Over Head Transmission line



Electric Networks

M Generation N Transmission O Distribution
Step up transformer T.L. G Step down transformer D.

M Generation ³Power station´
The electric power is generated by: 

Hydraulic power Thermal power Nuclear power Gas Source Sun Wind «

Mechanical Alternator

Prime mover ³Turbine´


The generation stations (power plant )are away from consumption centers . The generated voltage is raised to high voltage ( 750 kV ) by step up transformer . The generated power should be transmitted through the Transmission Network line :
a. Overhead conductor for Medium voltage , High voltage and Extra high voltage (ACSR-AAAC-AACSR) b. Under ground Cables for Medium voltage , High voltage and Extra high voltage .

O Distribution 

To deliver power to the consumers the voltage is reduced to Low voltage 0.4 kV. Distribution Networks :
a. Overhead conductor in urban areas ( ACSR , AAC ) b. Underground cables inside town . 

Example Egypt
20 kV

220 kV or 500 kV
(depend on network) transmission

66 kV 22 kV ± 11 kV 380 V distribution

AC & DC Transmission 


Two wires No inductance - No capacitance Better voltage regulation Better efficiency No skin effect Less voltage drop Less losses No power factor

DC Transmission 

DC Disadvantage: 

Can not generated at high voltage DC No stepping up or stepping down Protective devices are complicated  

AC & DC Transmission 

AC Advantages: 

Generated at high voltage Stepping up and stepping down Protection devices are less complicated Three wires system Effect of skin Losses R, C, L (Losses). 

AC Disadvantage: 

XThere are two main applications for Dc transmission 

Connection between two grids which have two different frequencies. Point to point transmission ³Egypt ± Libya´

YAC transmission is cheaper than DC transmission.

Type of conductor ³Classification´ 

O.H.T.L. can be made of different types of materials: Copper and Aluminum
Copper Better tensile strength Better conduction Aluminum Cheaper Lighter

Specific weight of Copper 8.9 kg/m3 Specific weight of Aluminum 2.7 kg/m3
So 8.9/2.7 = 3.3 Aluminum is lighter 3 times than Copper

For economic wise we use aluminum conductor because of low price and light weight.

Different type for OHTL



Ground wire





Hard Drawn Copper

ABC Cable

AAC (All Aluminum Conductor)
In Egypt H14
1. These conductors are formed by stranded aluminum wires . 2. All the wires have the same nominal diameter . 3. Main applications : 

Low Voltage lines Low span application (30-50mt)


Aluminum H14


IEC International Electro-technical commission IEC 60889, IEC 61089 

BS EN 60889,

BS EN 50182

Resistivity at 20 0C 28.264 (61% IACS)
IACS: International Annealed Copper Standards 



2.703 kg/dm3 23 * 10-6 1/C

Coefficient of linear expansion

Constant mass temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 0C = 0.00403 1/C

AAAC (All Aluminum Alloy Conductor) 

we add 0.5% si 0.6% mg Tensile strength will be approx. double of AAC Long span application Medium, high, extra high voltage line Electric conductivity is approx. 15% lower than AAC




IEC 60104 ± IEC 61089 BS EN 50183 ± BS EN 50182 ASTM 398
ASTM (American Society for Testing and material) 

Classification of AAAC 

According to IEC 60104 Type A and Type B Type A: higher tensile strength and lower conductivity than type B 

According to BS EN 50183: there are 6 types according to the country. Density at 20 0C 2.703 kg/dm3 Coefficient of linear expanse 23*10-6 1/C Constant-mass temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 0C 0.00361 1/C 

ACSR Aluminum conductor steel reinforced
1. These conductors are formed by stranded wires the core are made of galvanized steel and the external layer of aluminum . 2. Due to the greater diameter of the conductors electric losses by the by the corona effect are greatly reduced . 3. The diameter of steel and aluminum wires can be alike or different . 4. For large Span (320-350mt) and economical advantages in the installation of Over Head lines . 5. Layer of grease between Aluminum and steel wires . 6. Main Application : Medium , High and extra high voltage 7. Standard: IEC 60888 , 60889 & 61089 BS EN 50189 , BS EN 50182 


We use steel core to increase tensile strength Electrically: approximate no effect due to skin effect Why we use grease? 1- In case of 2 different material to avoid chemical reaction between the two material 2- To Avoid friction effect between 2 material due to different linear expansion 3- In case of the material to improve conductivity - Standards IEC 60889 IEC 60888 IEC 61089 BS EN 60889 -BS EN 50189 - BS EN 50182 ASTM 498 ASTM 232 

Classification of Steel 

According to IEC 60888: Regular, high strength, extra high strength According to BS EN 50189: 6 types of steel Density of steel 7.78 kg/dm3 Coefficient of linear expansion 11.5*10-6 1/C   

AACSR Aluminum Alloy Steel Reinforced 

We obtain the advantage of steel and AAAC

Hard Drawn Copper
³what is the different between hard drawn and soft drawn?´ 

Density 0.01777 Q;m Tensile strength 400:415 N/mm2 Standards 

DIN 48201 BS 7884

Steel Grease AAAC

ABC Cable (Arial Bundled cable)
Single - duplex ± triplex or Qandruplex 

Messenger Lighting Power  

OPGW ± Ground wire
Steel: Lightening current and short circuit OPGW: Optical Grounding Wire to transfer data  


State the type of conductor Standards Sizes Code name ³ASTM, BS´ Customer requirement

Prepared by Eng. Waleed Abdel Azeem

Approved by Eng. Mohamed Farrag

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