O.H.T.

L
Over Head Transmission line
XELECTRIC NETWORKS YCOMPARISON BETWEEN DC & AC
NETWORKS

ZTYPES OF CONDUCTOR
³CLASSIFICATION´

[STANDARDS AND CONSTRUCTION \SPECIFICATION

NETWORKS
Electric Networks

M Generation N Transmission O Distribution
Step up transformer T.L. G Step down transformer D.

M Generation ³Power station´
The electric power is generated by: 
    

Hydraulic power Thermal power Nuclear power Gas Source Sun Wind «

Mechanical Alternator

Prime mover ³Turbine´

NTransmission 
 

The generation stations (power plant )are away from consumption centers . The generated voltage is raised to high voltage ( 750 kV ) by step up transformer . The generated power should be transmitted through the Transmission Network line :
a. Overhead conductor for Medium voltage , High voltage and Extra high voltage (ACSR-AAAC-AACSR) b. Under ground Cables for Medium voltage , High voltage and Extra high voltage .

O Distribution 

To deliver power to the consumers the voltage is reduced to Low voltage 0.4 kV. Distribution Networks :
a. Overhead conductor in urban areas ( ACSR , AAC ) b. Underground cables inside town . 

Example Egypt
20 kV
Generation

220 kV or 500 kV
(depend on network) transmission

66 kV 22 kV ± 11 kV 380 V distribution

AC & DC Transmission 

DCAdvantages: 
      

Two wires No inductance - No capacitance Better voltage regulation Better efficiency No skin effect Less voltage drop Less losses No power factor

DC Transmission 

DC Disadvantage: 

Can not generated at high voltage DC No stepping up or stepping down Protective devices are complicated  

AC & DC Transmission 

AC Advantages: 
 

Generated at high voltage Stepping up and stepping down Protection devices are less complicated Three wires system Effect of skin Losses R, C, L (Losses). 

AC Disadvantage: 
  

Conclusion
XThere are two main applications for Dc transmission 


Connection between two grids which have two different frequencies. Point to point transmission ³Egypt ± Libya´

YAC transmission is cheaper than DC transmission.

Type of conductor ³Classification´ 

O.H.T.L. can be made of different types of materials: Copper and Aluminum
Copper Better tensile strength Better conduction Aluminum Cheaper Lighter

Specific weight of Copper 8.9 kg/m3 Specific weight of Aluminum 2.7 kg/m3
So 8.9/2.7 = 3.3 Aluminum is lighter 3 times than Copper

For economic wise we use aluminum conductor because of low price and light weight.

Different type for OHTL

O.H.T.L

.

Ground wire

AAC

AAAC

ACSR

AACSR

Hard Drawn Copper

ABC Cable

AAC (All Aluminum Conductor)
In Egypt H14
1. These conductors are formed by stranded aluminum wires . 2. All the wires have the same nominal diameter . 3. Main applications : 


Low Voltage lines Low span application (30-50mt)

span

Aluminum H14

Standards 

IEC International Electro-technical commission IEC 60889, IEC 61089 



BS EN 60889,

BS EN 50182

Resistivity at 20 0C 28.264 (61% IACS)
IACS: International Annealed Copper Standards 

 

Density

2.703 kg/dm3 23 * 10-6 1/C

Coefficient of linear expansion

Constant mass temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 0C = 0.00403 1/C

AAAC (All Aluminum Alloy Conductor) 
   

we add 0.5% si 0.6% mg Tensile strength will be approx. double of AAC Long span application Medium, high, extra high voltage line Electric conductivity is approx. 15% lower than AAC
span

AAAC

AAAC 

Standards 
 

IEC 60104 ± IEC 61089 BS EN 50183 ± BS EN 50182 ASTM 398
ASTM (American Society for Testing and material) 

Classification of AAAC 

According to IEC 60104 Type A and Type B Type A: higher tensile strength and lower conductivity than type B 

According to BS EN 50183: there are 6 types according to the country. Density at 20 0C 2.703 kg/dm3 Coefficient of linear expanse 23*10-6 1/C Constant-mass temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 0C 0.00361 1/C 

ACSR Aluminum conductor steel reinforced
1. These conductors are formed by stranded wires the core are made of galvanized steel and the external layer of aluminum . 2. Due to the greater diameter of the conductors electric losses by the by the corona effect are greatly reduced . 3. The diameter of steel and aluminum wires can be alike or different . 4. For large Span (320-350mt) and economical advantages in the installation of Over Head lines . 5. Layer of grease between Aluminum and steel wires . 6. Main Application : Medium , High and extra high voltage 7. Standard: IEC 60888 , 60889 & 61089 BS EN 50189 , BS EN 50182 

 

We use steel core to increase tensile strength Electrically: approximate no effect due to skin effect Why we use grease? 1- In case of 2 different material to avoid chemical reaction between the two material 2- To Avoid friction effect between 2 material due to different linear expansion 3- In case of the material to improve conductivity - Standards IEC 60889 IEC 60888 IEC 61089 BS EN 60889 -BS EN 50189 - BS EN 50182 ASTM 498 ASTM 232 

Classification of Steel 

According to IEC 60888: Regular, high strength, extra high strength According to BS EN 50189: 6 types of steel Density of steel 7.78 kg/dm3 Coefficient of linear expansion 11.5*10-6 1/C   

AACSR Aluminum Alloy Steel Reinforced 

We obtain the advantage of steel and AAAC

Hard Drawn Copper
³what is the different between hard drawn and soft drawn?´ 

Density 0.01777 Q;m Tensile strength 400:415 N/mm2 Standards 
  

DIN 48201 BS 7884

Steel Grease AAAC

ABC Cable (Arial Bundled cable)
Single - duplex ± triplex or Qandruplex 

Messenger Lighting Power  

OPGW ± Ground wire
Steel: Lightening current and short circuit OPGW: Optical Grounding Wire to transfer data  

SPECIFICATION 
   

State the type of conductor Standards Sizes Code name ³ASTM, BS´ Customer requirement

Prepared by Eng. Waleed Abdel Azeem

Approved by Eng. Mohamed Farrag

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful