel also developed 80376. Core 2 Duo and Quad core are used for desktop computers and servers.bit RISC microprocessor.

‡ Microprocessors of desired word length for specific applications have been developed using Modular technique. ‡ The Arithmetic and logic unit can be build in modules called BIT-SLICE ‡ A number of modules can be used to design and develop a CPU of desired word length. .

Microprocessors: CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocessor Data Bus Many chips on mother¶s board RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System .

Microprocessor Bus Architecture .

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Ports .

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